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COASTAL AND ISLAND GOVERNANCE IN VIET NAM

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    COASTAL AND ISLAND GOVERNANCE IN VIET NAM

    PHAM THI GAM

    United Nations - Nippon Foundation of Japan Fellowship Programme

    December 2013

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    DISCLAIMER

    The views expressed herein are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the

    views of the Government of Viet Nam, the United Nations, The Nippon Foundation of Japan or

    Columbia University.

    2013 Pham Thi Gam.

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    Abstract

    This thesis has two parts, including four chapters. Four topics are studied in these

    chapters, namely: claims to marine areas, marine environment, biodiversity and climate change.

    In the first chapter, the thesis focuses on the key conventions to which Viet Nam is a State Party,

    and State practice. The second chapter looks at Viet Nams current legal framework concerning

    claims to marine areas, protection and preservation of the marine environment, biodiversity,

    climate change response, and island and coastal area management. Shortcomings and challenges

    of Viet Nams legal system, institutional arrangements and regional cooperation concerning the

    subjects analysed in the second chapter are considered in the third chapter. In the final chapter,

    some proposals are put forward in the context of marine integrated management approach.

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    Acronyms

    BASEL Convention on the Control of Trans-boundary Movement of

    Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal CBD Convention on Biology Diversity

    CWA Clean Water Act

    CZMA Coastal Zone Management Act of USA

    EIS Environmental Impact Statement

    EPA Environmental Protection Agency of USA

    GHG Greenhouse Gas

    GPA Global Programme of Action

    ICM Integrated Coastal Management

    MARPOL International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships

    MONRE Viet Nam Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment

    MPAs Marine Protected Areas

    MPRSA Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act

    MSP Marine Spatial Planning

    NPAs National Programmes of Action for the Protection of the Marine

    Environment from Land-based Activities

    SCS South China Seas

    UNCLOS United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea

    UNFCCC United Nations Framework Convention on the Climate Change

    USA United States of America

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    Acknowledgements

    It would have been impossible for me to do this research without the support of the United

    Nation and The Nippon Foundation of Japan, as well as the assistance of a number of individuals

    and institutions. For this reason, I would like to sincerely thank to the United Nation and The

    Nippon Foundation of Japan for giving me a chance to undertake this research and extend my

    knowledge. I would also like to thank to Center for Climate Change Law at Columbia Law

    School and the Division for Ocean Affairs and the Law of the Sea, Office of Legal Affairs of the

    United Nations for hosting me during the Fellowship Programme.

    I would like to express my profound gratitude to Prof. Michael B. Gerrard for his valuable advice

    and comments which allowed me to complete my research, as well as for the wonderful lectures

    in the Environmental Law class. This was really meaningful for me to build my knowledge

    foundation in environmental law, climate change and other areas and to assist me both in my

    current research and for my future. I would also like to thank Mr. Eric Wertzer and his team at

    Columbia Law School for facilitating my study at the School.

    A very special expression of my gratitude goes to Dr. Francois Bailet, who always encouraged

    me and created the best conditions for me during the whole Fellowship Programme. He puts his

    whole-heart to develop capacity-building for the Fellows. This pushed me to try my best to study

    in order to do something for my Country. Also I would like to express my profound gratitude to

    Ms. Valentina Germani, who provided and shared with me a lot of valuable knowledge showing

    her devotion for the Programme. My real gratitude is to the thoughtful support given by the staff

    of the Division for Oceans Affairs and the Law of the Sea of the United Nations, especially

    thanks to Ms. Simone Dempsey and Ms. Mona Al-Sharmani. Their assistance is my

    achievement.

    Finally, I would like to express my thanks to my family, friends and colleagues, especially

    thanks to Ms. Nguyen Thi Quynh Loan, who always encouraged and supported me to complete

    this research.

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    Table of contents

    Introduction..................................................................................................................................... 1PART 1. INTERNATIONAL FRAMEWORK, LESSONS FROM STATE PRACTICE AND CURRENT STATUS OF VIET NAM ........................................................................................... 7

    Chapter 1: International framework and lessons from State practice ......................................... 7Section A. International framework........................................................................................ 7

    1. Marine areas under national jurisdiction......................................................................... 72. Marine environmental protection ............................................................................. 10

    2.1. United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea ............................................. 102.2 Other conventions .................................................................................................. 12

    3. Marine biodiversity and climate change................................................................... 153.1. Convention on Biological Diversity...................................................................... 153.2. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate change ...................... 18

    Section B. Lessons from State practice ............................................................................. 201. Marine environmental protection ............................................................................. 21

    1.1. Marine pollution control - United States of America ............................................ 211.2. Ocean dumping United States of America.......................................................... 251.3 Integrated coastal zone management United States of America.......................... 281.4. Land based marine pollution - Australia................................................................ 30

    2. Biodiversity conservation.............................................................................................. 332.1. China ...................................................................................................................... 342.2. The Republic of Korea........................................................................................... 35

    3. Climate change adaptation ........................................................................................... 37Chapter 2. Status of coastal area and island governance in Viet Nam ..................................... 41

    Section A. Current legal and policy framework ................................................................... 411. Claim on the marine areas under the jurisdiction of Viet Nam .................................... 41

    1.1 Declaration and legislation on marine areas ........................................................... 411.2. Delimitation on overlapping areas with other countries ....................................... 43

    2. Marine environmental protection.................................................................................. 442.1. Land based sources and pollution from atmosphere........................................... 452.3 Pollution from trans-boundary waste...................................................................... 48

    Section B. The current legal and policy framework on biodiversity conservation, climate change, integrated coastal management and islands in Viet Nam........................................ 51

    1. Biodiversity conservation ............................................................................................. 513. Integrated coastal management and Island governance................................................ 56

    3.1. Integrated coastal management.............................................................................. 563.2 Island governance ................................................................................................... 57

    PART 2. SHORTCOMINGS, CHALLENGES AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR COHERENT LEGAL AND POLICY FRAMEWORK IN VIET NAM ..................................... 59

    Chapter 1. Shortcomings and challenges of coastal area and island governance in Viet Nam 59Section A. Claim on marine areas and marine environmental protection ............................ 59

    1. Claim on marine areas .................................................................................................. 592. Marine environmental protection.................................................................................. 60

    2.1. Lack of unified management ................................................................................. 602.2. Land based sources ............................................................................................. 612.3. Dumping at sea ...................................................................................................... 62

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    3. Climate change adaptation....................