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China Graduate School of Theology - 華人神學園地 · PDF file TF The Trinitarian Faith: The Evangelical Theology of the Ancient Catholic Church (1988) TS Theological Science (1996)

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  • China Graduate School of Theology

    A Study Of The Concept Of ‘Homoousion’ In

    T. F. Torrance’s Christology And Its

    Ontological And Epistemological Significance

    杜倫斯基督論中同質觀念的重要性

    及其本體與認識論意義

    A Dissertation submitted by

    Ngai Lap Yin

    in partial fulfillment for

    The Degree of Master of Theology

    April 2007

    Supervised by

    Prof. Jason. H. K. Yeung

  • ii

    Acknowledgements

    My thanks go to Professor Jason H. K. Yeung for his helpful supervision and

    deepening of my understanding of Torrance’s Theological Science and M. Polanyi’s

    philosophy. I want to thank also Prof. Carver Yu & Prof. Zhang Phee Shen for their

    inspiring teaching in Karl Barth’s theology. My gratitude is also extended to Dr.

    Kelvin Cheng for his instruction during my study in Karl Barth’s theology of

    Reconciliation.

    I would thank my academic prayer group members in CGST including Rockson

    Liang, Lew Kow Sin and Dennis Chow for their prayer support and fruitful discussion

    in theology.

    The Brotherly Love Swatow Baptist Church was unforgettable in their effort to

    care about me and my families, and my gratitude to them is boundless.

    Finally, I would like to extend my deep thanks to my family. My father’s support

    and blessing and, especially, my wife’s sharing of our financial difficulties.

  • iii

    Abstract

    In the past decades, studies on T. F. Torrance’s theology were focused on his

    theological science and epistemology. In this paper, the concept of ‘homoousion’ in T.

    F. Torrance’s Christology is being examined. We found that with this concept at stake,

    T. F. Torrance is able to diagnose the problem of modern theological epistemology

    and reconcile the split between science and theology. In doing so, he is also able to

    harmonize the tradition of faith and the biblical ground in a more rational manner.

    The significance of this paper is to show also the epistemological and ontological

    insight in T. F. Torrance’s Christology. In theological epistemology, Torrance

    employs a realistic approach, with the combination of modern science discovery and

    the thought of Michael Polanyi, to elucidate the onto-relationship between knowing

    and faith. Thus, knowing God becomes an indwelling activity which is inseparable

    with Christian worship and communities. In theological ontology, following the

    footsteps of Anselm, Martin Luther and Karl Barth, he emphasizes the ontological

    significance of Christology while interpreting the notion of ‘Why God becomes man.’

    In addtition, the substitution and representative effect of Redemption is also

    highlighted. With his interpretation of the Christology, he is also able to reinterpret the

    importance of Christian Sacraments and the suffering in Holocaust. For Torrance, the

    most essential doctrine in Christology is union with Christ. In this paper, we would

    also discuss the Christian experience in the light of this doctrine.

  • iv

    撮要撮要撮要撮要

    過往一直有研究杜倫斯基督論的文章,重點都集中在討論其

    科學神學的合理性,及他的認識論。本文藉著探討杜倫斯的

    「父子同質」觀念,指出「父子同質」的觀念乃貫穿杜倫斯

    的神學思想的基石。有了這觀念的確立,杜倫斯不但能在二

    十世紀紛亂的神學中找到一條既合理、合乎聖經及持守更正

    教神學傳統的出路,更為基督教神學重新定位,建立其科學

    理性基礎。在神學認識論方面,他以唯實的進路,兼容了當

    代科學的開放時空思想及普蘭宜的認識論,強調信心的承傳

    觀念,指出認知上帝是不能離開敬拜。人唯有藉著參與在敬

    拜上帝之中,才能真正認識祂。在基督論的救贖意義方面,

    他承斷了安瑟倫、路德及巴特等偉大神學家思想,重新詮釋

    「上帝何故化身為人」的道理,並且加上了現代意義。他的

    基督論特色是著重基督的「代替」及「代表」救贖工作,並

    在這觀念之上重新詮釋教會禮儀及猶太人在第二次世界大戰

    中所受的苦。對他來說,基督論中最重要的道理乃是與基督

    聯合,文本也探討了杜倫斯這方面的教義及其應用。

  • v

    目錄目錄目錄目錄

    Abstract ................................................................................................................ iii

    撮要.......................................................................................................................iv

    目錄........................................................................................................................v

    簡寫表..................................................................................................................vii

    一、引言................................................................................................................1

    I. 杜倫斯簡介 ...............................................................................................1

    II. 神學關注 ..................................................................................................1

    III. 研究範圍及限制.....................................................................................3

    IV. 目標及簡述 .............................................................................................4

    二、基督論的神學基礎........................................................................................5

    I. 試圖尋找耶穌的謬誤 ...............................................................................8

    A. 「復活的信心」..............................................................................8

    B. 「歷史中的耶穌」 ........................................................................10

    C. 基要主義的基督論 ........................................................................11

    II. 恩典作為認識基督的基礎 ....................................................................12

    A. 神學認識論乃純屬恩典................................................................14

    B. 建構神學認識論 ............................................................................17

    1. 恩典的邏輯與基督的邏輯.....................................................21

    杜倫斯的啟示觀..................................................................22

    基督的邏輯(Logic of Christ) .........................................25

    2. 神學的論述.............................................................................27

    III. 總結.......................................................................................................29

    三、同質的教義..................................................................................................31

    I. 由尼西亞時期到迦克敦時期有關同質教義的發展 .............................32

    II. 同質教義的詮釋作為上帝對人的詮釋 ................................................40

    III. 同質作為上帝的存在於耶穌基督裡的工作.......................................43

    A. 上帝與人同在(God with us) ....................................................45

    B. 上帝為我們作為人(God for us as man)...................................48

    C. 上帝在我們裡面(God in us)──theopoiesis ..........................51

    D. 救贖復和的本體深度(Ontological depth of atoning

    reconciliation )──位格的聯合 .......................................................53

    IV. 總結 .......................................................................................................55

    四、耶穌耶穌的代替救贖意義..........................................................................57

  • vi

    I. 被動的順服:耶穌基督取了人的地位為作人被審判 .........................58

    II. 主動順服:耶穌基督取代了我們的位置作為人在上帝面前行出正直

    ......................................................................................................................61

    III. 耶穌基督的順服的整體意義...............................................................63

    A. 同質觀念作為人對上帝的回應....................................................66

    B. 耶穌基督作為基督徒的生活基礎 ................................................68

    i. 信心(Faith) .........................................................................68

    ii. 回轉(Conversion) ..............................................................70

    iii. 敬拜(Worship)..................................................................71

    iv. 聖禮(Sacrament)...............................................................74

    v. 福音(The Evangelism).......................................................75

    IV. 總結 .........................

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