Communication & Public opinion ?· Communication & Public opinion ... W. Lippmann: "the world outside…

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  • Communication&Publicopinion(Cutlipetal.)

    Communication:reciprocalprocessofexchangingsignalstoinform,instruct,orpersuade,basedonsharedmeaningsandconditionedbycommunicators'relationshipandsocialcontext.

    4steps: attractingattentiontothecommunication, achievingacceptanceofthemessage, havingitinterpretedasintended,and gettingthemessagestoredforlateruse.

  • MassMediainPublicOpinionFormation

    Earlytheorists:masscommunicationtellusaboutevents,things,peopleandplaceswecouldnotexperiencedirectlyourselves.

    W.Lippmann:"theworldoutsideandthepicturesinourheads.">triangularrelationship Muchoftheworldis"outofreach,outofsight,out

    ofmind." Massmediahelpuscreate"trustworthypicture"of

    theworld

  • ModelofIndividualOrientation Individualsholdopinionsofvaryingdegrees

    ofrelevanceandintensity Salienceorfeelingsaboutanobjectderived

    fromanindividual'sexperiencesandreinforcementsfromprevioussituations(resultofhistory)

    Pertinence:relativevalueofanobjectonthebasisofobjectbyobjectcomparisonsonthebasisofsomeattributeorattributes.

  • SocioculturalModelofPersuasion Spiralofsilencetheory(silentmajority) Mediacoveragecanreflect,enforce,orchallenge

    spiralofsilenceeffect E.g.publicinformationcampaignsonsmoking,

    drinking,anddriving,substanceabuse,domesticviolence,sexualharassment,andsafesex

    Messagespresentedviamassmediamayprovideappearanceofconsensusregardingorientationandactionwithrespecttoagivenobjectorgoalofpersuasion

  • ModelofCoorientation Intrapersonalconstructofcongruency

    describesextenttowhichownviewsmatchestimateofanother'sviewsonsameissue(perceivedagreement) >formulatestrategiesfordealingwiththeother

    personorforspontaneouslyrespondingininteractions

    Accuracy:extenttowhichestimatematchesotherperson'sactualviews.

  • TypesofCoorientationalConsensus

    Publicopinionasproductofbothindividualperceptionsonanissueandtheirperceptionsofwhatsignificantothersthinkaboutsameissue

    Perceptionsofagreementmorelikelyaffectpublicbehaviourthandoesactualagreement

    =complexsocialphenomenon

  • CoorientationalModelofOrganizationPublicRelationships

    Helpsidentify3PRproblems: Organisationandpublicholddifferentdefinitions

    ofanissuetalkingaboutdifferentissues Organisation'sperceptionsofpublic'sviewsofan

    issue(evaluations/definitions)donotmatchpublic'sactualviewsinaccurateestimates

    Membersofapublicholdinaccurateperceptionsofanorganisation'spositiononanissueofmutualconcerninaccurateestimatesofmanagementpolicyandvalues

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