Cultural DiversityBy: Cindy QuisenberryDefinitions Culture the values, beliefs, attitudes, languages, symbols, rituals, behaviors, and customs unique to a particular group of people and passed from one generation to the nextEthnicity a classification of people based on national origin and/or cultureRace a classification of people based on physical or biological characteristics such as color of skin, hair, and eyes; facial features; blood type; and bone structureDefinitionsBias a preference that inhibits impartial judgment (ie: individuals who believe in the supremacy of their own ethnic group)Can you think of other bias?Prejudice a strong feeling or belief about a person or subject that is formed without reviewing facts of information (Prejudiced individuals regard their ideas or behavior as right and other ideas or behavior as wrong.)Stereotyping occurs when an assumption is made that everyone in a particular group is the sameDefinitionsWhat is a nuclear family?
What is an extended family?DefinitionsPersonal Space often called territorial space; the distance people require to feel comfortable while interacting with othersClose Contact CulturesArabsFrenchLatin AmericansHispanic AmericansAsian Americans may stand close but do not touch (kissing or hugging never done in publicDefinitionsMonotheist believe in one GodPolytheist believe in many godsAtheist does not believe in any deityAgnostic believes that the existence of God cannot be proved or disproved
The key to respecting cultural diversity is to regard each person as a unique individual. Healthcare workers must learn to appreciate and respect the personal characteristics of others by:Listen to patients as they express their beliefs.Appreciate differences in people.Learn more about the cultural and ethnic groups that you see frequently.Recognize and avoid bias, prejudice, and stereotyping.Ask questions to determine a persons belief.Evaluate all information before forming an opinion.
Respecting Cultural DiversityAllow patients to practice and express their beliefs as much as possible.Remember that you are not expected to adopt anothers beliefs, just accept and respect them.Recognize and promote the patients positive interactions with family.Be sensitive to how patients respond to eye contact, touch, and invasion of personal space.Respect spirituality, religious beliefs, symbols, and rituals.
Respecting Cultural Diversity African American Central & South African countries, Dominican Republic, Haiti, and JamaicaAsian/Pacific American Australia, Cambodia, China, Guam, Hawaii, India, Indonesia & Pacific Island countries, Japan, Korea, Laos, New Zealand, Philippines, Samoa, Taiwan, Thailand, and VietnamEuropean American Austria, Czech Republic, Denmark, England, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Scotland, Sweden, and Switzerland
Common Ethic GroupsHispanic American Cuba, Mexico, Puerto Rico, Spain, and Spanish-speaking countries in Central and South AmericaMiddle Eastern/Arabic Americans Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey, Yemen, and other North African and Middle Eastern countriesNative American more than 500 tribes of American Indians and Eskimos such as Apache, Choctaw, Cherokee, and Navajo
Common Ethic GroupsDefinitionsPersonal Space often called territorial space; the distance people require to feel comfortable while interacting with othersDistant Contact CulturesEuropeanAfrican Americans (2-4 feet)Cambodia members of the opposite sex may never touch in publicVietnamese allow only the elderly to touch the head of a child because the head is considered sacredNative AmericansMiddle Eastern men may not touch female individuals who are not immediate family membersDefinitionsEye Contact European Americans indicative of interest and trustworthinessAsian Americans considered to be rudeNative Americans may use peripheral vision and avoid eye contact (may regard direct stares as hostile and threatening)Hispanic and African Americans may use brief eye contact, but then look away to indicate respect and attentivenessMuslim women may avoid eye contact as a sign of modestyIndia different socioeconomic classes may avoid eye contact with each other
DefinitionsGestures (head up and down for yes, side to side for no, etc.)Can mean an exact opposite in some countriesAsian and Native Americans, pointing can represent a strong threatOK can be insulting to some Asians
