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Ecology Lesson 9.4

Ecology Lesson 9.4. Lesson Objectives Outline primary and secondary succession, and define climax community. Define biogeochemical cycles. Describe the

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EcologyLesson 9.4

Lesson Objectives Outline primary and secondary succession, and define climax community. Define biogeochemical cycles. Describe the water cycle and its processes. Give an overview of the carbon cycle. Outline the steps of the nitrogen cycle. Understand the phosphorus cycle. Describe the ecological importance of the oxygen cycle.

2ECOLOGICAL SUCCESSIONProcess by which a whole community of populations changes through time; usually occurs after a disturbance that creates unoccupied areas for colonization. Succession happens in two different ways:Primary successionSecondary succession

First new colony are called the pioneer species

3Primary SuccessionOccurs in an area that has never been colonized beforeLava can flow from a volcano and harden into rockA glacier can retreat and leave behind bare rockA landslide can uncover a large area of bare rock

4Primary Succession

5Pioneer species grow first: bacteria, lichens they can live on bare rockRock is weathered and soil begins to form, other plants move in

Secondary SuccessionOccurs in formerly inhabited area that was disturbed by fire, flood, or human actionHappens more rapidly than primary succession

6Climax CommunitiesFully grown stable community with much biodiversity

Today Ecologists know that communities do not sustain climax status but are constantly going through changes

7BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLESbio- biotic componentsgeo- geological and abiotic components

8In this example Hg (mercury) moves from the atmosphere to ocean water, ocean water to ocean organism, and then back to atmosphere

NOTE: How does mercury get into fish?Mercury contamination is a worldwide problem. It can come from many sources. It occurs naturally in the environment in rocks, soils, water and air. Products containing mercury which are thrown in the garbage or washed down sinks and drains end up in landfills, incinerators, or sewage treatment facilities. Mercury from these products can leach into the ground and groundwater. Mercury may be directly released into the environment, or through combustion (burning) activities, from coal-fired power plants, where it is released in fine particles in the air that fall to the earth in rain or snow. Once released into the environment, mercury eventually ends up in water and settles into sediments. Bacteria in the water converts the inorganic mercury into methylmercury, an organic mercury compound. These bacteria are eaten by plankton and other small creatures, which in turn are eaten by small fish, then larger fish. Mercury does not easily leave the body of an organism, so the amount of mercury builds up in species as they go up the food chain in a process called bioaccumulation. Predatory fish, which sit higher up on the food chain and are long-lived, can accumulate hundreds of thousands to millions of times the concentration of mercury that originally entered the water. As people eat fish with mercury, the mercury is transferred to humans and builds up in the body. WATER CYCLE

9This is a biogeochemical cycle.with no beginning or end.Water is in three different stages Gas (where??? water vapor), Liquid (where???? water in oceans, etc), and solid (where??? Snow mountain top = ice) A change in state causes these three stages: includes evaporation, sublimation, and transpiration. Evaporation, Sublimation, and TranspirationSun drives the water cycle.

Heats oceans, lakes, and other bodies ofwater.Heated water evaporates. EvaporationHeats ice and snow.Heated ice and snow turns into water vapor. SublimationHeat causes plants to release water through their stomata (pores in leaves) Transpiration

10Condensation and Precipitation Rising air currents carry water from evaporation, sublimation, and transpiration into the atmosphere.eventually forming CLOUDS

11The tiny water droplets in clouds collide and merge to form large droplets, when heavy enough they become precipitation.Groundwater and RunoffRain falls on land and soaks into ground infiltrating and becomes groundwaterOr rain falls on land and flowsover it Runoff ends up in bodies of water

12Some groundwater close to surface soaked up and used by plants; or can flow out of ground into springs then to ponds, lakes, or the oceanGroundwater that flows deep underground may reach an aquifer and be stored there for thousands of years CARBON CYCLECarbon in rocks is dissolved by water and ends up in oceansOther carbon from burned fossil fuels or their by-products ends up in the atmosphere or biosphere

Note: fossil fuels are formed from theremains of deadorganisms

13Look at Table in your textbook to see what forms of carbon are found in the atmosphere???? Carbon dioxideIn oceans???? Carbonic acid, bicarbonate ionCarbon in the AtmosphereLiving organisms release carbon dioxide as a byproduct of cellular respiration. Carbon dioxide is given off when dead organisms and other organic materials decompose. Burning organic material, such as fossil fuels, releases carbon dioxide. When volcanoes erupt, they give off carbon dioxide that is stored in the mantle. Carbon dioxide is released when limestone is heated during the production of cement. Ocean water releases dissolved carbon dioxide into the atmosphere when water temperature rises. From methane gases released from landfills14Some of this carbon does leave the atmosphere: carbon dioxide is removed by plants during photosynthesis or chemosynthesisOr by cooling ocean water that dissolves more carbon dioxide from the airCarbon in the Ocean Water Most comes from atmospheric carbon dioxide that dissolves in ocean water thus forming carbonic acid. (in cooler water)The process is reversible in warmer water changing carbonic acid to bicarbonate ionsBicarbonate ions are also deposited into oceans from runoff

Carbonic acid H2CO3Bicarbonate ions HCO3-

15Carbon in the Biosphere organic pathwayPhotosynthetic algae and bacteria take up bicarbonate ions in the ocean use it to synthesize organic compoundsTerrestrial autotrophs remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere to synthesize organic compoundsBoth recycle it back through a process called cellular respirationDecomposers release carbon dioxide when they consume dead organismsThey rates of exchange are about equal

