Context-Awareness in Mobile Cloud Computing: ?· Context-Awareness in Mobile Cloud Computing: Healthcare…

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<ul><li><p>Context-Awareness in Mobile Cloud Computing: Healthcare </p><p>Cik Ku Haroswati Che Ku Yahaya1, Wan Haslina Hassan </p><p>2 </p><p>Malaysia-Japan International Institute of Technology, Universiti Technologi Malaysia, Malaysia 1haroswati@gmail.com , </p><p>2wanhaslina@ic.utm.my </p><p>ABSTRACT </p><p>Rapid changes in mobile cloud computing </p><p>tremendously affect the telecommunication, education </p><p>and healthcare industries and also business </p><p>perspectives. Nowadays, advanced information and </p><p>communication technology enhanced healthcare </p><p>sector to improved medical services at reduced cost. </p><p>However, issues related to security, privacy, quality </p><p>of services and mobility and viability need to be </p><p>solved before mobile cloud computing can be adopted </p><p>in the healthcare industry. Mobile healthcare (m-</p><p>Healthcare) is one of the latest technologies in the </p><p>healthcare industry which enable the industry players </p><p>to collaborate each others especially in sharing the </p><p>patiences medical reports and histories. M-</p><p>Healthcare offer real-time monitoring and provide </p><p>rapid diagnosis of health condition. Users context </p><p>such as location, identities and etc which are </p><p>collected by active sensor is important element in M-</p><p>Healthcare. This paper conducts a study pertaining to </p><p>mobile cloud healthcare, mobile healthcare and </p><p>comparisons between the variety of applications and </p><p>architecture developed/proposed by researchers. </p><p>KEYWORKS </p><p> Mobile cloud, healthcare, context-awareness, mobile </p><p>healthcare architecture, mobile healthcare </p><p>applications. </p><p>1 INTRODUCTION </p><p>Cloud computing change the way IT resources are </p><p>utilized and consumed and give a lot of benefits </p><p>to public sectors and government entities. Cloud </p><p>computing can be defined on-demand resources </p><p>when ever needed, released when no longer </p><p>required and billed only when used. NIST defined </p><p>Cloud Computing as follows [1]: </p><p>Model for enabling convenient, on-demand </p><p>network access to a shared pool of configurable </p><p>computing resources (networks, servers, storage, </p><p>applications, services) that can be rapidly </p><p>provisioned and released with minimal </p><p>management effort or service provider </p><p>interaction. </p><p>Latest advances in mobile communication </p><p>networks and increasing penetration of </p><p>Smartphone are transform the mobile internet and </p><p>users with rich mobile experience. However, the </p><p>limitation of memory storage, unable to process </p><p>heavy algorithm, battery life and bandwidth are </p><p>the biggest problems[2]. 4G and long-term </p><p>evolution (LTE) wireless networks provide </p><p>mobile devices with access to integrated </p><p>communication standards and low transmission </p><p>cost with rich multimedia support[3]. According </p><p>to[4], mobile computing has four constraints: </p><p> Mobile elements are resources-poor </p><p>relative to static elements </p><p> Mobility is inherently hazardous </p><p> Mobile connectivity is highly variable in </p><p>performance and reliability </p><p> Mobile elements rely on finite energy </p><p>resources. </p><p>Currently each hospitals developed their in house </p><p>system to manage their daily operations The </p><p>systems do not link each others resulting the </p><p>patients need to re-register their personal detail </p><p>each time they visit to deference hospitals In </p><p>Malaysia, some hospitals still using manual </p><p>healthcare system (paper-based) even though they </p><p>have invested in the healthcare technology. </p><p>Doctors record treatment detail and drug </p><p>manually, making it difficult to access a patients </p><p>history and determine the appropriate treatment. </p><p>ISBN: 978-0-9891305-3-0 2013 SDIWC 30</p></li><li><p>How context-awareness relevant to mobile cloud </p><p>computing? Users mobility will create the </p><p>situation where