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Energy mission to American Samoa, Tonga and Samoa, 19-30 May 200319-30 May 2003
Community Lifelines Programme
South Pacific Applied Geoscience Commission Mead Road, Nabua, Suva, Fiji Islands; Tel: (679) 3381377; Fax: (679) 3370040
4 6
ANNEXES Annex 1 List of Participants at the Regional Biomass Resource Assessment
Workshop in Samoa Annex 2 List of Participants at the Regional Biomass Resource Assessment
Workshop in Tonga Annex 3 Demand Side Management Project 2003 – Briefing Paper to the Energy
Planning Unit in Tonga Annex 4 ASPA Activities Annex 5 Wind Energy Data Report – Territorial Energy Office, American Samoa Annex 6 Landslide Pictures – Pagopago, American Samoa
[SOPAC Trip Report 319 – Mario]
INTRODUCTION The energy missions were programmed specifically to assist in the delivery of the Regional Biomass Resource Assessment Workshops in Samoa and Tonga. In addition to the workshop, discussions on the Training Needs Assessment on Renewable Energy, the Demand Side Management Project and other general ongoing energy activities with the countries were also held. OBJECTIVES The missions were carried out with the following primary objectives: American Samoa1 • Meet and discuss energy activities with the American Samoa Power Authority (ASPA) and
the Territorial Energy Office (TEO); • Identify areas of possible assistance by SOPAC; and • Provide ASPA a brief on SOPAC Community Lifelines Energy Sector programme. Samoa • Assist in conducting the Regional Biomass Assessment Workshop; • Discuss Electric Power Corporation’s (EPC) support of the Regional Demand Side
Management Project; and • Discuss the SOPAC UNESCAP Training Needs Assessment on Renewable Energy, the
Pacific Islands Renewable Energy Project (PIREP) and the current status of the Samoa Energy Policy.
Tonga • Assist in conducting the Regional Biomass Assessment Workshop; and • Discuss the SOPAC UNESCAP Training Needs Assessment on Renewable Energy. LIST OF PEOPLE MET DURING THE MISSION American Samoa • Abe Malae, Chief Executive Officer and American Samoa Representative to the SOPAC
Council, American Samoa Power Authority (ASPA); • Fonoti Perelini, Chief Operations Officer, ASPA; • Joachim Fong, Electrical Engineer, ASPA; and • Jeff Shively, Assistant Director for Technical Services, Territorial Energy Office. Samoa • Sili`a Kelepoa-Ualesi, Energy Coordinator, Treasury Department; • Joseph Walter, General Manager, Electric Power Corporation; • Solomone Fifita, Chief Technical Adviser, Pacific Islands Renewable Energy Project, South
Pacific Regional Environmental Programme; • Thomas Jensen, Renewable Energy Adviser, United Nations Development Programme –
United Nations Education, Science and Cultural Organisation; and • Participants at the Regional Biomass Resource Assessment Training Workshop
(participants list is attached as Annex 1)
1 American Samoa joined SOPAC as an Associate Member at the 31st Annual Session in 2002. This is the first Energy Mission to American Samoa.
[SOPAC Trip Report 319 – Mario]
Tonga • Tevita Malolo, Secretary, Ministry of Lands, Survey and Natural Resources and the Tonga
Representative to the SOPAC Council; • Tevita Tukunga, Energy Planner, Energy Planning Unit; and • Participants at the Regional Biomass Resource Assessment Training Workshop
(participants list is attached as Annex 2). EXECUTIVE SUMMARY In addition to the Biomass Resource Assessment Workshops, meetings during the missions to Samoa and Tonga were project specific. Discussions with ASPA were basically to have an overview of energy activities in American Samoa. GENERAL
Regional Biomass Resource Assessment - RT 1999.007 The training workshops were carried out in Samoa and Tonga by the Consultants Dr Sarah Hemstock and Dr Kassiap Deepchand, respectively. The workshops covered the following topics. • A general introduction to biomass energy – impact &
issues, climate change, sources, role in development, global perspectives.