16Left cyanobacteria; right green algae Center = autotroph; terrestrialCarbon in Rocks and Sediments(geological pathway)Long, slow process through rock formation, subduction, and volcanismIn oceans begins as sedimentary rock; pressure of additional layers forms the rock

17Subduction = rock from ocean floor reaches cracks in the Earths crust and are pulled down to the mantlevolcanoes erupt and stored carbon is rocks is releasedNITROGEN CYCLEMost nitrogen is stored in the atmosphere (78% nitrogen gas)Nitrogen moves through abiotic and biotic components of ecosystems

18Atmospheric nitrogen goes into the soil; several different organisms in the soil fix it to be used by terrestrial organisms and eventually it passes back into the atmosphereAbsorption of NitrogenPlants and producers make nitrogen-containing organic compounds (chlorophyll, proteins, nucleic acids)Plants absorb nitrogen from the soil through their root hairs in the from of nitrate ionsNitrogen is changed in the soil through nitrogen fixation into nitrate ions

Nitrate ions NO3-

19Nitrogen Fixation Nitrogen-fixing bacteria live in soil or in the root nodules of legumes

In aquatic system, some cyanobacteria fix nitrogen

Nitrogen gas in the atmosphere can also be fixed by lightningSome nitrogen is converted into fertilizer by humans

20Legumes = peas and beansExplosives and the burning of fossil fuels also release nitrogen gas in the form of nitrous oxide N2O (a greenhouse gas); increased accumulation in the recent past has contributed to global warming and other environmental problemsAmmonification and NitrificationDecomposers break down organic remains and release nitrogen in the form of ammonium ionsAmmonificationCertain soil bacteria convert the ammonium ions into nitrites. Others convert the nitrites into nitrates that plants can absorbNitrification

Ammonium ions NH4-Nitrites NO2-Nitrates NO3

21Denitrification and the Anammox ReactionDenitrifying bacteria in soil convert some nitrates back to nitrogen gas NO2DenitrificationIn aquatic systems, bacteria in the water convert ammonium and nitrite ions to water and nitrogen gas- Anammox Reaction

22Oxygen CycleMovement of oxygen through the atmosphere, biosphere, and the lithosphere.

23Oxygen and the HydrosphereFailures in this type of movement = development of hypoxic (low oxygen) zones or dead zonesCause: excessive nutrient pollution from human activities that lead to depletion of oxygen required to sustain marine life

Deplete the oxygen required to support most marine life in bottom and near-bottom water. The main driving factor of the oxygen cycle is photosynthesis, which is responsible for the modern Earth's atmosphere and life as we know it. 24Oxygen and the Biosphere/Atmosphere Free oxygen in the biosphere (0.01%) and atmosphere (0.36%). The main source of atmospheric free oxygen is photosynthesis. Photosynthesizing organisms include the plant life of the land areas as well as the oceans. Additional source of atmospheric free oxygen comes from photolysis

Photolysis: high energy ultraviolet radiation breaks down atmospheric water and nitrous oxide into component atoms. The free H and N atoms escape into space leaving O2 in the atmosphere.

25Oxygen and the LithosphereLargest reservoir of Earth's oxygen is within the silicate and oxide minerals of the crust and mantle (99.5%).

The lithosphere also consumes free oxygen via chemical weathering and surface reactions. An example of surface weathering chemistry is formation of rust. Oxygen is also cycled between the biosphere and lithosphere. Marine organisms in the biosphere create calcium carbonate shell material (CaCO3) that is rich in oxygen. When the organism dies its shell is deposited on the shallow sea floor and buried over time to create the limestone sedimentary rock of the lithosphere. Weathering processes initiated by organisms can also free oxygen from the lithosphere. Plants and animals extract nutrient minerals from rocks and release oxygen in the process. The presence of atmospheric oxygen has led to the formation of ozone (O3) and the ozone layer within the stratosphere. The ozone layer is extremely important to modern life as it absorbs harmful ultraviolet radiation.

26Lesson SummaryEcological succession is the constant replacement of one community by another.Primary succession occurs in an area that has never before been colonized by plants and animals, while secondary succession occurs in an established area that was disturbed.Secondary succession is the type of succession that happens after something destroys the habitat, such as a flood or other natural disaster.Climax communities is the end result of ecological succession.Chemical elements and water are recycled through biogeochemical cycles. The cycles include both biotic and abiotic parts of ecosystems.The water cycle takes place on, above, and below Earths surface. In the cycle, water occurs as water vapor, liquid water, and ice. Many processes are involved as water changes state in the cycle. The atmosphere is an exchange pool for water. Ice masses, aquifers, and the deep ocean are water reservoirs.In the carbon cycle, carbon passes among sedimentary rocks, fossil fuel deposits, the ocean, the atmosphere, and living things. Carbon cycles quickly between organisms and the atmosphere. It cycles far more slowly through geological processes.The nitrogen cycle moves nitrogen back and forth between the atmosphere and organisms. Bacteria change nitrogen gas from the atmosphere to nitrogen compounds that plants can absorb. Other bacteria change nitrogen compounds back to nitrogen gas, which re-enters the atmosphere.

Lesson SummaryThe phosphorous cycle moves from inorganic sources such as rock and soil to water to terrestrial and aquatic organisms. Unlike the other biogeochemical cycles, phosphorous does not exist in the atmosphere as a gas.In the oxygen cycle, oxygen is recycled between the atmosphere, biosphere, and lithosphere. While 99.5% of oxygen is tied up in silicate and oxide minerals and unavailable to organisms, the primary source of oxygen in the atmosphere is photosynthesis. Respiration and decomposition in organisms removes oxygen from the atmosphere.