EdExcel GCSE Music

  • View
    231

  • Download
    4

Embed Size (px)

Text of EdExcel GCSE Music

  • EdExcelGCSEMusic

    RevisionBookletofallSetworks

    AOS1WesternClassicalMusicAOS2Musicinthe20thCenturyAOS3PopularMusicinContext

    AOS4WorldMusic

  • WhatDoINeedToKnow?

    Foreachsetwork,youneedtoknowthe:

    o Composero NameofPieceo Tempoo TimeSignature/Rhythmo Instruments/Timbreo Structureo Melodyo Tonalityo Harmonyo Dynamicso TypeofPieceo Textureo Dateitwascomposedo Electronicdeviceso Electronicprocesses

    Youalsoneedtobeableto:

    o Giveopinionsastowhyyoulike/dislikeeachpieceo Knowboththecenturyanddateofwhenthepiecewascomposedo Providereasonsastowhyeachsetworkreflectsthestyleitwaswrittenine.g.

    Romantico Giveexamplesofothercomposersofthatstylee.g.BachisBaroqueo Statefeaturesofthestyleofmusico Knowwhatsectionofthemusicisbeingplayedintheextracte.g.Mozartthey

    couldplayeitherthe1stor2ndsubject(somakesureyouknowthedifference)o Writebasicnotationsforsomepartsoftheextracts.Thiscouldbeforany

    extract,youneedtobeabletoheartheshapeofthemelodyforeachpieceofmusic

    o Workouttherhythmbeingplayedbyacertaininstrumentinanextract

    Wordsunderlinedarethekeyareasofeachpiecee.g.tonality,texture

    EachAOScanbeseenthroughthevaryingcolours:Red=AOS1 Orange=AOS2 Blue=AOS3 Green=AOS4

  • Glossary SATBthefourvoicesusedinachoir(soprano,alto,tenor,bass)OratorioareligiouspiecelikeanoperabutnotactedonstageImitationwhereonepartcopiesanotherPlagalCadenceasectionwhichendswiththechords4and1(subdominanttotonic)BassoContinuothecelloandorganinbaroquetimesHemiolagivingthemusicafeelofhaving2beatsratherthan3SequenceapatternmovingupordownOstinatoaconstantlyrepeatedpatternHomophonicatunewithanaccompanimentImitativewhenthemelodiescopyoneanotherSymphonyapieceforanorchestrain4movementsRubatoplayingaboutwiththespeedofapiece,eitherslowingitdownorspeedingupCantablethemelodyisplayedsothatissingsoutonthepianoandusesasmoothsoundSustuentoslowandsustainedSyncopationputtingtheemphasisonusuallyweakbeatsinapieceofmusicAcciaccaturaacrushednoteEnharmonicChangethesamenotewithadifferentnamee.g.AbtoG#SmorzandodyingawayPianissimoveryquietPeddleNotearepeatednoteSehrRaschveryfastKlangfarbenmelodiethetuneispassedaroundtheorchestra,betweeninstrumentsHexachordsachordwith6notesAtonalnokeyFragmentedbrokenupHauptstimmeprinciplemelodyMetamorphosisabasicchangeinformResultantmelodyamelodymadeupfromnotesbeingplayedindifferentinstrumentpartsMetricalDisplacementplayingthesamethingbutatadifferenttime,soundsoutofsyncPolymetreacombinationofdifferenttimesignaturesTritoneanintervalofasharpened4thSyllabiconemelodynotepersyllableOctavedisplacementmovingnotesfromthemelodyintodifferentoctavesTremoloveryquicknotes,givesashakingeffectHarmonicsveryhighnotesPizzicatopluckedstringsStridentbig,bold,confidentFrontlineInstrumentstheinstrumentsthatplaythemelodylinesRhythmicSectiontheinstrumentsthatplaythebackgroundbassandbeatsHeadthemelody,andinALLBLUESisfollowedbyariffRiffarepeatedpatternBackbeatsaccentingthebeatswhicharenotusuallyaccentedinMOBY2&4Subbassaverylowbass(thumpingrumble)

