DROIT ET SÉCURITÉ MARITIMES DES AUVS ET ?· DES AUVS ET GLIDERS POUR LA RECHERCHE SCIENTIFIQUE H.…

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<ul><li><p>DROIT ET SCURIT MARITIMES DES AUVS ET GLIDERS </p><p>POUR LA RECHERCHE SCIENTIFIQUE</p><p>H. Claustre 1, F. Dabe 2, E. Jarmache 3, P. Lherminier 4, L. Mortier 5, V. Rigaud 6, P. Testor 7</p><p>1 LOV, CNRS 2 GESMA, DGA3 Secrtariat Gnral de la Mer 4 LPO, IFREMER 5 ENSTA, DGA 6 DSSM, IFREMER 7 LOCEAN, CNRS</p></li><li><p>Mesures automatises aujourd'hui: le rseau de flotteurs ARGO</p><p>ARGOOrigine, organisation- Pilotage scientif., suite WOCE- Experience GODAE- Endoss UNESCO, OMM, - Participation 40 pays- Gestion distribue- Cot : 40 MEUR</p><p>Applications- Prvision climatique- Prvision mtorologique- Recherche</p><p>http://www.coriolis.eu.org</p><p>Mesures de Temprature et Salinit</p><p>Avantages- Couverture globale- Donnes 4D- QC et temps rel facile</p><p>Inconvnients- Purement lagrangien pas de contrle- Rsolution spatiale/temporelle faibleconvient pas aux chelles rgionnales</p><p>Rseaux de GLIDERS</p></li><li><p>OPERATIONNELSystmes dobservation oprationnels</p><p>rgionaux et globaux</p><p>Tldtection In-situ !!</p><p>RECHERCHEEtudes de processus haute </p><p>rsolution spatiale/temporelle</p><p>Les gliders peuvent accrotre significativement nos capacits dobservation in-situ</p><p>Les gliders sont des teenagers avec un fort potentiel :</p><p>1) possibilit de manoeuvres au sein de rseaux : - sections rptes- mouillage virtuel- rponse des vnements - chantillonnage adaptatif</p><p>2) Longue autonomieavec des piles Lithium = 3-5 mois ~ 2000-3000 km </p><p>3) Possibilit de mesurer des paramtres physiques et biogochimiques</p><p>4) Trs haute densit et rsolution des mesures</p><p>Nouvelles possibilits offertes par les gliders</p></li><li><p>Fonctionnement oprationnel</p><p>Vitesse horizontale: 20-40 km/jour</p><p>Centre de donnes Coriolis, IFREMER</p><p>Brest, France</p><p>Modles oprationnelsMFS, INGV</p><p>MERCATOR</p><p>Station de rceptionIFM-GEOMAR</p><p>LOCEAN, LPO-IfremerNOCS</p><p>IMEDEACETSSM ?</p><p>GTS,...???</p></li><li><p>Joint initiative for the development of a new observational capacity for process studies and operational monitoring of the ocean physics and biogeochemistry with gliders.</p><p> LOCEAN-IPSL/ENSTA, LOV, LPO, France IFM-GEOMAR, Germany IMEDEA, Spain NOCS, UK ...</p><p>http://www.locean-ipsl.upmc.fr/gliders</p><p>A fleet of up to 8-10 gliders will be deployed in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea during Fall 2006 - Spring 2007</p><p>General circulation andSeasonal variability</p><p>Physical (T,S) and Biogeochemical (O2, Fluorescence, Turbidity) processes</p><p>Deep convection </p><p>Across-slope exchanges</p><p>Seawifs Image on 18.04.2000 courtesy of R. Santoleri et al.</p><p>European Gliding Observatories (EGO)</p></li><li><p> Crowded area for commercial navigation</p><p> Fishing: prawn, tuna, , trawlers, </p><p> In summer: recreative uses, sport fishing </p><p>Navies: French (Toulon), Italian and NATO (La Spezia), Spanish (Gerona ?)</p><p>Toulon: Basis of nuclear submarines</p><p>French ZONEX </p><p>Why should we take care of the navigation in the Gulf of Lions ?</p><p>Example of the western Mediterranean Sea:possible interferences with other maritime activities</p></li><li><p> Main objectives Prevent loss and damage of our instruments Prevent damage or injuries to third parties</p><p> Main risks Within the 20m surface layer Fishing areas, trawling, drifting nets, ...</p><p> Specific risk due to recreative uses (sailing, jet ski, day cruiser, ) within 3 to 6 nm (20nm) strip from the coast</p><p> Specific risk in July/August</p><p>Operating gliders in term of marine security~2m and ~ 50 kg in air (+/-250g in water), short periods at surface (10mn every 4-5 hours)</p></li><li><p> Minimize surfacing No surfacing at all: Acoustic positioning and communication. </p><p>Feasibility and project by ACSA/LOV Near Real Time and/or Bufferized glider data (iridium and </p><p>freewave: higher rate but need to establish a freewave antenna network) </p><p> Navigation Lights? radio lights , AIS system or similar suitable? Feasible? Radio security announcements</p><p> Use of acoustic detection to prevent collisions Feasibility? (Hydrophone : yes ; software : no)</p><p> Toward integration within OMI regulations? Contact with Direction de la Scurit Maritime</p><p>Active behaviour to prevent collision</p></li><li><p> Official institutions International: </p><p>IOC (consults ABE-LOS and J-COMM)IMO</p><p>e.g. IOC resolution XX-6 (ARGO Project) Not suitable for glider</p><p> National: SGMDir. Sc. Mar.