users context such as the </p><p>location, people and objects around her is more </p><p>dynamic. Mobile cloud gives users facilities that </p><p>they can access information services anytime and </p><p>wherever they are and able to overcome the </p><p>limitation of mobile devices such as processing </p><p>power and battery consumption. </p><p>2 BACKGROUD </p><p>2.1 Mobile Cloud Computing </p><p>According to Wikipedia[5], Mobile Cloud </p><p>Computing (MCC) is distributed computing </p><p>paradigm comprises of three heterogeneous </p><p>domains of mobile computing, cloud computing, </p><p>and wireless networks. </p><p>In MCC, there are four types of cloud-based </p><p>resources, namely distant immobile clouds, </p><p>proximate immobile computing entities, </p><p>proximate mobile computing entities, and hybrid </p><p>(combination of the other three model) Giant </p><p>clouds such as Amazon EC2 are in the distant </p><p>immobile groups whereas cloudlet or surrogates </p><p>are member of proximate immobile computing </p><p>entities . Smart phones, tablets, handheld devices, </p><p>and wearable computing devices are part of the </p><p>third group of cloud-based resources which is </p><p>proximate mobile computing entities. </p><p> Figure 1 Architecture of Mobile Cloud Computing [9] </p><p>Applications are run on a remote server and then </p><p>sent to the user. Because of the advanced </p><p>improvement in mobile browsers thanks to Apple, </p><p>Google, Microsoft and Research in Motion, </p><p>nearly every mobile should have a suitable </p><p>browser. This means developers will have a much </p><p>wider market and they can bypass the restrictions </p><p>created by mobile operating systems. </p><p>Mobile cloud computing gives new company </p><p>chances for mobile network providers. Several </p><p>operators such as Vodafone, Orange and Verizon </p><p>have started to offer cloud computing services for </p><p>companies. </p><p>2.2 Context-Awareness </p><p>Many scholars define the context-awareness </p><p>based on their perspectives. Schilit et al. </p><p>mentioned that context-awareness initially </p><p>referred to as location, identities of nearby people, </p><p>objects to these objects[6]. Dey[7] has same </p><p>understanding where context is any information </p><p>considered relevant to interaction between a user </p><p>and an application, including the user and the </p><p>application themselves. These parameters may be </p><p>dynamic and may change during the execution[8]. </p><p>Besides that, context-awareness also be defined </p><p>as a set of environment states and settings that </p><p>either determines an applications behaviour or in </p><p>which application event occur and is interesting </p><p>to the user and as an intrinsic characteristic of </p><p>intelligent environment[9][10]. </p><p>Context-aware computing was first discussed by </p><p>Olivette Active Badge work in 1992[11] and </p><p>followed by Schilit and Theimer[6] in 1994 that </p><p>context-awareness computing is adapt according </p><p>to its location of use, the collection of nearby </p><p>people and objects as well as changes to those </p><p>objects over time. </p><p>The use of context in mobile devices is get </p><p>considerable attention in various fields of </p><p>research including mobile computing, wearable </p><p>computing, augmented reality and the collection </p><p>of ubiquitous computing. </p><p>ISBN: 978-0-9891305-3-0 2013 SDIWC 31</p></li><li><p>3 RELATED WORKS </p><p>Applications in mobile cloud healthcare have </p><p>been discussed and presented in the following. </p><p>3.1 Cloud Healthcare Application &amp; Mobile </p><p>Cloud Healthcare Application </p><p>All the application is based on the semi-auto </p><p>system. As shown in Figure 2, staff member </p><p>collect and record all the information using paper </p><p>based. Information treatment and drug precription </p><p>key-in in the healthcare system periodically. </p><p>Problems raised due to manual process and prone </p><p>to human errors and delay in availability of </p><p>patients data. </p><p>Figure 2. Healthcare Semi-Auto System. [4] </p><p>[12]Proposed to attach a sensor to medical </p><p>equipments to automate the