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  • M~4Ic/N.ms-Rw 160 ARl-002 -082

    DEPARTMENT OF DEFENCE SUPPORT

    DEFENCE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY ORGANISATION

    AERONAUTICAL RESEARCH LABORATORIES

    MELBOURNE. VICTORIA

    3 " MECHANICAL ENGINEERING REPORT 160

    am COMBAT PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF

    FIGHTER AIRCRAFT - A SUITE OF FORTRANIV PROGRAMS BASED ON ENERGY

    MANOEUVRABILITY THEORY.

    by

    G. W. KIPP.

    Approved for Public Release.D' c E LEC-1r7

    LA MAY 1 7 1983

    (C) COMMONW .LTH OF AUSTRALIA 1982 M

    CO3 141N MARCH192 L{

  • 114 UNITED STATES I4ATIOMA TIRTCHNICA IV TNPOA1t EVC

    It AUTWOIMSI TO1

    RW'PMOOUC AND OJ. TMI WEPMA

    II

  • DEPARTMENT OF DEFENCE SUPPORT DEFENCE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY ORGANISATION* I ~AEiRONAUTICAL RESEARCH LABORATORIES

    L i MECHANICAL ENGINEERING REPORT 160

    4 L COMBAT PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF FIGHTER AIRCRAFT - A SUITE OF FORTRAN IV

    I v .PROGRAMS BASED ON ENERGY MANOEUVRABILITY THEORY.

    by

    j G. W. KIPP.

    • 1L

    |I SUMMARY

    A suite of FORTRAN-IV computer programs is described which may be used to " 1:i• axsist in evaluating relative combat aircraft performance, using energy manoeuvrability

    theory. The programs are described in detail using flowcharts, and full operating Instruc. tions are given. A selection of outputs Illustrates the graphtical and printed capabilities of the suite.

    "© COMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA 1982

    POSTAL ADDRESS: Chief Superintend.nt, Aeronautical Research Labor, 1orls, Box 4331, P.O., Melbourne, Victoria, 3001, Australia.

  • NOTE ON UNIT SYSTEMS

  • CONTENTS

    Page No.

    NOTATION

    k LIST OF FIGURES

    LIST OF TABLES

    1. INTRODUCTION 1

    j 2. MATHE~nATCAL PRELIMINARIES 1 2.1 Eqluations of MotionI

    2.2 Energy Relationships 3

    2.3 Atmospheric Relationships 4

    1 ,3. REQUIREMENTS AND CAPABILITIES 5 4. PROGRAM "AIRCRAFT" DESCRIPTION 6

    4.1 Program Structure 6

    4.2 AIRCRAFT Program Input 9

    4.3 Unoptimised Grid Calculations 14

    4.4 Optimised Grid Calculation 18

    4.5 User-defined Subroutines 21

    4.6 Standardised Data Storage Allocation 22

    4.7 Program ANY 25

    5. PROGRAM P2 DESCRIPTION 26

    5.1 Program Structure 26

    5.2 Input Operations with Subroutine P21N 26

    5.3 Subroutine PSCON to Produce Energy Rate Contour Data 30

    :.4 Subroutine RATEI to Produce Turn Rate Plots 30

    5.5 Subroutine RATE2 to Produce MMD Data 33

    5.6 Subroutine PSDIFF to Produce Differential Energy Rate Contour Data 33

    5.7 Subroutine R2DIFF to Produce Differential MMD Data 36

    5.8 Subroutine MMP to Aid in Maximum Manoeuvre Persistence Calculation 36

    5.9 Subroutine GRID to Produce Raw Data Overview Plots 41

    .i

  • 6. PROGRAM P4 DESCRIPTION 45

    I 6.1 Program Summary 45 6.2 Classification of Contour Plots 45

    6.3 Subroutine P4MAIN 46

    6.4 Subroutine P 51

    6.5 Communication with System Routine PLOT 56

    7. PROGRAM "AIRCRAFT" USER'S GUIDE 56

    7.1 Loading and Saving of Absolute Files 56

    7.2 Program Execution 57

    7.3 Core Storage Requirements and Execution Speed 62

    S8. PROGRAM P2 USER'S GUIDE 62

    8.1 Loading and Saving of Absolute Files 62

    8.2 Program Execution 63

    8.3 Option 4A- Energy Rate Contour Data 63

    * - 8.4 Option 4B-Turn Rate Plots 64 8.5 Option 4C-Maximum Manoeuvre Diagram (MMD) 66

    8.6 Option 4D--Differential Energy Rat.: Contour Data 69

    - 8.7 Option 4E-Differential MMD 70

    8.8 Option 4F-Maximum Manoeuvre Persistence Aid 72

    8.9 Option 4Z-Overview of Data Grid 73

    9. PROGRAM P4 USER'S GUIDE 74

    9.1 Loading and Saving of Absolute Files 74

    9.2 Program Execution 75

    9.3 Energy Rate Contour Plots 75

    9.4 Differential Energy Rate Contour Plots 78 9.5 Maximum Manoeuvre Programs 79 9.6 Differential Maximum Manoeuvre Diagrams 80

    i 10. INPUT/OUTPUT EXAMPLES 81

    10.1 Introduction 81

    10.2 Fi~e Handling 81

    10.3 Energy Rate Contour Plots 81

    * 10.4 Differential Energy Rate Contour Plots 86

    10.5 Turn Rate Plots 86

    10.6 Maximum Manoeuvre Diagrams 86

    10.7 Differential Maximum Manoeuvre Diagrams 94

    10.8 Overview Plots of Data Grid 94

    t

  • 11. FUTURE PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT 100

    12. CONCLUSION 101

    V 13. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 101 REFERENCES

    APPENDICES

    1. Newton's Method Iteration for Calculating Geopotential Height

    2. "AIRCRAFT" Program Library

    3. P1 Subroutine Library

    4. PILIB Subroutine Library

    5. Sample AIRCRAFT Program Library Listing

    6. Storage Allocation of Labelled COMMON Areas

    7. P2 Program Library

    8. P24LIB Program Library

    9. P4 Program Library

    10. Routines from Libraries GRAFIC and EXTRAS

    11. System Routine Requirements

    DISTRIBUTION

    DOCUMENT CONTROL DATA

    Ii;[

    ~ T

    I '1

  • NOTATION

    Symbols Definition Unit or Value

    a Sonic speed .. .. .. .. m/s (ft/s)

    CD Drag coefficient ..

