Domestication of the dog and... From: The Ultimate Dog Book.

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    18-Dec-2015

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  • Slide 1
  • Domestication of the dog and... From: The Ultimate Dog Book
  • Slide 2
  • ... cat... cat
  • Slide 3
  • Objectives Discuss the origin and development of domestic dogs and cats Taxonomy of the dog and cat Archeological evidence Recent DNA based evidence
  • Slide 4
  • Origin of Carnivores Miacids (Miacidae family) 62 million years ago Small, tree-dwelling Plantigrade Carnassial teeth Miacids viverines (cats) miacines (dogs) miacines (dogs)
  • Slide 5
  • Traditional Taxonomy of the Dog and Cat Phylum Animalia Class Mammalia Order Carnivora Suborder Fissipedia Families Canidae Genus Canis Species Canis familiaris Families Felidae Genus Felis Species Felis catus
  • Slide 6
  • Taxonomy Systematized 0rganization of Life In a state of flux Criteria used to determine groupings: physical/skeletal similarities ability to intermate - produce fertile offspring similarity of chromosomes gene homology
  • Slide 7
  • Terminology Wild Tame Opportunist Domestic Feral
  • Slide 8
  • Major Questions on the Origin of Domestic Species Where were they domesticated When, i.e. how long ago What species were they domesticated from Did it happen separately in multiple places and at different times? Multiple species? One species, with multiple admixtures of the founding species?
  • Slide 9
  • Origin of the Cat Are first to be covered But were they the first animal to be domesticated? miacids viverines & miacines 30 mya large prehistoric cats (Smilodon) dinictis a small cat modern cat
  • Slide 10
  • Taxonomy of the Cat Phylum Animalia Class Mammalia Order Carnivora Family Felidae Genus Felis Species catus
  • Slide 11
  • Origin of the Cat Big versus Small Cats 36 species Felis small cats; 13 genera Lynx (obsolete?) Pantera large cats; 4 genera Acinonyx cheetah; 1 genus
  • Slide 12
  • Origin of the Cat Domestic cat and some relatives: Common name Chromosome number Domestic cat Tiger Cheetah Ocelot & Geoffreys Cat 38 36
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  • Origin of the Cat Fewer physical changes than many domesticated animals High homology Most cats - 19 pairs of chromosomes Striped Greater variety in eye color than dogs yellow, green, gold, & blue
  • Slide 15
  • CITES Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species http://www.cites.org regulates international trade of selected species ~5000 animal species ~25000 plant species
  • Slide 16
  • Origin of the Domestic Cat 9500 ya Cyprus 4500 BC Egypt utilitarian mouser spiritual diety
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  • Origin of the Domestic Cat African Wildcat Felis silvestris lybica Africa, slight build and stripes European Wildcat Felis silvestris silvestris Scotland to SE Russia, stocky, distinct stripes Were cats domesticated in Egypt or also possibly in the Orient as well? Very recent molecular genetic data Domestic cat Felis catus - worldwide
  • Slide 18
  • African Wildcat Ancestors of Domestic Cats European Wildcat
  • Slide 19
  • African Wildcat Ancestors of Domestic Cats European Wildcat Domestic Cat
  • Slide 20
  • History of Domestic Cats Cat goddess worshipped in ancient Egypt - Bastet - approx. 4,500 yr. ago Cat mummies found - especially in area of Bubastis in Nile Delta Domestic cats likely moved to Italy and other parts of Europe as a result of trade
  • Slide 21
  • History of Domestic Cats French astronomer Lalende put a cat constellation in the sky. (It looks like a nutria to me.)
  • Slide 22
  • Nutrias
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  • Origin of the Dog Origin of domestic dogs - fox, wolf, coyote? Criteria used to determine origin: physical/skeletal similarities ability to intermate - produce fertile offspring similarity of chromosomes gene homology
  • Slide 26
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  • Origin of the Dog Members of the Canidae family:
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  • Australian dingo
  • Slide 29
  • Origin of the Domestic Dog Recent thinking was - dog, jackel, dingo all developed from the wolf : structurally similar all of these will intermate - producing fertile offspring same chromosome number karyotyping shows complete similarity of chromosomes
  • Slide 30
  • Origin of the Domestic Dog Wolf => Dog natural genetic variability natural selection - disposition artificial selection and breeding disposition appearance function
  • Slide 31
  • Origin of the Domestic Dog Wolf Canis lupus European wolf Canis lupus lupus Alaskan timber wolf Canis lupus pambasileus Red wolf Canis (lupus?) rufus Domestic dog Canis lupus familiaris
  • Slide 32
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  • Conclusions Canis familiaris was domesticated from the wolf ~ 15,000 ya Domestication occurred in east Asia
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  • Conclusions Dingos derived from domestic dogs Came to Australia 5000 ya Possibly a one time occurrence Have been a distinct population since Are dingos domestic or feral?
  • Slide 36
  • What breed of dog is seen in this picture?
  • Slide 37
  • Answer Large Munsterlander

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