Chapter 5

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  • 1. 1865-1890

2. Land was communal no one person or tribecould own land Buf falo was central to life 3. The buffalo weredestroyed by settlersand tourists who shotthem for sport 4. Viewed Native American land as unsettled Advanced to claim land Gold intensified the rush for land 5. 1834 all of GreatPlains set aside asIndian Lands 1850s Policy shift native get smalleramounts of land 6. Sand Creek Massacre U.S. army attacks 150 native women and children killed 7. Colonel Custer andinfantry reach Little BigHorn Crazy Horse and SittingBull lead Sioux tribe Outflank and crushCusters troops 8. December 1890- 7th Cavalry (Custers oldregiment) rounded up 350 Sioux and tookthem to Wounded Knee, SD 7th Cavalry slaughtered 350 unarmed Natives The corpses were left to freeze 9. Attempted to assimilate natives Would break up reservations and introducenatives into American life farming, etc By 1932 2/3rds of the land committed toNatives had been taken 10. After the Civil war thedemand for beef rosesharply Urbanization and therise of the railroadcontributed to this Chicago Union StockYards 11. Thousands of cattledriven from Texas toKansas Abilene, KS placewhere trail met therailroads 12. Overgrazing, bad weather, and the invention ofbarbed wire led to the end of the cattle drive 13. Homestead Act federal land policy Gave 160 free acres to any head of household Had to live on and farm land for 5 years 14. African Americans moved from South toKansas Took advantage of land deals in West 15. In a less than a day 2 millions acres ofgovernment land being given away was claimedby settlers Some took possession of the land before thegovernment officially declared it open thusOklahoma became known as the SoonerState 16. Droughts, floods, fires, blizzards, locustplagues, bandits No neighbors nearby 17. Homes were built from the land itself Dug out of the sides of ravines or hills If land was flat made homes out of dirt 18. Despite these hardships, the number of peopleliving west of the Mississippi grew from 1% ofthe nations population to 30% by 1900 19. 1837- John Deere steelplow slice throughheavy soil 1847 reaper invented by CyrusMcCormick 20. More people moved west and the railroadswere born Government gave land grants to the railroads tohelp it grow 21. Completed in 1890 with help from Chineseworkers 22. The Morrill Acts of1862 and 1890 gavefederal land to statesto help financeagricultural colleges 23. In the late 1800s,many farmers werestruggling Crop prices werefalling, debtincreased Mortgages werebeing foreclosed bybanks 24. Between 1867 and1887 the price of abushel of wheat fellfrom $2.00 to 68cents Railroads conspiredto keep transportcosts artificially high Farmers got caughtin a cycle of debt 25. 1867 Oliver HudsonKelley - Grange Fought for farmersrights 26. Populism themovement of the people 1892 Populist PartystartedTHIS POLITICAL CARTOON SHOWS A POPULIST CLUBBING A RAILROADCAR 27. economic - increasemoney supply(bimetallism - gold andsilver standard), a risein crop prices, lowertaxes, a federal loanprogram Political - direct electionof senators, singleterms for presidents for an 8-hour workdayand reducedimmigration 28. In the 1892Presidential election,the Populistcandidate wonalmost 10% of thevote In the West, the partyelected 5 senators, 3governors and 1,500state legislators James B Weaver 29. The central issue ofthe 1896 Presidentialcampaign was whichmetal would be thebasis of the nationsmonetary system Bimetallism (thosewho favored usingboth) vs. those thatfavored the GoldStandards alone 30. Republicans favored the Gold standard and nominated William McKinley Democrats favored Bimetallism and nominated William Jennings Bryan Despite Bryans stirring words, You shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold, McKinley won the 1896 electionBRYANS CROSS OFGOLD SPEECH 31. With McKinleys electionvictory, Populismcollapsed, 2 Legacies 1) the downtrodden canorganize and be heardand 2) An agenda of reforms,many of which would beenacted in the 20th centuryTHE PEOPLES PARTY WASSHORT-LIVED BUT LEFT ANIMPORTANT LEGACY