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COMMUNIST AND POST-COMMUNIST COUNTRIES

COMMUNIST AND POST-COMMUNIST COUNTRIES

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COMMUNIST AND POST-COMMUNIST COUNTRIES. Karl Marx. “Father of Communism” German Socialist The Communist Manifesto (1848). Principles of Socialism. Capitalists control private enterprise (means of production ), creating an unacceptable inequality - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Page 1: COMMUNIST AND POST-COMMUNIST COUNTRIES

COMMUNIST AND POST-

COMMUNIST COUNTRIES

Page 2: COMMUNIST AND POST-COMMUNIST COUNTRIES

Karl Marx

• “Father of Communism”• German Socialist• The Communist

Manifesto (1848)

Page 3: COMMUNIST AND POST-COMMUNIST COUNTRIES

Principles of Socialism

• Capitalists control private enterprise (means of production), creating an unacceptable inequality

• In favor of the equality of outcome (no hunger or poverty)

• People as a whole should control economic enterprises.

• Capitalist elite exploit masses

Page 4: COMMUNIST AND POST-COMMUNIST COUNTRIES

Principles of Marxism

• Society passes through stages– Pre-modern to industrial

• Class conflict– Bourgeoisie (Capitalist elite)– Proletariat (working masses)

• Elite capitalists create a SUPERSTRUCTURE– Institutions to control the masses

• GOVERNMENT• RELIGION

Page 5: COMMUNIST AND POST-COMMUNIST COUNTRIES

Principles of Marxism

• Revolution occurs in an industrialized society– Proletariat masses rise up

• Post-Revolution– No superstructure– No exploitation of worker– No private ownership– “From each according to his abilities,

to each according to his needs.”• Society w/no superstructure (no state institutions

or private property)=“Communism”

Page 6: COMMUNIST AND POST-COMMUNIST COUNTRIES

Russian Revolution, 1917• BOLSHEVIKS overthrew Russian government.

– “Larger Faction” of Social Democratic Party– Actually: the minority– Eventually call themselves “COMMUNISTS”

• V.I. Lenin: Marxist leader of Bolsheviks

• Rivals killed or sent to gulags

• Solidified control in 1921.

• Renamed Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

Page 7: COMMUNIST AND POST-COMMUNIST COUNTRIES

Leninism v. Marxism• Russia was pre-industrial• A VANGUARD of the

REVOLUTION (small group of revolutionary leaders) was necessary to provoke revolution.

• DEMOCRATIC CENTRALISM– Rule by a few key leaders.

• Primacy of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU)– THE superstructure.

• New Economic Policy (NEP)– Allowed some private

property and businesses

Page 8: COMMUNIST AND POST-COMMUNIST COUNTRIES

Marxism-Leninism

• Marx’s revolutionary anti-capitalism; Lenin’s reliance of communist party-state.

• 1924: Lenin dies • Named no successor• 1927: Joseph Stalin

took control.

Page 9: COMMUNIST AND POST-COMMUNIST COUNTRIES

Stalin’s Two-Part Plan

COLLECTIVIZATION• Ended private

ownership (NEP)• Collective Farms

– Huge, state-run farms

INDUSTRIALIZATION• Forced society to

industrialize.• Surplus peasants farmers

forced to cities.• Five Year Plan

– Double production of all major industries.

• Gosplan– Central State Planning

Commission created goals for entire economy.

Page 10: COMMUNIST AND POST-COMMUNIST COUNTRIES

Stalinism

• Collectivization and industrialization by central planning, executed with force and brutality.

PURGES• Millions of citizens and

party member killed.• Obsessed with

disloyalty within party.• Millions more sent to

labor camps (gulag)

Page 11: COMMUNIST AND POST-COMMUNIST COUNTRIES

Command v. Market EconomyCOMMAND ECONOMY MARKET ECONOMY

Resource use and production

Ownership of Industry

Property RightsEmployment

Determined by Central Planning

Determined by supply

and demand.State owns

most economic resources

Private ownership of

resources.

Little to none Fully Protected

State-controlled

Individual-controlled

Page 12: COMMUNIST AND POST-COMMUNIST COUNTRIES

The Party State• CPSU ran the state.• Oversaw all people and

institutions.• CPSU only route to

success.• 10% of adults were

members• Power centered with

POLITBURO & SECRETARIAT– Democratic Centralism– GENERAL SECRETARY

was head of both

Page 13: COMMUNIST AND POST-COMMUNIST COUNTRIES

Recruitment of Party Elites

• Nomenklatura– Lists of “qualified” CPSU members who could fill

important party positions.– Secretariat controlled appointments– Elite ruling class

Page 14: COMMUNIST AND POST-COMMUNIST COUNTRIES

Communism and the Cold War

• Nikita Khrushchev (1953-64)– Loosened censorship– Denounced Purges– Decreased Cold War

tensions• Leonid Brezhnev

(1964-1982)– Stagnating economy– Massive military

spending

Page 15: COMMUNIST AND POST-COMMUNIST COUNTRIES

Mikhail Gorbachev (1985-1991)New Programs

• GLASNOST: – political “openness”– Allowed political dissent

• PERESTROIKA:– Economic “restructuring”– Introduce elements of

market economy– Private enterprise and

private ownership (farms)

Page 16: COMMUNIST AND POST-COMMUNIST COUNTRIES

Flaws in the Soviet System

Lack of incentive for workers• “They pretend to pay us; we pretend to work.”• “The system is not working because we are

not working.”

Page 17: COMMUNIST AND POST-COMMUNIST COUNTRIES

Flaws of Soviet System

Lack of innovation• Nomenklatura– Inbred spoils system– Encourages status quo

• RAMPANT BUREAUCRATIC INEFFICIENCY– Poorly planned/run economy

Page 18: COMMUNIST AND POST-COMMUNIST COUNTRIES

Flaws of the Soviet System

Excessive Defense Spending• 40% of the Budget• 15-20% of GDP

• 4 times greater than U.S.

Page 19: COMMUNIST AND POST-COMMUNIST COUNTRIES

Glasnost: Soviet Republics USSR• 15 republics• 92 different ethnic groups• 112 different languages• Various republics (regions) pushed for independence.

• Baltic States: 1989– Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia

Page 20: COMMUNIST AND POST-COMMUNIST COUNTRIES

1991 Coup Attempt

• Communist hard-liners oppose Gorbachev’s reforms.

• 3-day coup• Gorbachev

detained at dacha.

Page 21: COMMUNIST AND POST-COMMUNIST COUNTRIES

1991 Coup Attempt

• Boris Yeltsin– President of Russian Republic– USSR’s largest “state.”

• Rallied public• Opposed Coup• Gorbachev resigns• USSR disbands– Dec 1991

Page 22: COMMUNIST AND POST-COMMUNIST COUNTRIES

Commonwealth of Independent States (1991-current)