• Biomass fuel production chains. • Resources – energy crops, residues & wastes –
Country breakdowns • Methodologies for measuring biomass resources • Project implementation • Policy Environment • Case Studies – coconut oil, forestry residues, waste
treatment & management, and sugar cane. The workshop participants were from the Department of Environment, Forestry, Non-Governmental Organisations, Energy, Statistics Department and Power Utility. SOPAC provided an equivalent of F$500.00 to each participating country to assist in meeting the national costs for organising the workshops.
SOPAC to forward information on bio-fuel and biogas to the Energy Planning Unit, Tonga and the Energy Office in Samoa – Done
[SOPAC Trip Report 319 – Mario]
Demand Side Management Project – RT 1999.054 Discussions on the DSM Project were held with Joseph Walter, General Manager, EPC Samoa and Sili’a Kelepoa- Ualesi, Energy Coordinator. EPC has agreed to participate in the project and will forward the required information to SOPAC. The Energy Planning Unit, Tonga was also provided a brief on the DSM Project – attached as Annex 3.
EPC to forward the filled-in questionnaire to SOPAC by the end of June 2003. SOPAC has sent a reminder by email on 18 June.
Renewable Energy Training Needs Assessment – RT 2003.004 The questionnaire on the training needs assessment (TNA) was discussed with the respective Energy Officers and relevant participants in the Biomass Resource Assessment workshop. The Energy Officers will ensure that the questionnaires are widely distributed to the relevant stakeholders and completed questionnaires are returned to SOPAC by 31 July 2003 Completed questionnaires were received from the Tonga Energy Planning Unit.
Energy Officers will ensure that the questionnaires are completed and then returned to SOPAC. SOPAC to follow up on progress made by the end of June.
Samoa Energy Policy – WS2001.005 (Current Status) Comments from various stakeholders have been incorporated and submitted to the two deputy Secretaries in the Treasury Department. Following comments from the Secretaries the policy will be tabled in a public forum. The Energy Office will request SOPAC’s assistance in facilitating the public forum.
The Energy Office to send a request through the SOPAC representative.
[SOPAC Trip Report 319 – Mario]
American Samoa Power Authority (ASPA) and the Territorial Energy Office (TEO) The discussions were centred on the current/planned activities by ASPA. In addition to generating electricity ASPA is engaged with water supply, aluminium can and glass recycling, and waste disposal. Specific activities carried out by ASPA are as follows: • Supply side efficiency. • In-house electric usage monitoring. • Electric and water meter calibration. • Promotion of energy efficiency and conservation practices
(demonstration at the Fish Cannaries). • Waste management. • Wind monitoring (Aoloau/Mt. Olotele, Mt. Alava, Ofu and
Tau sites), also in Ebeye and Kajur in the Marshall Islands. • Plan to reduce water losses (unaccounted) to 15% –
current loss is 20% compare to about 50% in other Pacific Islands, 6% in Singapore and 12% in Honolulu.
• Monitoring of water pump efficiencies. • Water system design (booster stations, using the concept
of small pump and large pipe). • Power plant station service usage (reduce). • Electric load and voltage study. • Energy audits for consumers (Star Kist Fish Cannery). • Study to reduce line losses (currently at 7.5%). • Electric distribution feeder design (large cables shorter
feeders). • Transformer sizing to match loads (monthly monitoring). • Feasibility study for a 50kW (potential = 300,000 kWh/yr)
hydro project at Matafao/Fagatogo. • Promoting the use of solar water heaters (demonstration at
the Rainmaker and Trade Winds Hotel and homes). • Awareness programmes on efficient electric appliances. • Recycling solid wastes. • Promoting the use of efficient lighting. • Air conditioning design, sizing and maintenance • Fuel efficiency for ASPA’s vehicle fleet – monitoring • Electric cars – demonstration. • Negotiation on fuel supply prices and quality. • Identifying of training needs (DSM). • Benchmarking in electricity and water supply. • Waste oil collection and disposal. • Study on the use of waste heat from power plant for
cooling purposes using the technology on absorption air conditioning.
