Early Tibetan Documents on Phur Pa From Dunhuang

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S TERREI CHI S CHEAKADE MI E DERWI S S E NS CHAF T E NPHILOSOPHISCH-HISTORISCHEKLASSE DENKSCHRIFTEN.370.BANDCATHYCANTWELL,ROBERTMAYEREarlyTibetanDocuments onPhurpa fromDunhuangder WissenschaftenOAWCATHYCANTWELL, ROBERTMAYER EarlyTibetanDocumentsonPhurpafromDunhuangSTERREI CHI SCHEAKADEMI EDERWI S S ENS CHAF TENPHILOSOPHISCH-HISTORISCHEKLASSE DENKSCHRIFTEN,370.BANDBeitrgezurKultur-undGeistesgeschichteAsiensNr.63STERREI CHI S CHEAKADEMI EDERWI S S ENS CHAFTENPHILOSOPHISCH-HISTORISCHEKLASSE DENKSCHRIFTEN,370.BANDCATHYCANTWELL,ROBERTMAYEREarlyTibetanDocuments onPhur pa fromDunhuangder Wissenschaften Wien2008 OAWVorgelegtvon w.M.E r n s t S t e i n k e l l n e r inderSitzung vom14.Mrz2008BritishLibrary CataloguinginPublicationdata ACataloguerecord of thisbookisavailablefrom the BritishLibraryDie verwendete Papiersorteistauschlorfreigebleichtem Zellstoff hergestellt, freivonsurebildendenBestandteilen und alterungsbestndig.AlleRechteVorbehaltenISBN978-3-7001-6100-4Copyright 2008by sterreichische Akademieder Wissenschaften WienDruck:BrsedruckGes.m.b.H.,A-1230Wien Printed and bound in Austriahttp://hw.oeaw.ac.at/6100-4 http://verlag.oeaw.ac.atT a b l e o fCo n t e n t sPrefaceand acknowledgementsviiNoteon Transliteration of TibetanviiiIntroductoryChapters1 General Introduction12Why did the Phur pa tradition becomeso prominentin Tibet?153The Dunhuang Phur pa Corpus:aSurvey32 History and Doctrine4 Pelliot Tibtain 44:A.Reflectionson the Text41Pelliot Tibtain 44:B.The Text56Soteriological RitualTexts5IOL Tib J 331 .III:A Discussion of the Text and its Parallelsin the Phurpa Literature686IOL Tib J 331.Ill:The Text88Appendix toChapter 61257IOL Tib J 754Section 7:ASet of Noteson Phur pa Ritual and itsSignificance1368Pelliot Tibtain 349:the Text and Comments1478b Appendix toChapter 8162Scriptural Texts9Sectionsof IOL Tib J 438:A Dunhuang version of the Guhyasamja with commentary16610Sectionsof IOL Tib J 321:TheThabs kyi zhags pa pad maphreng181 Miscellaneous11Fragments,Cursory Treatment, Dhramsand PragmaticRites194Bibliography212Index225CDImagesof Dunhuang Manuscriptsfrom theStein Collection in LondonPr e f a c ea n d a c k n o w l e d g e m e n t sIn 2002,wefoundourselvesengaged incriticallyediting twoPhur pa tantrasfrom therNying ma 7 rgyud 'bum,a project that eventuallysawfruitioninour volumeof 2007,TheKllaya Nirvana Tantra and the Vajra WrathTantra:twotexts fromtheAncientTantraCollection,Vienna,TheAustrianAcademyofSciences Press.It becameincreasingly evident that our understanding of the originsof traditionally transmitted rNying maPhurpatantrassuchasthesewouldremainincompletewithoutathoroughparallelinvestigationof the DunhuangPhurpamaterials,which,unlikethetraditionallytransmittedones,canbeguaranteedtohave remainedunmodifiedforalmost1,000years.HenceweproposedtotheBritishArtsandHumanities ResearchCouncil(AHRC),oursponsors,thatwebeginaparallelprojecttodecipher,transcribe,and translatetheDunhuangarchaeologicallegacyconcerningPhurpa,includingboththePhurpatextsperse, and all related Phur pa materialsthat wecouldfind.We hoped that byanalysing thismaterial philologically, and also tosomedegreecomparatively,historically,and anthropologically,we mightshedsomefurther light onthemysteryoftheoriginsoftheseremarkableandinfluentialtexts.Wehopedalsotoprovidea potentiallyvaluableresourceforunderstandingtheritual,socialandhistoricalfactorsthatgavesubsequent Tibetan religion itscharacteristically tantricaspect.Weareextremelygrateful to the AHRCfor awarding us fundsthatenabledustodevote25%ofourtimeoverthethreeyearperiod2004-2007tothiswork.By pursuingthesetwolinesof researchinnear-parallel,wehavebeenabletoseeconnectionsbetweenthe Dunhuangand