Primary Marksmanship instruction for the M-4 carbine. Slide show presentation.
TOPICS:CHARACTERISTICS OF THE M4 CARBINE. CLEARING THE M-4 CARBINE COMPONENTS, AND DISSASEMBLE/ ASSEMBLE OF THE M-4 CARBINE. FUNCTIONS CHECK CYCLES OF FUNCTIONING S.P.O.R.T.S. BRM
CHARACTERISTICS OF THE M4 CARBINEThe M4 Carbines are lightweight, gas-operated, air-cooled, magazine-fed. shoulder-fired weapons that can be fired in either three-round bursts, or semiautomatic. The purpose of the weapons is to provide personnel an offensive/defensive capability to engage targets in the field. The adapter rails allows the operator the capability to mount various accessories on to the M4/M4A1 Carbines.
M4 CARBINE Caliber ................................. 5.56 mm Weight ................................... w/30 (loaded) round mag 7.5 lb Length ................................... Buttstock Closed 29.75 in Buttstock Opened 33.0 in Mechanical Features: Riffling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (RH 1/7 twist) Detachable carrying handle w/integral accessory mounting rail Buttstock has four positions; closed, 1 R open, 3/4 open, and fully Open. Firing Characteristics: Muzzle Velocity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,970 fps Chamber pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52,000 psi Cyclic Rate of Fire................. 700-970 rpm (approx.) Fire Selector ............................ SAFE-SEMI-BURST (M4) SAFE-SEMI-AUTO (M4A1) Max Effective Rate of Fire: Semi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45rpm Burst/Auto . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 rpm
CLEARING PROCEADURES ON AN M-4NOTE: If the rifle will not be fired immediately close the ejection port cover.
COMPONENTS, DISSASMBLY/ASSEMBLY OF AN M-4 CARBINEUPPER RECEIVER AND BARREL ASSEMBLYDO NOT interchange bolts between weapons. 1. Inspect hand guards (1) for cracks, broken front or rear tabs and loose heat shields. 2. Inspect front sight post (2) for straightness and check depression of the front detent. 3. Inspect compensator (3) for looseness. 4. Inspect barrel (4) for straightness, cracks or burrs. 5. Inspect charging handle (5) for cracks bends or breaks. 6. Inspect rear sight assembly (6) for the capability to adjust windage and elevation and the spring should retain the short range or long range sight in position. 7. Inspect gas tube (7) for bends or retention to barrel.
BOLT AND BOLT CARRIER ASSEMBLY 1. Inspect bolt cam pin (1) for cracking or chipping. 2. Inspect firing pin (2) for bends, cracks or sharp or blunted tip. 3. Inspect for missing or broken gas rings (3). 4. inspect bolt cam pin area (4) for cracking or chipping. 5. Inspect locking lugs (5) for cracking or chipping. Inspect bolt face (6) for excessive pitting. 6. Inspect extractor assembly (7) for missing extractor spring assembly with insert and for chipped or broken edges on the lip which engages the cartridge rim. 7. Inspect firing pin retaining pin (8) to determine if bent or badly worn. 8. Inspect bolt carrier for loose bolt carrier key (9). 9. Inspect for cracking or chipping in cam pin hole area (10).
LOWER Receiver AND BUTTSTOCK ASSEMBLY 1. Inspect buffer (1) for cracks or damage. 2. Inspect buffer spring (2) for kinks. 3. Inspect buttsock (3) for broken buttplate or cracks. 4. Inspect for bent or broken selector lever (4). 5. Inspect rifle grips (5) for cracks or damage. 6. Inspect for broken or bent trigger (6). 7. Visually inspect the inside parts of the lower receiver (7) for broken or missing parts.
FUNTIONS CHECK1. SAFE: Place selector lever on SAFE: Pull charging handle to rear and release. Pull trigger. Hammer should not fall.
2. SEMI: Place selector lever on SEMI. Pull trigger. Hammer should fell. Hold trigger to the rear end charge the weapon. Release the trigger with a slow, smooth motion, until the trigger is fully forward (an audible click should be heard). Pull trigger. Hammer should fall.
3. BURST : Place selector lever on BURST. Charge weapon and squeeze trigger, hammer should fall. Hold trigger to the rear, pull charging handle to the rear and release it three times. Release trigger. Squeeze trigger. Hammer should fall.
CYCLES OF FUNCTIONING OF THE M-4 RIFLE.
1. Feeding (Figure 4-3). As the bolt carrier group moves forward , it clears the top of the magazine, the expansion of the magazine spring forces the follower and bolt with enough force to strip a new round from the magazine.