    CD.I Induced drag coefficient ..

    CD,min Minimum drag coefficient

    ACn.s Store drag coefficient .. •: i ~CL Lift coefficient . ..

    CLI Lift curve slope rad-1

    SCL MRX Maximum lift coefficient

    D Aerodynamic drag .. .. N (Ib)

    E Total energy ... J (ft lb)

    Es Specific energy, energy height, energy state m (ft) Fn Engine net thrust .. .. N (lb)

    FND Non-dimensionalizing force .N (Ib)

    g Acceleration due to gravity 9 9.80665 M/s2 (32 17405 ftls 2)

    h Geopotential altitude .. m (ft)

    ho Pressure altitude .... m (ft) Ahp Pressure altitude increment .. m (fV

    L Aerodynamic lift .. .. .. . N (lb)

    m Aircraft mass .. ... kg (slug)

    M Mach number .. ..

    if Load factor normal to aircraft in plane of sym- metry .. .. ..

    aT Number of turns at optimum conditions

    0 Co-ordinate origin ..

    P Ambient pressure .. .. .. .. Pa (lb/ft2)

    Ps Specific excess power, energy rate .. m/s (ft/s)

    r Turr radius .. .. .. .. m (ft) R Range .. .. .. .. .. km (n.m.)

    AR Range increment km (n.m.)

    Rsir Gas constant for air .. .. .. 287 053 J/kg.K (3089.78 ft

    2/Ks 2)

    S Aircraft reference area .. .. .. .. m2 (ft2)

    7l

  • i t Time . .. s At Time increment .. s

    T Temperature ,. K SFlowrate scaling factor 1/3600 lb.hrilb.s

    V Velocity .. .. m/s (ftis) H.' Aircraft weight .. N (Ib)

    1. AW Weight loss due to fuel usage N (ib) "" Fuel flowrate .... kg/s (lb/hr)

    x, y, z Co-ordinate axes .. ..

    Greek symbols Definition Unit or ralue

    Body incidence to flight path rad (deg)

    Effective angle of attack (-,, k -t) rad (deg)

    Y Flight path elevation angle .. rad (deg)

    Vair Specific heat ratio for air .. 1.4 SError function to be solved for hp m (ft) A Temperature lapse rate .. .. K/m (K/ft)

    A Wing sweep angle .. rad (deg)

    a Thrust incidence to body axes .. rad (deg)

    X Energy rate function ..

    Roll angle .. .. ... rad (deg)

    i w Turn rate .. .. ... deg/s

    Subscripts Definition

    a Ambient conditions

    av Average value between two energy states

    b Base or reference level

    B Body-axis co-ordinate

    E Earth-axis co-ordinate

    Si Iteration count

    SL Sea level conditions

    T Trimmed airciaft

    W Wind-axis co-ordinates

    1,2 Intermediate co-ordinate transformation

    Math symbols Definition

    t Differentiation with respect to time

    x' Differentiation with respect to altitude

    ln(x) Natural logarithm

  • ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS

    CAS Calibrated airspeed

    c.g. Centre of gravity

    CPU Central processing unit

    i deg Degree

    kt Knot

    MAC Mean aerodynamic chord

    MMD Maximum manoeuvre diagram

    n.m. Nautical mile

    SI Syst~me International d'Unit~s

    TAS True airspeed

    I .

  • "= 1 1, M IR

    COMPUTER VARIABLES

    Program Names

    AIRCRAFT Generic name of main programs for each aircraft

    ANY Member of AIRCRAFT family for data reprocessing

    BATCON ARL system for batch program operations

    OPTFIT B-spline curve-fitting program

    P2 Plotting and data reorganisation program

    P4 Contour plotting program PLOTQ System program for queuing plotter files

    SURFM B-spline data verification program

    System Filename Extension

    .CTL BATCON control file

    .EXE Absolute binary core image of program

    .FOR FORTRAN program file

    LOG BATCON progress file written in user's disk area

    .LST Line printer file deleted when processed

    .REL Relocatable binary file

    User Filenames

    P2 P2A P2DIFF DUM P4

    User Filename Extensions

    .OPT .CON .PLT

    User Libraries

    P1 PILIB P24LIB GRAFIC EXTRAS

    Routines in Program AIRCRAFT

    AERO BLOCK DATA THRUST TRIMCL

    Routines in Library P1

    ALTIT BININ IDENT MAXMAN MONSEP PARAMS PIIN

    PIOUT PIOUTA ROMIN SEP TABLE

    Routines in Library PILIB

    SURF

  • Routines in Program P2

    GRID INMMD PSCON PSDIFF P2IN RATEI RATE2 R2DIFF

    Routines in Program P4

    OUTXT P PLOTD P4MAIN

    Routines in Library P24LIB

    LINE PLOT

    Routines in Library GRAFIC

    CONI SMOO

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