</p><p> Working groups for drifters, gliders, Institutional</p><p> IOC consults ABE-LOS and J-COMM IOC Meeting on Operationnal Oceanography, Libreville, 26-30 </p><p>March 2007 IMO from members states</p><p> Scientist and lawyers : e.g. Workshop during SeaTechWeek,Brest, Oct. 2006</p><p>Legal and regulation frames</p></li><li><p> French regulations</p><p> Deployment and recovery from research vessels. Authorization asked by the chief scientist or the company (INSU, GENAVIR) and given by Prfet Maritime upon Navy advice. Ultimate authority : SecrtariatGnral de la Mer</p><p> Free navigation of the gliders</p><p> Spain Coastal zone (5nm) : escort ship Open sea water : free navigation but</p><p> Information to Capitania Maritima Transfer to SASEMAR and IHM Broadcast of Coastal Navigational Warnings It works ! </p><p>Legal and regulation examples</p></li><li><p> Que veut-on ? Pas dassimilation des gliders aux gros AUV (Asterx) car contraintes trs diffrentes Cadre de type ARGO: leve la contrainte partie 13 UNCLOS, ZEE</p><p>Capteurs physiques/biogeochmiques: pb des ressources ? Accs aux moyens locaux, regionaux et nationaux et procedures de rescue Contraintes (?) juridictionnelles et de navigation</p><p>Conclusions et futur</p><p> Actions en cours Prise en charge par E. Jarmache au titre de SGM et ABELOS (+contact COI) Contacts locaux : pches, MN, loueurs (dploiement, sauvetage ! )</p><p>2? 5? nm12 nm20 nmZEE</p><p>5? 20? m</p><p> Actions entreprendre Groupes de travail techniques : dfinition de procdures, traabilit</p></li><li><p> All over the year, except WE and public holidays</p><p> Prawn (mainly spanish fishermen) On the continental slope between 400 to 800m Usually from the SW of the Gulf and more south </p><p> Palangriers (Trawl lines ?) From the canyon heads down to 300m</p><p> Trawlers Fordidden in the 3nm from coast The whole shelf mainly between 80m and 150m</p><p> Drifting nets Forbidden but Mention of the Cetacean sanctuary </p><p> Sporting fishing in summer</p><p>Fishing activity in the NW Med</p></li><li><p> Avoid main known commercial routes Difficult to access the information In theory, adequate waypoints and surfacing strategies could lower the risks</p><p> Avoid main fishing areas and period Almost impossible Maintain good contacts with fisherman through their authorities and conciliation boards </p><p>(Comits regionaux/locaux des pches, Prudhommies de pche, Cofradias de percadores) : to be done if necessary</p><p> Avoid recreative areas in Summer Coastal areas (3nm, 6nm, 20nm) Specific routes or areas (e.g. Barcelona-Palma, Nice-Corsica, Monaco, ) Provides gliders routes to harbour authorities ? </p><p> ZONEX classical Cruises Plans submitted 2 weeks before the begining to the French Navy </p><p>for aproval Specific (good) contact with CECMED concerning gliders already established See with spanish and italian authorities ?</p><p>Cautious navigation for gliders</p></li><li><p> Network of local lab contacts France, form E to W : Villefranche s/mer, Toulon, Marseille, </p><p>Perpignan, Banyuls Spain : Palma, Barcelona Italy : La Spezia</p><p> Research vessels France : INSU (Thetis, Nris, Antedon), GENAVIR (IFREMER </p><p>Fleet) Spain : IMEDEA 1, others ?</p><p> Fishermans? </p><p> CROSMED (Fr), SAR (Sp)</p><p> French or Spanish Navy?</p><p>Strategies for recovery in case of emergency</p></li><li><p>Initiative MOON</p><p> Cadre dj existant coordonn par Nadia Pinardi (INGV) et Pierre Bahurel (MERCATOR)</p><p> Labo/Institutions franaises partenaires : Ifremer, Mercator, POCT, LOV</p></li><li><p>Prog. europens SOFARGOS et MATER(1995-1997)</p><p>Maquette Mditerrane (MERCATOR)Plateforme de tests</p><p>Modle numrique, OPA 8.1, 6km, 43 niveauxFlotteurs lagrangiens </p><p>localiss acoustiquement</p><p>Acquis au LOCEAN : mesures in-situ par flotteurs et modlisation numrique</p><p>trajectoires et </p><p>tempratures dans locan profond</p><p>Branger et al. [2002]</p><p>circulation grande chelle des masses deaux : gyre algrien, jet nord-Balares</p><p>circulation des eaux intermdiaires et profondes : importance de la dynamique de mso et submso chelle</p><p>amlioration du modle : conditions initiales et reprsentation de la topographie</p></li><li><p> Damage to third party during deployment and recovery By the institution which commissions the research vessels Not clear in case of rented boats</p><p> Damage to third party during the free navigation By our institutions Something specific with gliders ?</p><p> Damage or loss of the instrument Commercial companies : e.g. 5000 EUR/y + 30 EUR/d for one </p><p>instrument. Group prices.</p><p>Insurance issues</p></li></ul>

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