Text of Chapter 2 Justice and Virtues I. Virtues A. What is a virtue? 1. virtue – habit of doing and...
Chapter 2 Justice and Virtues I. Virtues A. What is a virtue? 1. virtue habit of doing and choosing good 2. 2 major categories a. theological virtues b. cardinal virtues
B. Cardinal Virtues 1. virtues make it possible for us to master ourselves so we can live good, moral lives 2. 4 Cardinal Virtues or hinge a. Prudence 1) good common sense 2) prudent person always seeks the most loving and just thing to do in a given circumstance thing to do in a given circumstance 3) example avoid making a decision when we are angry b. Fortitude 1) firmness, strength, courage to deal with temptations, difficulties, dangers difficulties, dangers 2) example - not to participate in bullying c. Temperance 1) moderates pleasures, provides balance 2) examples- food, drink, recycling
3. Theological Virtues a. what are they? 1) faith, hope, love 2) God-given 3) God is their motive, origin, and object 4) orient us to God 5) very foundation of Christian life 6) allow the Holy Spirit to live in us and work through us b. Faith 1) gives us the power to believe in God a) what he has revealed to us b) what the Church proposes for our belief 2) gift from God 3) example work at soup kitchen
c. Hope 1) helps us to desire heaven and eternal happiness 2) trust in Gods promises 3) rely on not only our own efforts 4) example- study hard for a test d. Charity (love) 1) love God above all 2) love our neighbor as ourself 3) without it we are nothing 4) perfectly binds together all the other virtues 5) example social work among the poor
II. Justice as a virtue A. What is it? 1. the moral and cardinal virtue by which we give God and our neighbor what is their due 2. 4 types B. Commutative justice 1. fairness in agreements and exchanges between individuals or social groups 2. you get what you pay for 3. ex- agree to mow the lawn for a neighbor 4. based on the principal of equality- what is given, what received 5. respect the dignity of others and fulfill our obligations 6. society could not function- theft, fraud, disregard for property
C. Distributive justice 1.guarantees the common welfare 2.distribution of Gods creation 3.each person has a right to enough of the earths goods to have a truly human life 4.we pass on to govt. the responsibility that basic needs are met a. police and fire protection b. access to health care c. disability compensation 5.pay attention to the weakest and poorest to make sure they are taken care of D. Legal justice 1.citizens obligation to toward society and govt. 2.obey the laws of society 3.serve the govt.
E. Social justice 1. society guarantees the rights of individuals 2. everyone has a right to be heard 3. tyrannical govts. are unjust II. The Bible on justice A. Demands 1. Bible presents justice as a burning concern of God 2. a deep commitment to uphold a relationship a. God made, formed, loved his people b. requires fidelity to what relationships require
B. Old Testament 1. covenant a. 2 parties b. mutual agreement c. symbol 2. blessed Abraham; rescues his people; sent the prophets 3. chosen people unfaithful to God He did not abandon C. New Testament 1. never gave up on his chosen people 2. fulfilled covenant sent His Son 3. His life and death- perfect fidelity 4. revelations of Jesus a. Great Commandments- love for God and neighbor b. beatitudes
c. respond to the least ones goats and sheep d. embrace everyone Good Samaritan
1) outlawed racism, sexism,nationalism e. be compassionate - - day laborers 1) illogical commutative justice 2) God values people not what they produce 5. Jesus exemplified Gods compassion a. seeking out the poor, the despised, the outcasts b. associated with sinners c. praised impoverished widow d. fed the hungry e. forgave sinners 6. passion, death, resurrection demonstrated His love 7. no conditions on His love 8. requires that we must serve a. we who have been treated well must imitate in our dealings with others on all levels b. with family and friends c. with people in the groups to which we belong d. in various communities neighborhood, city, state, nation e. concern for people of the world
9. American Justice a. based on nature b. scales of justice c. legal in nature 10. Biblical Justice a. based on covenant b. Gods desire to uphold a relationship with his people
III. Catholic Social Teaching on Justice A. Historical 1. early Christians shared their goods, condemned selfishness, encouraged sharing 2. Francis of Assisi gave up his wealth mendicant- to minister to the poor 3. Vincent de Paul & Louise de Marillac needs of the urban poor 4. Elizabeth Ann Seton- Sisters of Charity began Catholic Schools in America 5. Church contributions a. established hospitals b. homes for battered women c. orphanages d. schools for the poor e. homes for aged and dying f. Catholic Charities largest private charitable organization in the U.S.
B. Modern teaching 1. Pope Leo XIII a. Marxism Karl Marx 1) strong following among workers of the world 2) abuses of laissez-faire capitalism 3) industrial barons ignored workers rights 4) lack of decent wages, long working hours 5) pensions, health insurance, collective bargaining 6) Marx the state would see to the equality of workers
b. Leo XIII opposed both Marxism and unbridled capitalism 1) Both dangerous to dignity of workers 2) Rerum Novarum condemned the abuses of both 3) Many popes since have also had social justice themes 4) 2nd Vatican Council 5) Many opposed by selfish C. Social Justice is essential 1. essential dimension of Christian living 2. not optional 3. to put profits ahead is people is wrong