process and make the </p><p>patients information available in the cloud. </p><p>Figure 3 show the sensor attached to the medical </p><p>equipment to collect and transmit patients </p><p>information thro wireless network. Eliminate the </p><p>manual process and data in the cloud allow </p><p>medical staff access information real-time and </p><p>reduced cost. </p><p>According to [13], they proposed integration </p><p>network module with existing system that </p><p>connected within the hospitals. The proposed </p><p>based on cloud computing so the information </p><p>sharing and high-end processing is available in </p><p>the "cloud". </p><p>Figure 3. Cloud Healthcare solution for patients data </p><p>collection [5] </p><p>The integration module via virtual private </p><p>network (VPN) and public internet access. </p><p>Therefore, they reduce the risk of security and </p><p>privacy. There are problems with traditional </p><p>Hospital Information System (HIS): </p><p>1. Lack of uniform standards for data-</p><p>sharing </p><p>2. High cost for independent construction </p><p>3. Difficult to Management, Upgrades and </p><p>Maintenance </p><p>Doang and Liefeng [14] proposed a Mobile Cloud </p><p>for Assistive Healthcare (MoCAsH) that deploys </p><p>intelligent mobile agents, context-awareness </p><p>middleware and collaborative protocol in their </p><p>architecture. </p><p> Figure 4. Architecture for Mobile Cloud for Assistive </p><p>Healthcare (MoCAsH) [7] </p><p>Data collected by the sensor are analyzed, </p><p>processed by the intelligent context-aware </p><p>ISBN: 978-0-9891305-3-0 2013 SDIWC 32</p></li><li><p>middleware. For examples, body temperature, </p><p>pulse, motion and time. This model addressed in </p><p>security and privacy issues also quality of service </p><p>and energy consumption. </p><p>According to [15], they proposed the architecture </p><p>that others architecture fails to provide. Figure 5 </p><p>show the enhancement which prevented from </p><p>running the complex and massive algorithms. </p><p> Figure 5. Mobile Cloud Architecture [8] </p><p>The advantages of the proposed architecture are </p><p>preventing others component affected if one </p><p>component failed. This is due to loose coupling </p><p>connected among the components. </p><p>[3]developed a prototype of the SparkMed </p><p>framework to evaluate a radiological workflow </p><p>simulation. The framework integrates techniques </p><p>from multimedia streaming, rich internet </p><p>application (RIA) and remote procedure call </p><p>(RPC). Techniques include RPC framework such </p><p>as CORBA, semantic Ontology, software agents </p><p>and others form of wrapper generation. </p><p>This architecture still has limitation in term of </p><p>format acceptability, Quality of Service (QoS), </p><p>and data synchronization. </p><p>Figure 6. SparkMed Architecture [3] </p><p>Figure 7. Intelligent Hospital Information System </p><p>integrated with Intelligent Cloud Computing </p><p>Our proposed model is scenario based act based </p><p>on the following conditions: </p><p>1. Intelligent Cloud Computing: users </p><p>behavior information collected </p><p>periodically and it forecasts and prepares </p><p>contents by analyzed the collection of </p><p>information. Information contents can be </p><p>collected from patients Smartphone and </p><p>wearable devices and get the feedback and </p><p>personalized services made by server </p><p>based on patients status and need. </p><p>ISBN: 978-0-9891305-3-0 2013 SDIWC 33</p></li><li><p>2. All the analyzed data can be transferred, </p><p>viewed to the respective clinicians using </p><p>ubiquitous devices (Smartphone, laptop </p><p>and other portable devices). Observation, </p><p>consultations and treatment can be done </p><p>anytime, anywhere without barriers of </p><p>connectivity, availability and accesses </p><p>ability to the patients information. </p><p>3. Intelligent Hospital Information System </p><p>(IHIS) has a centralized information </p><p>system stored and accessible by all </p><p>departments in the hospital. Intelligent </p><p>sensor attached with health equipments. </p><p>Patient </p><p>Apart from that, there are several challenges </p><p>facing