transmittedPhur pa traditionsthatmightotherwisehaveremained unnoticed.TheDunhuang Phurpatextsinthemselvesalsoofferthepossibilityof anintimatehistoricalinsightintothepost-Dynastic period(mid9th to11th centuries),andwehopeouranalysishasmadesomemodestcontributiontosuch significations.We regret that the time limitationsdid not permit us togo beyond theearly Phur pa sources to moregeneralearlyhistoricalsources,whichcouldhaveprovidedmorethoroughcontextualisationofour material,a task which will have toawait a further study.Acknowledgementsandthanksareduetonumerouscolleaguesandfriendsforthehelptheyofferedus overthecourseof thiswork.FirstandforemostwemustthankDrCharlesRambleandProfessorErnst Steinkellner, whose generousand unstintingsupport for so many of our enterprisesover many years has been remarkable:their kindnessisdeeplyappreciated.Special thanksmust also beoffered toall our colleaguesin theOrientalStudiesFacultyof theUniversityof Oxford whoinonewayor another havehelpedour pathin thecourseof thisresearch.Anotheractivecontributor tothe work wasDr Jean-LucAchardof theCNRSin Paris,whohelpedinproofingourinputof theParisdocumentsagainsttheoriginals,ataskwhichledto stimulatingacademicexchangeson thenatureandcontentof themanuscripts.Thanksmustalsobeoffered tonumerousothercolleagues,whosehelpfoundexpressioninthiswork:DrSamvanSchaikandMr BurkhardQuesseloftheInternationalDunhuangProjectandtheBritishLibrary;ProfessorMatthew KapsteinofParisandChicago;DrAdelaideHermann-PfandtofMarburg;ProfessorRonaldDavidson, Fairfield,Vermont;Mr.HumchenChenagtshangofNgakMangInstitute,Qinghai;ProfessorCristina Scherrer-SchaubofParis;DrGudrunMelzer,Munich;MsKerstinGrothmann,Berlin;ProfessorAlexis Sanderson,Oxford;Dr.BrandonDotsonofSOAS,London;ProfessorVesnaWallaceofUniversityof California,Santa Barbara;Mr Ralf Kramer,Hamburg;Mr IanSinclair,Hamburg;Dr JacobDalton,Yale;Dr OmaAlmogi,Hamburg;LoponP.OgyanTanzinRinpoche,Samath;DrChristianWedermeyer,Chicago; ProfessorYaelBentor,Jerusalem;Ven.ChanglingTulku,ShechenMonastery,Bodnath,Nepal;MrSimon Cook,Paris.No t e o nT r a n s l i t e r a t i o no fT i b e t a nTransliterationof Tibetaninthisworkconformstotheinternationallywidelyusedsystemoftenreferred toasWylieConventions,1although wedonot usethesinglecontributionwhich Wylieproposed,thatis,the capitalisationof thefirstletterof awordwhereappropriate.Instead,if necessaryinthecaseof namesor titles,2 wecapitalisetherootTibetanletter(orthefirstRomanletterrepresentingtherootletter),sincethis conformsmorecloselytoTibetanconceptions,andhasawell-establishedusageinWesternscholarly writings,fromNebesky-Wojkowitz1956.3 ForTibetanrepresentationsofSanskritletters,weusethe generallyacceptedappropriateRomanletterswithdiacriticalmarks.FollowingtheTibetan&Himalayan Digital LibrarysExtended WylieTransliterationScheme,4we have used thecolon torepresent theTibetan gter shad found in gter ma texts, but we use thecolon differently in transcribing theOld Tibetan manuscripts (see below).Conventions used intranscribing the Dunhuang documentsInpresentingtranscriptionsof theDunhuangmanuscripts,wehaveconformedtotheusagesestablished byTsuguhitoTakeuchiina number of publicationsonOld Tibetan documents,madeinaccordancewith the suggestionsof A.Delatteand A.Severyns(1938:Emploidessignescritiques,dispositiondeVapparat dans les editions savantes detextes grecs et latins /conseils et recommandations par J.Bidez et A.B.Drachmann, Bruxelles:Union acadmiqueintemationale).We have not needed to use Takeuchiscomplete list but have used thefollowing.From TsuguhitoTakeuchi1995Old TibetanContracts fromCentral Asia,Tokyo pp.137-138:I reversed gi gu(abc) editors note[a(/b)] ambiguous readings[abc] our conjectural restorationsof letters partly illegible or lost in the original[abc?] uncertain readings[]illegible