  • BreakdownonebarofsilencePanningspreadingthesoundintoanewstereoorspeakerEchoasoundrepeatedafterithasbeenheardEQchangesthefrequencyofasoundReverbamplifyingasound,makingitsoundlikeitwasrecordedinanechoeyspaceCrossrhythmstwodifferentrhythmsbeingplayedatthesametime,therhythmsusuallyhavedifferenttimesignaturesFlangingsweepingeffectproducedthroughslightdelaytocopiedsoundDistortionmakingthesoundrougherandharsherWordPaintingwhenthewordmirrorsthemusicaleffectbeingputonthemusicFalsettonoteshigherthanthenormalmalerangeSequencewhenamelodyisrepeatedatonehigherthanitwaspreviouslyTalaarhythmicpatterninIndianmusicRagathescaleormodeusedinanIndianragAlapthefirstsectionofaragawherethereisnofixedbeat,itisalsoimprovisedDronetherepeatednotesplayedonthetamburaorshrutiboxRasathemoodofthenotesintheragaMeendslidingbetweennotes(whensinging)GattheprecomposedinstrumentalsectionTanwhenfastscalicpatternsareusedPolyrhythmicdifferentrhythmsplayedtogetherHeterophonicatypeoftexturewhereamorecomplicatedpartisaddedontopofanotheroneUnisonsigningorplayingtogetherCall&ResponsewhenaleaderplaysandtherestofthegrouprepeatsPentatonicScalescaleusing5notesVocablesnonsensesyllablesStrophicnamefoeastructureof2versesand2insertsDiatonicusingnotesinthekey

  • HandelAndtheGloryoftheLord

    1. Thetempo(speed)isallegro2. ThekeyinAmajor(soundshappy)3. Thetimesignatureis,thereare3crotchetbeatsineverybar4. TheBassoContinuo(instrumentsorganandcello)playsthebacking

    tothemelody5. ThechoirisaSATBchoir:

    AltosenterfirstwithAndtheglory,thegloryoftheLordfollowedbyTenorsandBasss

    Whenshallberevealedisfirstsung,thetextureispolyphonic Atpointsallpartssinginharmony(thesamelinebutonadifferent

    note,eitherhigherorlower) ThefirsttimethelineAndallfleshshallseeittogetherissung,it

    issungincanonwiththedifferentvoicessingingitaftertheotherone

    Revealedismelismatic6. Themelodyisoftendoubledbythe1stand2ndViolins

    OtherKeyFactsAhemiolarhythmisusedtogivethepieceapushedfeelThereisaconstantuseofsequenceandostinatointhemelodyAspectsoftheharmonythroughoutinclude:

    Constantpeddlenotes Theorchestra(Violins,Viola,Cello,Organ)doublethechoirparts Thefinalcadenceisplagal(plagalcadenceandslowtempoattheendmaketheendingtothe

    wordshathspokenitgrandandstately)Thetextureinthepiecestartsoffashomophonicandthenchangestoimitative(itisnevermonophonicasthetuneplayedbytheorchestraisalwaysslightlydifferenttothatsungbythevoices)Therearenodynamicswrittenbutwhenthetexturebuildsup,thepiecenaturalgetslouderMajorkeyandupbeattempomakethepiecelivelyWhenthechoirsingsForthelordhathspokeninapeddlenoteisused

    TypicalFeaturesofBaroqueMusic Repetitivepatterns Imitationiscommon Textureisusuallypolyphonic TheuseofBassoContinuoOtherBaroqueComposers Vivaldi Bach Telemann

    Writtenin1742 Isachorusfromandoratorio

    WrittenduringtheBaroqueperiod PartofalargescaleworkTheMessiah

    2

    1

    3

    4

    5

    6

    *Mainlystringsused(1stand2ndViolins,Viola,Cello).Theonlynonstringedinstrumentistheorgan(partofthebassocontinuo)*

  • Mozart1stMovementfromSymphonyNo.40inGMinor

    BasicFactsaboutthePieceTempoiswrittenonthescoreasmoltoallegro(veryfast)Thetimesignatureis4/4(4crotchetbeatsinabar)Hehasaspecificchoiceofinstruments:

