DR AMBEDKAR DISSERTATION

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THE TAMIL NADU DR.AMBEDKAR LAW UNIVERSITY CHENNAI

PATENTING ON LIVING ORGANISMS: POLICY ISSUES CONCERN AND INTRENATIONAL TRENDSdissertation submitted tothe Tamil Nadu Dr. Ambedkar Law UniversityIN THE partial fulfillment of the requirements forThe completion of the Degree ofMaster of LawinINTEELECTUAL PROPERTY LAWunder the guidance and supervision ofDr.A.RAGHUNADHA REDDY,M.L.,Ph.D.,M.B.AHoD, Dept. of International Law & Organisation, HoD i/c, Dept. of Intellectual Property Rights.Submitted by:G.SILAMBARASANREG. No: ILP1214BATCH: 2013-2014THE TAMIL NADU DR. AMBEDKAR LAW UNIVERSITYPOOMPOZHIL, #5, GREENWAYS ROAD, CHENNAI 600 028.DECLARATIONI do hereby declare that the Dissertation work titled PATENTING ON LIVING ORGANISMS: POLICY ISSUES AND CONCERN INTERNATIONAL TRENDS has been prepared by me under the eminent supervision and guidance of Dr.A.RAGHUNADHA REDDY,M.L.,Ph.D.,M.B.A HoD, Dept. of International Law & Organisation, HoD i/c, Dept. of Intellectual Property Rights. Post Graduate Department, The Tamil Nadu Dr. Ambedkar Law University, Chennai 28, and this work has not been submitted elsewhere for any other degree or diploma or fellowship or any other title to any candidate of any university.Place: ChennaiG.SILAMBARASANDate: M.L.,INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY LAW

Dr.A.RAGHUNADHA REDDY,M.L.,Ph.D.,M.B.A. HoD, Dept. of International Law & Organisation, HoD i/c, Dept. of Intellectual Property Rights.Tamil Nadu Dr. Ambedkar Law University, Chennai 28.

CERTIFICATEThis is to certify that this Dissertation entitled PATENTING ON LIVING ORGANISMS:POLICY ISSUES AND CONCERNS INTERNATIONAL TRENDS is an original work of G.SILAMBARASAN in partial fulfillment of the requirement for THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF LAW in INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY LAW during the academic year 2013 2014 under my guidance and supervision in the Post Graduate Department of Law, The Tamil Nadu Dr. Ambedkar Law University, Chennai 28. This Dissertation work has not been submitted elsewhere for any other degree.

Place:Chennai Date:

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

First and foremost I thank ALMIGHTY for blessing me with enormous strength and knowledge to complete this Dissertation work successfully.The outcome of this present Dissertation work has been possible only with the help of the support, inspiration and academic assistance from various people. I express my heartfelt thanks to my Prof. Dr.A.RAGHUNADHA REDDY,M.L.,Ph.D.,M.B.A. HoD, Dept. of International Law & Organisation, HoD i/c, Dept. of Intellectual Property Rights.The Tamilnadu Dr.Ambedkar Law University, Chennai, for his scholarly guidance and inspiration. With deep sense of gratitude, I render my hearty thanks to my Tmt. Lucky George Assistant professor, The Tamil Nadu Dr. Ambedkar Law University, Chennai, for her valuable guidance and support given to me at every stage of my Dissertation work. I am also thankful for the assistance provided by the staffs of The Tamil Nadu Dr.Ambedkar Law University Library, Connemera Public Library, Egmore and Anna Centenary Library, kotturpuram, Chennai, in completing my Dissertation work.Finally, I am grateful to my beloved parents and friends, who have always inspired me and whose affection and blessings has always been my guiding beacon.

CONTENTS

CHAPTERSCONTENTSPAGE NO

CHAPTER 1INTRODUCTION10-24

CHAPTER 2ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF RESTORATIVE JUSTICE25-51

CHAPTER 3RESTORATIVE JUSTICE IN INTERNATIONAL SPHERE52-77

CHAPTER 4VICTIMS AND RESTORATIVE JUSTICE78-99

CHAPTER 5RESTORATIVE JUSTICE: A CRITICAL ASSESSMENT100-127

CHAPTER 6CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS128-132

BIBLIOGRAPHY133

WEBLIOGRAPHY134

List of abbreviations 1. CBD - Convention on Biological Diversity 2. DNA - Deoxyribonucleic Acid 3. EC - European Community 4. ECJ - European Court of Justice 5. EPC - European Patent Convention 6. EPO- European Patent Office 7. EU - European Union 8. IPC - Intellectual Property Code 9. IPRs - Intellectual Property Rights 10. GATT - General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 11. GMO s - Genetically Modified Organisms 12. IPRs - Intellectual Property Rights 13. UK - United Kingdom 14. UNCTAD - United Nations Conference on Trade and Development 15. The UPOV - convention The International Convention for the Protection of Varieties of Plants 16. WIPO - World Intellectual Property Organisation 17. WTO - World Trade Organisation 18. EC - The council of the European community 19. EFB - The European Federation of Biotechnology 20. EST - Essential sequence tags 21. HUGO - Human genome organization 22. ICMR - Council of Medical Research 23. A - Adenine 24. Cdna - Complementary DNA

25. CSIR - Council of Scientific and Industrial Research

26. G - Guanine

27. GM - Genetically Modifed

28. GMO - Genetically Modified Organism

29. HBGF - Heparin Binding Growth Factor

30. HIF - Gamma: Human Immune Interferon Gamma

31. Hgh - Human Growth Hormone

32. hINV - Human Involucrin Gene

33. HN - Hemagglutinin-Neuraminidas

34. IFN - Interferon

35. IGF - Insuling-like Growth Factor 36. IPC - International Patent Classification

37. IPO - Indian Patent Office

38. JPO - Japanese Patent Office

39. kd - Kilo Dalton

40. mRNA - messenger RNA

41. M.W. - molecular weight

42. MPPP Manual of Patent Practice and Procedure

43. NDA - New Drug Application

44. NDV - Newcastle Disease Virus

45. NIH - National Institute of Health

46. OECD - Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development 47. ORF - Open Reading Frame

48. PCK - Polycystic Kidney

50. PCT - Patent Cooperation Treaty

51. PTO - US Patent and Trademark Office

52. PTP - Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase

53. PTP-PEST -Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases - Proline (P), Glutamic acid (E), Serine (S) and Threonine (T) 54. rDNA - Recombinant DNA 55. rEpo - gamma Erythropoietin 56. RFLP - Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism 57. RNA - Ribonucleic Acid 58. RT - Reverse Transcriptase 59. SDS-PAGE - Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis 60. SNP - Single Nucleotide Polymorphism61.STS - Sequence Tagged Sites62.T - Thymine63.T-DNA - Transferred DNA64.TI - Tumor Inducing65.TM - Trans Membrane66.TRIPs - Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights67.tRNA - Transfer RNA68.U - Uracil69.UK - United Kingdom70.US - United States71.USA - United States of America72. USC - United State Code73. USCA - United State Code Annotated74. USPQ - United States Patent Quarterly75. USPTO or PTO - United States Patent and Trademark Office76. WARF - Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation77. WIPO - World Intellectual Property Organization78. YAC - Yeast Artificial Chromosome79. PCR - Polymerase Chain Reaction80. uEPO - mew Erythropoeitin

PREFACEThis work has been carried out as a part of completion of masters degree focusing on the rights of victims in the criminal justice system. The presentation of a paper on, Victims Rights: Discarded Under Indian