letters,number unknown[ - ]illegible letters,number known,indicated by broken line[3] illegible letters,approximate numbers known,indicated by numeral with]abc beginningof line lost through damageabc[ end of line lost through damage***blank spacesleft bycopyist1 FollowingTurrellWylie1959.Wylieadopted initsentirety thesystemearlier used byRende Nebesky-Wojkowitz(1956:xv) and DavidSnellgrove(1957:299-300).See the discussion in DavidSnellgrove1987a:xxiv,and our own commentsinCantwell, Mayer and Fischer 2002: Noteon Transliteration:"Not Wylie"Conventions(http://ngb.csac.anthropologv.ac.uk/csac/NGB/Doc/NoteTransliteration.xml).InlinewithTibetanunderstandingandthemost commoncontemporaryscholarly usage,wemodify thesystem by using"w"rather than"v"for thesubjoined Tibetanletter,"wa" {wa zur).2 Wedo not capitalise wordsat allin representingour Tibetansourcedocuments,but dosowithintheEnglishlanguagediscussion where necessary.3 Therootletter(ming gzhi)isthemainletter of asyllableandthat underwhichwordsareorderedinTibetandictionaries,soitis the letter of thesyllable to which attention isdrawn.4 ThissystemisusefulforautomatedfontconversionsbetweenRomanandTibetanscript,usingprogramssuchasWylieWord (developedbyDavidChapmananddistributedfreeontheTHDLwebsite).Forpresentationalreasons,wehavenototherwise adopted itsconventions here,such asfor Tibetan representationsof Sanskrit letters.Noteon Transliteration ixFromTsuguhitoTakeuchi1997-1998OldTibetanManuscriptsfromEast Turkestan inThe SteinCollectionof the British Library,Tokyoand London Vol.2: DescriptiveCatalogue1998,p.xxxii.$pageinitialsign (mgo yig, siddham)afeetext deleted in theoriginal manuscript5We have alsoadded one further convention::ornamentalpunctuationmark,generallymarkingasection endingandnewopening,andvaryingin design from two large vertically arranged circles to twodots.Conventions used intranslation, also following Takeuchi 1995:138(abc)translators note[abc]translatorssupplements[...]illegibleor missing letters,number unknown[]illegibleor missing letters,number known,indicated by broken line5 TsuguhitoTakeuchi'spreferredusageisnownottoincludedeletedwordswithinthemaintext,butratherintheCritical Apparatus,markedas,"cancellavit"(thisconventionisgiveninhis1995list).However,wehavemodifiedthatlistinthiscase, sinceitseemshelpfulinthecaseof ourtextswithonlyshortdeleted passages,forthereaderimmediatelytoseeatranscription which as closely as possible resemblesthe original.INTRODUCTORYCHAPTER S1Ge n e r a lI n t r o d u c t i o nThe Dunhuang Caves and scholarly interest intheir TibetanmanuscriptsA centuryago,a number of sitesalong theold'Silk Route'werediscovered,in whichculturalobjectsand manuscriptsindifferentAsianlanguageshadbeenpreservedformanyhundredsofyears.Themost impressivefindswerethoseoftheDunhuangcaves,whichtodayhavebecomeamajorheritagetourist destination,forthosewishingtoviewanastonishinglegacyofsculpturesandrockcarvings,murals,and otherartisticandculturalartefacts,foundin theremainsof alargecomplexof Buddhistcave-temples.1 For generations,especiallyduringthefirstmillenniumCEandtheearlypartofthesecondmillennium, Dunhuanghadbeenathrivingpolitical,economicandculturalcentre,whichhadseenconsiderable interculturalexchange between thevariousethnicgroupsof theregion.Textsrecoveredincludesecularand religiousmanuscripts,manyof whichhadbeenpartof abookrepositoryorlibrarywhichhadbeenwalled offintheearlyeleventhcentury.2 Thereisclearevidenceofmulticulturalism.Notonlyaredifferent languagesrepresentedamongstthehoardofmanuscriptsfound,butthereareinstancesofonelanguage written usingthescriptof another,or textswrittenon thereverseof paperoriginally usedforadocumentin another language.For historicalscholarshipon the peoplesandcultureswhowereatsomestage partof this