    FairlysmallClassicalOrchestra 2horns,stringsandwoodwind Notrumpetsordrums

    Thetextureismainlyhomophonicandimitationisused

    1stSubjectTheinstrumentsthatstartthepiecearethestrings,theviolin1splaythemelodyabove.ThewoodwindarethenintroducedThekeyofthesubjectisGMinor(Mozartssadkey)AttheendofthefirstsubjectthereisabridgewheretheharmonyusesrisingscalesandpedalnotesInthemelodybalancedphrasingisusedDynamicsinthe1stsubjectstartoffquietly,havesuddencontrastsanduselotsofcrescendoanddecrescendosThefirsttwonotesinthe1stsubjectusetheintervalofasemitone2ndSubjectThekeyofthe2ndsubjectisinBbMajorTheinstrumentsusedinthissubjectarethestringsandwoodwindThemelodyinthe2ndsubjectusessomechromaticnotes,balancedphrasingisalsousedasitwasinthe1stsubjectAttheendofthesubjecttheviolins,bassoonsandflutesplayadescendingstaccatoscale

    Writtenin1788 Isthe1stmovementfromansymphony WrittenduringtheClassicalperiod

    Writtenfortheorchestra

    TypicalFeaturesofClassicalMusic Melodiesthatareeastto

    remember Gradualchangeofdynamics

    (crescendoanddiminuendo) Moresyncopationusedinthe

    classicalperiodOtherClassicalComposers Beethoven

    Exposition

    Themesareheardforthefirsttime(1stand2ndSubjects).Hastwocontrastingthemes,itendsinadifferentkeytotheoneitstartedin.

    Development

    Themesgothroughanumberoftwistsandturns.Keepsthepieceinteresting.

    Recapitulation

    Themesarerecapped/playedagain.Pullsthepiecetogetheragain,bitsfromtheexpositionareusedagainbutchangedabit.

    SonataFormWasatypicalstructureusedintheclassicalperiodandconsistedof: Exposition Development Recapitulation

  • ChopinRaindropPrelude

    BasicFactsaboutthePieceThetimesignatureis4/4(4crotchetbeatsperbar)ThetempoissostenutoandrubatoisusedTheonlyinstrumentusedisthepiano(asitisapianoprelude)Inthispiece,thestructureisternary(ABA)form,withacodaandabasicABAstructurewithinsectionAThetextureissimilarthroughoutandismainlyhomophonic

    Thesymbol isusethroughoutandshowsthemusicianthattheyneedtoholddowntherightpeddle(sustainingpeddle)

    SectionA SectionB SectionAandCodetta ThekeyisDbMajor Themelodyisintheright

    hand ThetextureisMelody

    DominatedHomophony First3notesarefalling

    (cantabiletone)inabrokenchord

    Theharmonyusesaconstantpeddlenoteonthedominant(Ab)

    Acciaccaturaisalsousedtohelpwiththeharmony

    Asecondthemeisintroducedaddingvariety

    Chromaticnotesareusedtomaketheharmonymoreinteresting

    BytheendofsectionAtheAbiswrittenasG#knownasanenharmonicchangeusedtohelpleadintosectionB(tonality)

    ThekeygoestoC#MinorinanEnharmonicChange

    Thedynamicswrittenonthescorecontainlotsofcrescendos

    Thedynamicsbuildupwithsuddenchangesinmod

    Themelodyisplayedinthelefthand

    Theharmonyinthissectionusesaninverteddominantpeddleasthepeddlenoteisintherighthand

    Thereisanobviouschangeinmood

    Thelowerregionoftheinstrument(piano)isused

    Thetextureinchordal TheG#isusedasthepivotto

    takethepiecebacktoDbMajorinthelastsection

    SectionAisrepeatedbutismuchshorter

    TheykeyreturnstoDbMajor

    Themelodyhereusessmorzando

    Thetempoisslowandrubatoisused

    Thereisarittattheendofthepiece

    Thetextureisbothmonophonicandhomophonic

    Thecodettais8barslong(structure)

    Thepeddlenotedropsoutfor3barsandthenstartsupagain(harmony)

    Thedynamicsattheendarepianissimo

    Thepieceendsonaperfectcadence(51)

    Writtenin1839 Isapianoprelude

    WrittenduringtheRomanticperiod Writtenforthepiano

    TypicalFeaturesofRomanticMusic UseofRubato Frequentchangesoftempoand

    timesignatures Bigrangeofdynamics Songlikemelody U