BaptistSome believe in the healing power of laying on of handsPhysician is instrument for Gods healingNo last ritesOppose abortionBirth control is an individuals decisionBuddhismSuffering is inevitableIllness is the result of negative KarmaCleanliness is important to maintain healthMay refuse medications that affect mental alertness (mindful awareness is essential)Oppose abortionBirth control is an individuals decisionBelieves in reincarnationBuddhist priest must be present at deathLimited touching during during the process of deathLast rites chanted at bedside right after deathHinduismSome believe illness is punishment for sinsSome believe in faith healingWill accept most medical interventionsNaming ceremony is performed 10-11 days after birth to obtain blessings form gods and goddessesAbortion allowed only to save the life of the motherBirth control allowed, but the duty of having a family is stressed
HinduismBelieve in reincarnationPriest ties thread around the neck or wrist and may pour holy water in the mouth of the deceasedOnly family and friends may touch and wash the bodyOrgan donation discouragedCremation preferredSome do not eat meat
LutheranCommunion often administered by clergy to sick or prior to surgeryBirth control allowedAbortion discouragedNo last rites
MethodistMay request communion before surgery or while illBirth control allowedAbortion discouragedNo last rites
PresbyterianPrayer and counseling an important part of healingMay request communion while ill or before surgeryBirth control allowedAbortion discouragedNo last rites
Seventh Day AdventistMay avoid OTC medications and caffeineMay anoint body with oilUse prayer for healingSome believe only in divine healingWill accept required immunizationsBirth control is individuals decisionTherapeutic abortions permitted as an individuals decisionNo last ritesSabbath worship is sunset on Friday to sunset on Sat.Encouraged to practice a vegetarian diet
EpiscopalMay use anointing of the sick with oil as a healing sacramentAbortion opposedBirth control is an individuals decisionSome observe last rites by priest
Roman CatholicSacrament of the Sick and anointing with oilLife is sacred; abortion and contraceptive use prohibitedBelieve embryos are human beings and should not be destroyed or used for researchInfant baptism mandatoryBaptism necessary for salvation (any baptized Christian may perform an emergency baptism)Sacrament of the Sick (last rites) performed by priestMay avoid meat at certain times
Islam (Muslim)Illness is atonement for sinsFace city of Mecca 5 times a day to pray to AllahRitual washing before and after prayerMust take meds with right hand since left hand is considered dirtyAt birth, the infant should hear There is no God but Allah, and Mohammed is His prophetCircumcision before 7 days oldAbortion forbiddenFamily must be with dying personDying person must confess sins and ask forgiveness
Islam (Muslim)Only family touches and washes body after deathBody is turned toward Mecca after deathCremation not permittedAvoid pork and shellfishUsually do not consume alcoholDuring holy month of Ramadan, all-day fasts are required for those who are able.
JudaismMay refuse surgical procedure or diagnostic tests on Sabbath or holy daysFamily may want surgically removed body parts for burialRitual handwashing upon awakening and prior to eatingMale circumcision on 8th day after birth by childs father or Jewish physicianBirth control allowedAbortion permitted only in specific circumstancesPerson should never die aloneBody is ritually cleaned after death
JudaismMay bury dead before sundown on day of death and usually within 24 hoursOrgan donation permitted only after consultation with rabbiSabbath is sunset Friday to sunset SaturdayFast during some holy daysMay observe certain dietary laws called kosher diets
Jehovahs WitnessProhibited from receiving blood and blood productsElders will pray and read scriptures to promote healingMedications okay if not derived from blood productsBirth control personal decisionAbortion allowed only to save the life of the motherNo last ritesOrgan donation discouraged due to transmission of blood (All organs and tissues must be drained of blood before transplant)
Russian OrthodoxHoly Unction and anointing body with oil used for healingWill accept most medical treatments but believe in divine healingBirth control prohibitedAbortion prohibitedList rites by ordained priest mandatoryArms of deceased are crossedOrgan donations not encouragedMay wear a cross necklace that should not be removed
Mormon (LDS)May believe in divine healing with laying on of hands or blessing by the church eldersAnointing with oil can promote healingInfant blessing by clergy in church ASAP after birthBaptism at 8 years of ageAbortion prohibitedBirth control individuals choiceMay want church elders present at birthNo last rites
Mormon (LDS)Special undergarments may be worn and should not be removed unless necessaryFast on first Sunday of each monthAvoid medications containing alcohol and caffeineAvoid coffee, tea, caffeine-containing beverages and alcoholic beverages
AmishMay give birth at homeBirth control not forbidden but most do not use (large families are a gift from God)Prohibit abortionN