Dctititl fear iti Brctzil 149
versity. The students come from the Bra-zilian social middle class with patetitshaving professional occupations and Ihcstudents having studied in private sec-ondary schools. Nearly 15% ol" Ihc slu-dents had been lo Ihe denlist within ei-ther 6 months (181, 48.5%) or I yr (96,25.7%). The remaining students had seena dentist within 2 yr (29. 7.8'/-o), 3 yr (9,2.4%), or longer than 3 yr (58, 15.5%).The treatment at the last visit was asfollows;
Examination, preventive 86 23.0'> i^Restorative ireatmenl 193 51.6%Extraction, endodonties &relief ol" pain 62 16.6%Other treatment 33 8.8'y;,
When more than one treatment was re-ported, only the tnost complex wascoded.
Table 1. Factor loadines for totaled Dl-S factor tnatri.x
Pttt off making appointmentCaticelled/failed lo appearArousal during treattnenl;Muscle tensenessIncrease btcathitig tatcPerspiration increaseNauseaHeart rate increaseFear of stitiiuli;Making an appoinlmenlApproaching dental ofiiceSitting in waiting roomSitting in denial chairStnell of dental officeSeeing the denlisiSecitig ancstiietic needleFeeling anesthetic needleSeeing the drillHearing the drillL'celing the drillHaving teeth cleanedOverall fear of dentistty
Faclor I l-actor II Faclor 111
Eigenvalues 4.348 3.444
The DFS is a 20-ilem Likert-like ques-tionnaire thai uses representative five-point ratings ofdental avoidance, soma-tovisceral arousal during dental treat-ment, and the amount of fear evokedby various stimuli associated with dentaltreatment. There is a final summary itemthai asks; "All things considered, howfearful of dentistry are you?'" The DFShas been validated and cross-validated indiverse samples within the US (7), andSoutheast Asia (1). For the present study,the questionnaire was translated intoBrazilian Portuguese by a bilingual na-tive speaker and then back-translated,pretested, and revised.
In order lo examine the validity of theD F S in Brazilian, two approaches weretaken. The results were subjected lo fac-tor analysis to determine whether ihcconstructs demonstrated in other lan-guage forms of the DFS were found inthis form. In addition, the DFS scoreswere examined in relalion lo ihe limitigof the last visit to the dentist and previoustreatment. The hypothesis was thai high-er DFS scores would be associated withlonger intervals since a dental visit andmore painful, invasive treatment at thelast visit. Statistical analyses were con-ducted using SAS 5.18 excepting that the
reliability analysis was conducted usingSPSS 4.1.
ResultsThe DFS mean was 40.7 (SD = 15.0).Our previous work has shown ihal DFSscores exceeding 60 are indicative of highdental fear. In the present sample, greaterihan \1>% had scores in this range. DFSscores did not differ by gender (maleM = 43.9 (SD = 14.3); female M = 40.2(SD = 15.1), P> .Q5) but did differ byage, with older students reported higherDFS scores (r = 0.136, F