2. Chambering ( Figure 4-4). As the bolt carrier group continues to move forward, the face of the bolt t
3. Locking (Figure 4-5). As the bolt carrier group moves forward, The
pressure exerted by the contact of the bolt locking lugs and barrel extension causes the
4. Firing ( Figure 4-6). With a round in the chamber, the hammer cocked, the firer squeezes the trigger. The hammer strikes the head of the firing pin, driving the firing pin through This ignites and causes the powder in the cartridge to ignite, forcing the projectile from the cartridge and propelling it through the barrel. Before the round leaves the barrel, some gas enters the gas port and moves into the gas tu is directed into the bolt carrier. The
5. Unlocking (Figure 4-7). As the bolt carrier moves to the rear, the bolt assembly rotates until the locking lugs of the bolt are no longer in line behind the locking lugs of the barrel e .
6. Extracting ( Figure 4-8). The bolt carrier group continues to move to the rear. The extractor (which extracts the cartridge case from the chamber.
7. Ejecting (Figure 4-9). With the bolt carrier assembly continuing rearward, and the base of a cartridge case firmly against the face of the bolt, the cartridge is then pushed out of the ejection port by the action of the ejector and spring.
8. Cocking (Figure 4-10). The rearward movement of the bolt carrier re-cocks the hammer, and places it back into the firing position.
S.P.O.R.T.S.1. Slap upward on magazine to make sure it is property seated.
2. Pull charging handle all the way back, and hold.
3. OSERVE the chamber to ensure round has been ejected.
4. Release charging handleto feed new round. Dont ride the charging handle Forward.
5. TAP forward assist. 6. Shoot
THE FOUR FUNDAMENTALS OF MARKSMANSHIP: 1. STEADY POSITION 2. AIMING 3. BREATH CONTROL 4. TRIGGER SQUEEZ
THE FOUR FUNDAMENTALS OF MARKSMANSHIPc. Steady Position. (1) Nonfiring Handgrip. The rifle hand guard rests on the heel of the hand in the V formed by the thumb and fingers. The grip of the non-firing hand is light. (2) Rifle Butt Position. The butt of the rifle is placed in the pocket of the firing shoulder. This reduces the effect of recoil and helps ensure a steady position. (3) Firing Handgrip. The firing hand grasps the pistol grip so it fits the V formed by the thumb and forefinger. The forefinger is placed on the trigger so the lay of the rifle is not disturbed when the trigger is squeezed. A slight rearward pressure is exerted by the remaining three fingers to ensure that the butt of the stock remains in the pocket of the shoulder, minimizing the effect of recoil. (4) Firing Elbow Placement. The firing elbow is important in providing balance. Placement should allow shoulders to remain level. (5) Non-firing Elbow. The non-firing elbow is positioned firmly under the rifle to allow a comfortable and stable position. (6) Cheek-to-Stock Weld. The stock weld should provide a natural line of sight through the center of the rear sight aperture to the front sight post and on to the target. The firer's neck should be relaxed, allowing his cheek to fall naturally onto the stock. A small change in eye relief normally occurs each time that the firer assumes a different firing position. The soldier should begin by trying to touch the charging handle with his nose when assuming a firing position. This will aid the soldier in maintaining the same cheekto-stock weld hold each time the weapon is aimed.
b. Aiming. (
Figure 4-16). Any alignment error between the front and rear sights repeats itself for e .
(1) Focus of the Eye. A proper firing position places the eye directly in line with the center of the rear sight aperture. When the eye is focused on the front sight post, the natural ability of the eye to center objects in a circle and to seek the point of greatest light (center of the aperture) aid in providing correct sight alignment. (2) Sight Picture. Once the soldier can correctly align his sights, he can obtain a sight picture. A correct sight picture has the target, front sight post, and rear sight aligned. The sight picture includes two basic elements: sight alignment and placement of the aiming point.
Another good technique to obtain a good sight picture is the side aiming technique ( Figure 4-18). It involves positioning the front sight post to the side of t
c. Breath Control.(1) The first technique is used during zeroing (and when time is available to fire a shot) ( Figure 4-19). There is a moment of natural respiratory pause while breathing when most of the
(2) The second breath control technique is employed during rapid fire (short-exposure targets) ( Figure 4-20). Using this technique, the soldier stops his breath when he is about to squeeze the
d. Trigger Squeeze.Trigger squeeze is important for two reasons: First, any sudden movement of the finger on the trigger can disturb the lay of the rifle and cause the shot to miss the target. Second, the precise instant of firing should be a surprise to the soldier. The soldier's natural reflex to compensate for the noise and slight punch in the shoulder can cause him to miss the target if he knows the exact instant the rifle will fire. The trigger finger (index finger on the firing hand) is placed on the trigger between the fir