Chapter 2: Office Environment and Layout Design 2: Office Environment and Layout Design ... The Impact of the Office Environment on Employees ... of employee performance

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  • Office Management Build Bright University

    Taught by Soeung Channeang for internal use only 1

    Chapter 2: Office Environment and Layout Design

    I. OFFICE ENVIRONMENT

    EMPLOYEES PRODUCTIVITY AND JOB SATISFACTION CAN BE AFFECTED SIGNIFICANTLY BY THE

    PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT IN WHICH THEY WORK. LOW PRODUCTIVITY AND EMPLOYEES

    DISSATISFACTION CAN AFFECT THE FINANCIAL WELL-BEING OF THE ORGANIZATION.

    What is Office Environment?

    The office environment is multifaceted (Complex) factors, including

    lighting, color scheme, acoustics (sound), and condition of the air.

    In modern office system they use computerized to control on

    environment elements this is referred to as a smart office

  • Office Management Build Bright University

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    1. The Impact of the Office Environment on Employees

    AN UNSATISFACTORY ENVIRONMENT OFTEN RESULTS IN

    DECREASE LEVELS OF PRODUCTIVITY AND EMPLOYEE MORALE

    INCREASE IN ABSENTEEISM AND TARDINESS OF EMPLOYEE

    INCREASE THE NUMBER OF ERRORS MADE BY EMPLOYEE

    IN EXTREME CASE, THE EMPLOYEES PHYSICAL WELL-BEING MAY EVEN JEOPARDIZED

    (RISK)

    2. The Healthy Office Environment

    The syndrome (symptom) manifests itself among employees in the

    following ways: headaches, dizziness, abnormal tiredness, nausea,

    breathing difficulties, sore throats, upper-respiratory infections,

    coughing, skin rashes, and so forth.

  • Office Management Build Bright University

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    What Conditions detract from a healthy environment?

    Repetition motion injuries

    Electromagnetic radiation

    Indoor air pollution

    Noise pollution

    Lighting systems

    3. Combination of office Environment

    3.1. Light

    Affecting employees both physically and psychologically. Physically,

    inadequate lighting increases employees fatigue (tiredness) as a result

    of excessive eyestrain. Psychologically, inadequate lighting results in loss

    of morale and eventually causes a decrease in the quantity and quality

    of employee performance.

  • Office Management Build Bright University

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    3.2. Color

    Color is another element of the office environment that impacts

    significantly on humans such as their productivity, fatigue, morale,

    attitudes, and tension.

    Colors tend to create moods

    Cool colors-blue, green, and violet-create calm and retiring

    moods.

    Warm colors-red, orange, and yellow-on the other hand, create

    warm and cheerful moods.

    The natural tints, including beige, buff, peach, and off-white, are

    mildly stimulating, while deep purple and pale violet often

    create depressing moods.

    Gray tends to have a sleep-inducing effect.

  • Office Management Build Bright University

    Taught by Soeung Channeang for internal use only 5

    3.3. Noise Control

    THE NOISE LEVEL IN AN OFFICE IS ANOTHER ENVIRONMENT FACTORS THAT MUST BE

    CONSIDERED. HIGH NOISE LEVELS PRODUCE FATIGUE AND HAMPER PRODUCTIVITY, AS WELL

    AS CAUSE NERVOUS CONDITIONS, TENSION, AND IRRITABILITY. IN ADDITION, HIGH NOISE

    LEVELS CAN INCREASE ONES BLOOD PRESSURE AND METABOLIC RATE, BOTH OF WHICH OVER

    TIME CAN CREATE SERIOUS HEALTH PROBLEMS.

    The goal of a noise control system is to produce speech privacy.

    3.4. Conditioning the Air

    The air in which employees work also impacts on their physical and

    psychological well-being. In fact, with employees spending 90 percent

    on their working hours indoor, air quality is a major concern. Air-quality

    factors involve temperature, inadequate mechanical ventilation, and

    air cleanliness.

  • Office Management Build Bright University

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    3.5. Music

    A music system produces several beneficial results. Music in an office

    helps increase job satisfaction and productivity by eliminating boredom

    and monotony. Music also has the general effect of relieving mental

    and physical fatigue and reducing nervous tension and strain.

    4. Conservation (protection) of Energy in Offices

    The Energy Conservation Program: energy conservation committee, an

    energy efficiency study, and the development of goals for conserving

    energy.

  • Office Management Build Bright University

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    Conservation Energy in the

    lighting System

    Conserving Energy in the

    Heating/Cooling System

    1. Use the appropriate amount

    of light

    2. Provide sufficient light in a

    given area

    3. Turning off lights when not

    needed.