by researches in cloud healthcare, mobile </p><p>cloud healthcare and mobile healthcare. The </p><p>challenges are as following: </p><p>1. Information system fragmented and </p><p>incompatible with others departments </p><p>2. Low propensity to adopt ICT among </p><p>healthcare professional. </p><p>3. Rural-urban discrepancies. </p><p>4. High cost for independent construction. </p><p>5. Lack of a centralized repository or </p><p>common standard for most healthcare </p><p>data. </p><p>6. The limited scope of access to data in </p><p>proprietary hospital infrastructure systems </p><p>7. Security and privacy issues </p><p>8. Interoperability &amp; availability </p><p>heterogonous resources. </p><p>9. Healthcare cost increase due to aging </p><p>societies. </p><p>10. Data quality. </p><p>4. CONCLUSION </p><p>Mobile cloud computing technology opened up </p><p>enemorous opportunities to improve healthcare </p><p>sector and change the community lifestyle. Our </p><p>model fulfills the requirements of professional </p><p>healthcare. In future, we will focus more detail in </p><p>technical aspects of this model and develop </p><p>prototype to test the intelligence, effectively and </p><p>accuracy of the system. Hopefully this model can </p><p>benefit to the healthcare sector, government, </p><p>society and others fields related to data sharing of </p><p>critical information. </p><p>5. REFERENCES </p><p>[1] P. Mell and T. Grance, The NIST Definition of </p><p>Cloud Computing, Recommendations of the </p><p>National Institute of Standards and Technolog, </p><p>National Institute of Standards and Technology. p. </p><p>7, 2011. </p><p>[2] M. Satyanarayanan, Fundamental challenges in </p><p>mobile computing, Proc. fifteenth Annu. ACM </p><p>Symp. Princ. Distrib. Comput. - Pod. 96, pp. 17, </p><p>1996. </p><p>[3] L. Constantinescu, S. Member, J. Kim, and D. D. </p><p>Feng, SparkMed: A Framework for Dynamic </p><p>Integration of Multimedia Medical Data Into </p><p>Distributed m-Health Systems, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. </p><p>4052, 2012. </p><p>[4] C. O. Rolim, F. L. Koch, C. B. Westphall, and S. </p><p>Abderrahim, Telemedicine with Wireless Sensor </p><p>Networks, 2008. </p><p>[5] Mobile cloud computing - Wikipedia, the free </p><p>encyclopedia. . </p><p>[6] M. M. Theimer, Disseminating active map </p><p>information to mobile hosts - IEEE Network, </p><p>1994. </p><p>[7] A. K. Dey, Understanding and Using Context, </p><p>Pers. Ubiquitous Comput., vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 47, </p><p>Feb. 2001. </p><p>[8] T. Chaari, D. Ejigu, F. Laforest, and V.-M. </p><p>Scuturici, A comprehensive approach to model and </p><p>use context for adapting applications in pervasive </p><p>environments, J. Syst. Softw., vol. 80, no. 12, pp. </p><p>19731992, Dec. 2007. </p><p>[9] G. Chen and D. Kotz, A Survey of Context-Aware </p><p>Mobile Computing Research, pp. 116. </p><p>[10] T. Gu, H. K. Pung, and D. Q. Zhang, A </p><p>middleware for building context-aware mobile </p><p>services, 2004 IEEE 59th Veh. Technol. Conf. </p><p>VTC 2004-Spring (IEEE Cat. No.04CH37514), vol. </p><p>5, pp. 26562660. </p><p>[11] R. Want, A. Hopper, V. Falco, and J. Gibbons, </p><p>The Active Badge Location System, 1965. </p><p>[12] C. O. Rolim, F. L. Koch, C. B. Westphall, J. </p><p>Werner, A. Fracalossi, and G. S. Salvador, A </p><p>Cloud Computing Solution for Patients Data </p><p>Collection in Health Care Institutions, 2010 </p><p>Second Int. Conf. eHealth, Telemedicine, Soc. </p><p>Med., no. ii, pp. 9599, Feb. 2010. </p><p>[13] C. He, X. Jin, Z. Zhao, and T. Xiang, A cloud </p><p>computing solution for Hospital Information </p><p>System, 2010 IEEE Int. Conf. Intell. Comput. </p><p>Intell. Syst., pp. 517520, Oct. 2010. </p><p>[14] D. B. Hoang and L. Chen, Mobile Cloud for </p><p>Assistive Healthcare (MoCAsH), 2010 IEEE Asia-</p><p>Pacific Serv. Comput. Conf., pp. 325332, Dec. </p><p>2010. </p><p>[15] J. Ng, Z. Yuan, W. W. Ping, Y. H. Wen, and W. </p><p>Husain, Healthcare applications on mobile cloud </p><p>computing, pp. 514522, 2013. </p><p>ISBN: 978-0-9891305-3-0 2013 SDIWC 34</p></li></ul>

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