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Containmen t & Anti- Communist Hysteria

Containment & Anti- Communist Hysteria Containment & Anti- Communist Hysteria

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Page 1: Containment & Anti- Communist Hysteria Containment & Anti- Communist Hysteria

Containment & Anti-Communist Hysteria

Containment & Anti-Communist Hysteria

Page 2: Containment & Anti- Communist Hysteria Containment & Anti- Communist Hysteria

Communist Expansion Overseas & (Later) Into Space Brings fear of

Communist “menace” to America

Page 3: Containment & Anti- Communist Hysteria Containment & Anti- Communist Hysteria

The Ideological StruggleThe Ideological StruggleSoviet &

Eastern Bloc Nations[“Iron

Curtain”]

US & the Western

Democracies

GOAL spread world-wide Communism

GOAL “Containment” of Communism & the eventual collapse of the Communist world.[George Kennan]

METHODOLOGIES:

Espionage [KGB vs. CIA]

Arms Race [nuclear escalation]

Competition for the minds and hearts of Third World peoples “proxy wars”

Bi-Polarization of Europe [NATO vs. Warsaw Pact]

Page 4: Containment & Anti- Communist Hysteria Containment & Anti- Communist Hysteria

NNorth orth AAtlantic tlantic TTreaty reaty OOrganization (1949)rganization (1949)

United StatesUnited States

BelgiumBelgium

BritainBritain

CanadaCanada

DenmarkDenmark

FranceFrance

IcelandIceland

ItalyItaly

LuxemburgLuxemburg

NetherlandsNetherlands

NorwayNorway

PortugalPortugal

1952: Greece & 1952: Greece & Turkey Turkey

1955: West 1955: West GermanyGermany

1982: Spain1982: Spain

Page 5: Containment & Anti- Communist Hysteria Containment & Anti- Communist Hysteria

Warsaw Pact (1955)Warsaw Pact (1955)

} U. S. S. R.U. S. S. R.

} AlbaniaAlbania

} BulgariaBulgaria

} CzechoslovakCzechoslovakiaia

} East East GermanyGermany

} HungaryHungary

} PolandPoland

} RumaniaRumania

Page 6: Containment & Anti- Communist Hysteria Containment & Anti- Communist Hysteria

Truman Truman Doctrine Doctrine [1947][1947]

1.1. Civil War in Greece.Civil War in Greece.

2.2. Turkey under pressure from the Turkey under pressure from the USSR for land in the Dardanelles.USSR for land in the Dardanelles.

3.3. Truman: “The U. S. should support free Truman: “The U. S. should support free peoples throughout the world who are peoples throughout the world who are resisting takeovers by armed minorities or resisting takeovers by armed minorities or outside pressures…We must assist free outside pressures…We must assist free peoples to work out their own destinies in peoples to work out their own destinies in their own way.”their own way.”

4.4. The U.S. gave Greece & Turkey The U.S. gave Greece & Turkey $400 million in economic & $400 million in economic & military aid.military aid.

Page 7: Containment & Anti- Communist Hysteria Containment & Anti- Communist Hysteria
Page 8: Containment & Anti- Communist Hysteria Containment & Anti- Communist Hysteria

The Arms Race:The Arms Race:A “Missile Gap?”A “Missile Gap?”

} The Soviet The Soviet Union Union exploded its exploded its first A-bomb in first A-bomb in 1949.1949.

} Now there Now there were two were two nuclear nuclear superpowers!superpowers!

Page 9: Containment & Anti- Communist Hysteria Containment & Anti- Communist Hysteria
Page 10: Containment & Anti- Communist Hysteria Containment & Anti- Communist Hysteria

NSC-68

• April 1950 report by the National Security Council:

“The U.S. should use military force to ‘contain’ communist expansion anywhere it seemed to be occurring, regardless of the intrinsic strategic or economic value of the lands in question.”

Page 11: Containment & Anti- Communist Hysteria Containment & Anti- Communist Hysteria

Politicians seeks to “root out subversives” – Ex.: House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) Hearings - 1947

Page 12: Containment & Anti- Communist Hysteria Containment & Anti- Communist Hysteria

The Hollwood Ten

Screenwriters and directors

denied employment in

the entertainment

industry because of their

political beliefs, real or

suspected.

Page 13: Containment & Anti- Communist Hysteria Containment & Anti- Communist Hysteria

Domestic Anti-Communist Hysteria during the Early Cold War Era

Page 14: Containment & Anti- Communist Hysteria Containment & Anti- Communist Hysteria

Government Promotes “Civil Defense” Ex:“Duck & Cover” Drills in schools

Page 15: Containment & Anti- Communist Hysteria Containment & Anti- Communist Hysteria

“Loyalty Oaths”

Required for all

Federal Workers

Executive Order 9835

Pres. TrumanMarch 1947

Page 16: Containment & Anti- Communist Hysteria Containment & Anti- Communist Hysteria

McCarran Internal Security Act - 1950

Required members of the Communist Party and other “subversive” groups to register with the federal government. They had to provide personal information about their members to the federal government.

Congress eventually repealed most aspects of the law in 1968 as a result of a number of decisions by the U.S. Supreme Court that declared certain aspects of the law unconstitutional.

Page 17: Containment & Anti- Communist Hysteria Containment & Anti- Communist Hysteria

                                                         

Julius & Ethel RosenbergOn Trial - 1951Executed - 1953

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B33oE73tPUo

Page 18: Containment & Anti- Communist Hysteria Containment & Anti- Communist Hysteria

EXCERPTS FROM OFFICIAL SENATE CENSURE OF JOSEPH MCCARTHY

FOLLOWING THE 1954 HEARINGS MCCARHYORGAINZED TO INVESTIGATE ALLEGED

COMMUNIST INFLUENCESIN THE US ARMY

Resolved, That the Senator from Wisconsin, Mr. McCarthy, obstructed the constitutional processes of the Senate, and that this conduct of the Senator from Wisconsin, Mr. McCarthy, is contrary to senatorial traditions and is hereby condemned.

Sec 2. The Senator from Wisconsin, Mr. McCarthy … acted contrary to senatorial ethics and tended to bring the Senate into dishonor and disrepute, to obstruct the constitutional processes of the Senate, and to impair its dignity; and such conduct is hereby condemned.

Page 19: Containment & Anti- Communist Hysteria Containment & Anti- Communist Hysteria

“McCarthyism”

Unfairly accusing people of disloyaltymade possible by a climate of fear