    4. Use high-intensity discharge

    lamps

    1. Reduce the temperature to

    23 or 25 0C

    2. Make sure windows and

    doors seal properly

    3. Use reclaimed heat where

    possible

    4. Adjusted the temperature of work

    areas when they are not being

    used

  • Office Management Build Bright University

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    5. Installing automatic light

    control

    6. Clean bulbs and tubes

    regularly

    7. Use light color that reflect

    light throughout the office

    8. Reduce outside lighting

    9. Replace aging fluorescent

    tubes and light bulbs

    10. Conduct energy control

    5. Reduce ventilation during

    nonworking hours

    6. Installation of an automatic

    control device

    7. Make sure heating and

    cooling equipment is

    properly maintained

    8. Maintain proper humidity

    levels

  • Office Management Build Bright University

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    5. Office Security

    Security has two dimensions: protection of the organizations physical

    property and protection of the organizations vital information (data

    and records)

    II. OFFICE LAYOUT

    The layout of an organizations work areas can significantly affect both

    positively and negatively to its productivity. Layout design requires

    consideration of the interrelations between the following three

    components: equipment, flow of work, and employees.

    1. It provides effective allocation and use of floor space

    2. It creates a pleasant working environment for employees.

  • Office Management Build Bright University

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    3. It has a positive impact on the organizational clients

    4. It facilitates efficient workflow.

    5. It provides employees with efficient, productive work areas.

    6. It facilitates future expansion when the need arises

    7. It facilitates employee supervision

  • Office Management Build Bright University

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    1. The Preliminary Planning Stage

    Tasks

    Work Flow

    Organization Chart

    Projection of employees

    Needed in the Future

    Communication Network

    Departmental Organization

    Private and General Offices

    Space Requirements

    Specialized Area

    Reception Area

    Board of Conference Room

    Computer room

    Mail Room

    Printing and Duplicating

    room

    Central records area

    Safety Considerations

    Barrier-Free Construction

    Expansion

    Environmental Conditions

    Equipment and furniture

  • Office Management Build Bright University

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    2. Costing of Office Space

    When an organization calculates the cost of its office space, a number

    of factors must be considered such as rent or mortgage payments,

    utilities, maintenance, maintenance services, taxes, insurance, required

    environment control equipment, special assessments, operating licenses

    and permits, and so forth.

    3. Open Office Concept

    The original concept of open plan was simply to organize large

    numbers of workers in one large office rather than in shared or

    individual rooms.

  • Office Management Build Bright University

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    Benefits of the open office concept

    1. The cost of changing layout in an open space office is much less

    than changing conventional layout.

    2. Cost of office installation in open space is less than conventional

    space.

    3. The elimination of permanent walls and private offices increases the

    amount of usable floor space.

    4. Improves office productivity by increasing the efficiency or work

    flow, improving communications, improving worker, morale,

    increasing the feeling of worker involvement, and creating more

    comfortable working environment.

    5. Help conserve energy because heating, ventilation, and air

    conditioning systems are not impeded by permanent walls.

  • Office Management Build Bright University

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    1. Modular Workstation Approach: is the use of panel-hung furniture

    components to create individual work areas

    2. Cluster Workstation Approach: is the clustering of work areas

    around a common core, such as a set of panels that extends from

    hub like spokes in a wheel

    3. Landscape Approach: is a blend of the modular and cluster

    workstation approaches.

  • Office Management Build Bright University

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    4. Principle of Office Layout

    Principles of Effective Layout

    1. Interrelationships among

    equipment, information, and

    personnel

    2. Work flow should move in as

    straight a line as possible.

    3. Work flow should revolve around

    major source documents.

    4. Hierarchical and communication

    relationships between individuals

    should be considered in planning

    layout.

    8. Space allocation should be based on

    the position of the individual, the

    nature of the work being performed,

    and the amount of spatial equipment

    required.

    9. Groups or individuals providing

    specialized services should be located

    near those who use the specialized

    services.

    10. Furniture and equipment should

    meet user needs.

  • Office Management Build Bright University

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    5. Individuals or work groups

    performing similar or related

    duties should be located near

    one another.

    6. Individuals or work groups with

    frequent public contact should

    be located near the entrance to

    the premises.

    7. Individuals or work groups whose

    tasks require considerable

    concentration should be placed

    in a low-traffic, quiet area of the

    building.

    11. Aisles should be sufficiently wide to

    accommodate the rapid, efficient

    movement of employees.

    12. Safety considerations

    13. Large open areas are more efficient

    than are smaller enclosed areas.

    14. Adequate provisions have to be

    made for lighting, decor, air

    conditioning, humidity control, and

    noise control.

    15. Concern for future expansion is

    important.

    16. Work should come to the employee,

    not vice versa.

  • Office Management Build Bright University

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    5. Preparing the Layout

    Template: Consisting of scaled versions of furniture and equipment,

    are typically constructed of cardboard or plastic.

    Cutouts: individual furniture or equipment drawing are simply cut

    from the sheet.

    Plastic Models are scaled versions of various pieces of office

    furniture and equipment

    Magnetic Board: magnetized models of furniture and equipment

    are also frequently used for preparing office layouts.

    Computer-Aided Design: uses computer technology and the

    appropriate software to assist in designing an effective layout.

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