Energy in a CellATP: Energy in a MoleculePhotosynthesis: Trapping EnergyCellular Respiration: Getting Energy to Make ATP
ATP: Energy in a MoleculeCell energyOrganisms and their cells need an endless supply of energy in order to functionEnergy to walk, talk, bend, exerciseCells get energy from the food you eatOrganisms break down food into small nutrient molecules that can enter your bloodstreamCells then break down the food moleculesCells use some of the ATP from the food molecules, then store the rest
ATP: Energy in a MoleculeATPATP is known as the cells moneyCells must have plenty of ATP money to spend whenever the cell needs to workWithout a constant supply of ATP, the cell will dieCells use to ATP for many thingsmake ribosomeshelp with cell divisionfor active transportMaintain homeostasis
The ATP molecule
ATP: Energy in a MoleculeForming and breaking down ATPCells store energy by adding a phosphate group to a ADPADP + P ATP (energy)Adenosine diphosphate adenosine triphosphate When cells use energy, the process works in reverseATP ADP + P (energy is released)The process is then ready to start all over again
Redox ReactionsMost of the important energy changes in organisms involve chemical reactions known as oxidation reduction reactions.
Photosynthesis & cellular respiration are oxidation reduction reactions.
OxidationInvolves the :
Releases EnergyCombining with OxygenLoss of ElectronsLoss of Hydrogen
Absorption of EnergySeparation from OxygenGain of ElectronsGain of Hydrogen
LEO the Lion goes GER
Loss of Electrons is Oxidation
Gain of Electrons is Reduction
Photosynthesis: Trapping EnergyAutotrophs/the producers of the planetAutotrophs are organisms that can make their own food (plants)Autotrophs make their own food through the process of photosynthesisThey make simple sugars that other organisms can break down into ATPAutotrophs trap energy from sunlight and use the energy to build carbohydrates (sugars)
Photosynthesis: Trapping EnergyThe green pigment chlorophyll absorbs sunlightFound in the chloroplastsPlants also have other colored pigments that help trap sunlightThese pigments give plants their bright colors
PhotosynthesisThe process by which plants use light energy to make food molecules from CO2 & H2O
Larry the SunLightH+O2-H2OATPLight Reactionchlorophyll zapped within chloroplast
Calvin the MoonCO2 ATP (from light reaction)(Dark Reaction) Calvin Cycleglucose or C6H12O6 or sugarH+
Photosynthesis: Trapping EnergyPhotosynthesis: the basic steps1st step chloroplasts trap sunlight2nd step light energy is converted to chemical energy (sugar) and then storedWater and carbon dioxide are also required for this stepThe general equation for photosynthesis is:6CO2 + 6H2O + light energy C6H12O6 + 6O2carbon dioxide plus water plus light produces sugar and oxygen (in the presence of chlorophyll)
Photosynthesis: Trapping EnergyPhotosynthesisThere are 2 main groups of reactions that take place during photosynthesisLight reactionsCalvin cycle (formerly called the dark reaction)Light reactions occur when light energy is converted to chemical energyThis is the photo part of photosynthesis These reactions split water molecules and provide the energy for the Calvin cycle
Photosynthesis: Trapping EnergyPhotosynthesisThe Calvin cycleThe series of reactions that form simple sugars using carbon dioxide and hydrogen (from water)The Calvin cycle is the synthesis part of photosynthesis
Photosynthesis: Trapping EnergyThe Light ReactionsLight strikes chlorophyll Electrons gain energy and jump out of chlorophyllThe electrons move down the electron transport chainThe electrons give off energy, which is used to make ATPElectrons from water move to the chlorophyll, to replace the lost electrons
Photosynthesis: Trapping EnergyThe Light ReactionsWater breaks up into hydrogen and oxygenLight causes the electrons to gain energy and leave the chlorophyll againElectrons and hydrogen are added to NADP+, which produces NADPH + H+The ATP made in the light reactions will be used in the 2nd stage of photosynthesis the Calvin cycle
Electron transport chain
Photosynthesis: Trapping EnergyThe Calvin CycleThis is a complex chemical reaction that uses ATP to make simple sugarsA 5 carbon sugar is formedIt breaks into two 3 carbon sugarsThe two 3 carbon sugars go through some chemical reactions and finally make a 5 carbon sugarThe process starts again when a carbon from CO2 is used to turn the 5 carbon sugar into a 6 carbon sugarThis is called carbon fixation
The Calvin Cycle
Photosynthesis: Trapping Energy/LocationsOverview :Light reaction and Calvin cycleLight reactions take place in the thylakoidsThe Calvin cycle takes place in the stromaThe light reactions make the ATP that is used to make sugar (food) during the Calvin cycleAnimals then eat the sugars to get energy they need to survive & thrive
Now.Add the Photosystems (PSII) Light is absorbed by ?? or other pigments in photosystem II. This E from ?? is then transferred to electrons which are then passed down the ??. Separately enzymes break apart ?? Into electrons & of ?? Ions & ??.
(ETC) Electrons from ?? move though the ETC to photosystem I. E from this process are used to transport ?? ions from the stroma into the inner ??.
(PSI) As in PSI, pigments add E from light to the electrons. The high E electrons are then picked up by NADP+ to form ??.
And thend) (H ion movement) The inside of the ?? fills with H + ions, giving the membrane an overall charge. The difference in charges provides the E to make ATP.
e) (ATP formation) A protein called ??? allows the H ions to pass through & it rotates (like a turbine with water running over it at a hydroelectric power plant). As this happens the protein binds ADP & PO4 to produce ???.
Photosynthesis: Trapping EnergyLife without lightSome organisms are able to energy without sunlightMainly bacteriaThey are chemosynthetic they are autotrophs that can use different chemicals to produce methaneThese types of bacteria live near deep cracks in the ocean floor
Chemosynthetic vent worms