Cross validation of a Brazilian version of the Dental Fear Survey

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  • Ciininninity Dem Oral Epidemiol I99.
  • Dctititl fear iti Brctzil 149

    versity. The students come from the Bra-zilian social middle class with patetitshaving professional occupations and Ihcstudents having studied in private sec-ondary schools. Nearly 15% ol" Ihc slu-dents had been lo Ihe denlist within ei-ther 6 months (181, 48.5%) or I yr (96,25.7%). The remaining students had seena dentist within 2 yr (29. 7.8'/-o), 3 yr (9,2.4%), or longer than 3 yr (58, 15.5%).The treatment at the last visit was asfollows;

    Treattnetit tt

    Examination, preventive 86 23.0'> i^Restorative ireatmenl 193 51.6%Extraction, endodonties &relief ol" pain 62 16.6%Other treatment 33 8.8'y;,

    When more than one treatment was re-ported, only the tnost complex wascoded.

    Table 1. Factor loadines for totaled Dl-S factor tnatri.x

    Ucni stem

    Pttt off making appointmentCaticelled/failed lo appearArousal during treattnenl;Muscle tensenessIncrease btcathitig tatcPerspiration increaseNauseaHeart rate increaseFear of stitiiuli;Making an appoinlmenlApproaching dental ofiiceSitting in waiting roomSitting in denial chairStnell of dental officeSeeing the denlisiSecitig ancstiietic needleFeeling anesthetic needleSeeing the drillHearing the drillL'celing the drillHaving teeth cleanedOverall fear of dentistty

    Faclor I l-actor II Faclor 111



    0.1610.3040.4100..S260.537O..'^270.7020.7510.8200.805O.SI 10.4220.604







    Eigenvalues 4.348 3.444

    Survey Instrumentation

    The DFS is a 20-ilem Likert-like ques-tionnaire thai uses representative five-point ratings ofdental avoidance, soma-tovisceral arousal during dental treat-ment, and the amount of fear evokedby various stimuli associated with dentaltreatment. There is a final summary itemthai asks; "All things considered, howfearful of dentistry are you?'" The DFShas been validated and cross-validated indiverse samples within the US (7), andSoutheast Asia (1). For the present study,the questionnaire was translated intoBrazilian Portuguese by a bilingual na-tive speaker and then back-translated,pretested, and revised.

    Data Analysis

    In order lo examine the validity of theD F S in Brazilian, two approaches weretaken. The results were subjected lo fac-tor analysis to determine whether ihcconstructs demonstrated in other lan-guage forms of the DFS were found inthis form. In addition, the DFS scoreswere examined in relalion lo ihe limitigof the last visit to the dentist and previoustreatment. The hypothesis was thai high-er DFS scores would be associated withlonger intervals since a dental visit andmore painful, invasive treatment at thelast visit. Statistical analyses were con-ducted using SAS 5.18 excepting that the

    reliability analysis was conducted usingSPSS 4.1.

    ResultsThe DFS mean was 40.7 (SD = 15.0).Our previous work has shown ihal DFSscores exceeding 60 are indicative of highdental fear. In the present sample, greaterihan \1>% had scores in this range. DFSscores did not differ by gender (maleM = 43.9 (SD = 14.3); female M = 40.2(SD = 15.1), P> .Q5) but did differ byage, with older students reported higherDFS scores (r = 0.136, F

  • 150 CESAR I;T .\I..

    Titne since last visit tt DFS titcitn

    Within 6 months 181 39.4Within 1 yr 96 41.2I 3yr 38 47.7Over 3 yr 58 39.6

    Differences among the groups were ex-amined with a one-way ANOVA and re-vealed a significant difference (I- = 3.36,df 3,369, 7^ = 0.019). Posl-hoc t-lestsshowed that the differences between the6-inonth group and the I-3-yr group andbetween the within 1-yr group and theI 3-yr group are significant {P.05). Asomewhat larger pioportion of the long-term avoidcrs versus the other subjectsreported extractions and endodontieswith lower proportions receiving restor-alive care (/-


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