multi-ethniccommunity,theDunhuangdiscoverymeantthepossibilityofresearchusingprimarysource materialsof inestimablevalue.Moreover,duetothedesertenvironmentin whichthemanuscriptshad been preserved,manyshowed remarkablylittlesign of deteriorationasa resultof thecenturiesduring which they had been sealed away.In theearlytwentiethcentury,SirMarc AurelSteincollectedalargenumberof manuscriptswhichhave since been keptinLondonandDelhi;PaulPelliotgatheredacollectionwhichwasdepositedinParis,while theauthoritiesinBeijing,andotherexplorersandinterestedpartiesacquiredotherpartsof thecorpusof manuscripts,sothatitbecamedistributedthroughoutanumberof internationallocations.Themomentous discoveryexcitedgreatinterestaround theworld,althoughscholarshiphasbeenimpeded bythedistribution of thecollectionanddifficultiesof access,problemswhichareonlytodaybeginningtobeovercomedueto internationalcooperation,digitisationofimagesofthemanuscriptsandthepublicationofwebbased catalogues(see http://idp.bl.uk/).Forscholarsof Tibetanmaterials,cataloguesweremadeof theLondonSteincollectionbyLouisdela VallePoussin(onlypublishedin1962,butcompiledin1914-1918)andofthePelliotcollectionby MarcelleLalou(1939,1950,1961).PioneeringworkontheTibetanmanuscriptsincludedthemajor publicationsof Hackin(1924),Bacot,ThomasandToussaint(1940-1946),andforthetantricmaterials, BischoffsworkontheMahbala-stra(1956).Inthepastfortyyears,scholarlyworkmakinguseof DunhuangTibetansourceshaswitnessedsomethingof anexponentialgrowth,butthereisstillmuchtodo. Inthisbook,wecontributetothisfieldbyourstudywhichfocusesonaspecificgroupoftantric manuscripts,thoseconcerningthe phur parites,withaviewtoascertainingwhatkindsof connectionwe mayfind between these textsand the received Tibetan tradition that claims descent from the early period.1 See the UNESCO World Heritagelisting on the MogaoCaves:http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/440/2 It iscurrently thought that theDunhuang manuscript collectionscamefromastorehouseof theThree Realms(Sanjie)Monastery (Xinjiang Rong1999-2000"The Natureof theDunhuangLibrary Caveand theReasonsfor itsSealing",Cahiersd'Extreme-Asie Vol.11:247-275,citedinTakeuchi,forthcoming).Takeuchi(forthcoming)reportsthatinthe10th century,amonkofthis monasterynamedDaozhenmadeconsiderableadditionstohismonastery'slibrarystocks,sothataproportionof theDunhaung texts might originatefrom Daozhen's time.2 Introductory ChaptersThe rNying maTantric traditionsThe rNying ma tantric tradition hasfor manycenturiesdefined itself in termsof its unique transmission of theThreeInnerTantras of Mahayoga,AnuyogaandAtiyoga,whichitclaimsweretranslatedfromIndie languagesatthetimeofPadmasambhava;yetmodemacademicscholarship,withwhichwearehere engaged,findsscant reliableevidenceforsuch TantrasduringtheEmpire.Bycontrast,therNyingma pado notverymuchdefinetheiridentityinrelationtotheso-called'lowertantras'of Kriya,CaryaandYoga-whicharetheonlyformsof tantrasfor whichWesternscholarscanfindunambiguousevidenceinImperial Tibet.(Suchdoxographicaltermscouldbeusedinconsistently,andalsohaddifferingusagesinIndiaand Tibet:e.gMahayogadescribedadistinctdoxographiccategoryinTibet,withwhichthisstudyisoften concerned;yetinSanskritperhapsmoreoftenmeantlittlemorethanamajorYogaTantra.Nevertheless, such doxographies wereimportant to Tibetansfrom early times,so we must consider them.)Theexactcircumstancesof theemergenceof whatarenow knownastherNying ma traditionsof Tibetan Buddhismremainsoneof theleastclearlydefinedareasof Tibetanhistoryfor modernscholarship.Perhaps thenearestwegettoageneralagreementisthevagueideathatatleastsomeproportionofrNyingma canonicalscriptureanditsrelatedliteraturesmusthaveemergedbeforethestartoftheNewTranslation activitiesof the late tenth century and onwards;although there have been divergen...