Decommissioning Handbook

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Text of Decommissioning Handbook

DOE/EM-0383 January 2000

Decommissioning HandbookPROCEDURES AND PRACTICES FOR DECOMMISSIONING

Prepared by:

Office of Environmental Management U.S. Department of Energy Washington, D.C. 20585

Table of Contents 1.0 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.1 Objective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.2 Scope and Applicability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.3 Approach and Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 The Decommissioning Framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2.1 DOE G 430.1-4, Decommissioning Implementation Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2.2 Structure of the Decommissioning Framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 2.2.1 Basis for the Decommissioning Framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 2.2.2 Phases of the Decommissioning Framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2.3 Integrated Safety Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 2.4 The "Graded Approach" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Pre-Decision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 3.1 Step 1 - Conduct On-going Surveillance and Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Determination of Action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 4.1 Step 2 - Problem Discovered? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 4.2 Step 3 - Assess Need for/Desirability of Decommissioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 4.3 Step 4 - Conduct Decommissioning? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 4.4 Step 5 - Continue S&M as Appropriate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 4.5 Step 6 - Prepare Decommissioning Project Scoping Document (Baseline) . . . . 35 Choosing the Decommissioning Alternative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 5.1 Step 7 - Review Data to Determine Extent of Action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 5.2 Step 8 - Develop Characterization Plan, Including Sampling and Analysis and Health and Safety Plan (HASP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 5.3 Step 9 - Conduct Characterization/Document Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 5.4 Step 10 - Conduct Risk Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 5.5 Step 11 - Conduct Safety Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 5.6 Step 12 - Define and Conduct Activities to Inform/Involve Stakeholders . . . . . 66 5.7 Step 13 - Evaluate Alternatives, Propose Response and Document Analysis of Decommissioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 5.8 Step 14 - Respond to Public Comment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 5.9 Step 15 - Document Final Decision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 Engineering and Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 6.1 Step 16 - Prepare Decommissioning Project Plan, Including HASP and ISMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 6.2 Step 17 - Conduct and Document Readiness Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91

2.0

3.0

4.0

5.0

6.0

7.0

Decommissioning Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 7.1 Step 18 - Conduct Action to Decommission Facility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 7.2 Step 19 - Conduct S&M Phase-Out . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 7.3 Step 20 - Close Out Project and Complete Decommissioning Project Final Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 7.4 Step 21 - Post-decommissioning Action: Further Action Required . . . . . . . . . 103 7.5 Step 22 - Establish Long-Term Monitoring and/or Transfer to Remedial Action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103

Appendix A: Authorities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-1 Appendix B: Guidance References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-1 Appendix C: Acronyms and Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-1 Appendix D: Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-1 Appendix E: Suggestions on the Functions, Purposes and Contents of a Decommissioning Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-1 Appendix F: Verification and Certification Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-1

1.01.1

IntroductionObjective

The objective of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Decommissioning Handbook: Procedures and Practices for Decommissioning (hereafter, Handbook), is to use examples and information about lessons learned to illustrate established procedures and practices that are adequate to implement the DOE decommissioning framework, as defined in DOE G 430.1-4, Decommissioning Implementation Guide. 1.2 Scope and Applicability

Background on the 1995 Decommissioning Policy Under authority delegated by Executive Order 12580, DOE is responsible for evaluating whether conditions at sites under the Departments jurisdiction pose a significant threat of release of hazardous substances, as defined by CERCLA. If so, DOE is authorized to conduct removal action, remedial action, and any other response measures consistent with the National Contingency Plan (NCP). For sites listed on the National Priorities List (NPL), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has responsibility for ensuring that actions taken by DOE comply with CERCLA requirements. In that role, EPA may take legal action against DOE in the event EPA disagrees with DOEs determination as to the presence of a release or substantial threat of release of hazardous substances at a DOE site. In 1994, a working group involving DOE and EPA personnel was formed to establish the manner of applying CERCLA to decommissioning of facilities located on DOE sites. The result of this effort was the 1995 Decommissioning Policy, which was signed on May 22, 1995. The 1995 Decommissioning Policy establishes that decommissioning activities at facilities located on DOE sites will be conducted as non-time-critical removal actions under CERCLA, unless the circumstances at the facility make it inappropriate.

This Handbook supports the Decommissioning Implementation Guide, which was prepared to provide guidance for implementing the requirements of DOE O 430.1A, Life-Cycle Asset Management (LCAM) and aid in the planning and implementation of decommissioning activities at DOE facilities that have been declared excess to any future mission requirements.

This Handbook provides contractors and DOE personnel with non-mandatory guidance and information about DOE's expectations on Furthermore, the finalized LCAM Order requires the use of non-time critical removal actions for meeting existing requirements and DOE decommissioning activities as specified in the 1995 policies. Specifically, this Handbook Decommissioning Policy. illustrates procedures and practices that are consistent with the acceptable methods and approaches discussed in the Decommissioning Implementation Guide. It does not itself impose any requirements. However, it may repeat requirements already imposed by DOE or other Federal agencies. For example, requirements imposed by LCAM; DOE P 450.4, Safety Management System Policy; and the Policy on Decommissioning of Department of Energy Facilities Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) (hereafter, the 1995 Decommissioning Policy) may be repeated in this Handbook because the Decommissioning Implementation Guide addresses such requirements.

January 2000

1

INTRODUCTION The guidance provided by this Handbook applies to all decommissioning actions at contaminated facilities, or portions thereof, owned by DOE or that DOE has agreed to decommission. Contaminated refers to both radioactive contamination and to hazardous substance contamination. Nuclear facilities and non-nuclear facilities are included in the scope of this Handbook. It is important to note that facility decommissioning may be only one aspect of environmental remediation at a site. Also, environmental remediation at some sites may not involve facility decommissioning. Therefore, DOE is developing other guidance to explain the generic process and principles of environmental remediation. The decommissioning framework (discussed both in this Handbook and in the Decommissioning Implementation Guide) should be viewed as a subset of that generic remediation process. 1.3 Approach and Structure

The layout of this Handbook is based on the decommissioning framework