A pictorial illustration of selected ASPA activities is attached as Annex 4. Also attached, as Annex 5 is a report on a wind- monitoring programme carried out by TEO.
SOPAC to collate the following information and forward to ASPA. hybrid systems (wind,
solar & diesel) – examples in the region
WAsP – Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Programme
ASPA expressed an interest in participating in the Regional DSM Project. SOPAC to confirm ASPA’s participation in the project. Done – letter sent on 24 June.
[SOPAC Trip Report 319 – Mario]
Pacific Islands Renewable Energy Project (PIREP) The discussion with Solomone Fifita, Chief Technical Adviser, PIREP, was on the status of the PIREP. Currently, an expression of interest on the consultancies has been sent out to countries, regional organisations and other interested parties.
Rainwater Harvest Project – Stakeholders Meeting at the Tonga Community Trust Whilst in Tonga the opportunity was also taken to participate in this stakeholders meeting with Luke Mosley and Alena Lawedrau of the SOPAC Water Resources sector. Details of the meeting are provided in SOPAC Trip Report 321. Participants in the meeting include representatives from the Tonga Water Board, Ministry of Survey, Lands and Natural Resources, Tonga Community Trust and a women’s group known as “Langafonua `o e Fafine”.
Landslide in Pagopago, American Samoa Pictures of the landslide, which killed 4 people, were taken and provided to the SOPAC Community Risks Programme – appended as Annex 6.
Harman Porter EPC [email protected] Ph: 22 710 Fax: 23 430
Muaausa Joseph Walter EPC [email protected] Ph: 22 261 Fax: 23 430
Jordan Toomalatai METI [email protected] Ph: 22 328 Fax: 21 896
Nimarota Faasoa Ieti METI [email protected] Ph: 22 328 Fax: 21 896
Tepa Suaesi OLSS [email protected] Ph: 23 358/23 092 ext 30 Fax: 25 856
Emmanuel Amosa Ah Leong MAFFM CROPS RESEARCH
[email protected] Ph: 20 605 Fax:20 607
[email protected] Ph: 22 729 Fax: 22 729
Tiresa Matuu WOMEN COMMITTEE Ph: 20 480 Fax:
Elwyn Ale Ministry of Works, Transport & infrastructure
Ph: 23 700 ext 28
Donna Sila
Sepelini Poufa
[email protected] Ph: 21 611 Fax 25 850
Roina F. Vavatau
Vavaemuitiiti Samasoni
[email protected] Ph: 22 421 Fax: 22 539
Litara Taulealo
Ministry of Finance [email protected] Ph: 34 347 Fax: 21 312
Sili’a Kilepoa Ualesi
Ministry of Finance [email protected] Ph: 34 341 Fax: 21 312
[SOPAC Trip Report 319 – Mario]
Country: Tonga
Ministry of Lands, Survey and Natural Resources
Tel: 26364/23611 [email protected]
Tel: 23900 [email protected]
[SOPAC Trip Report 319 – Mario]
ANNEX 3 DEMAND SIDE MANAGEMENT PROJECT 2003 Briefing Paper to the Energy Planning Unit, Tonga
Introduction and Background A regional Demand Side Management (DSM) Programme was funded under the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) from 1993-1996. This programme was coordinated and administered under the Core Regional Energy Programme then based at the South Pacific Forum Secretariat (ForSEC)2. In January 1998 in accord with the desire and direction of the Forum Leaders, the Regional Energy Programme was physically relocated to the South Pacific Applied Geoscience Commission (SOPAC). The Regional Energy Programme continues to be delivered to the region from the Community Lifelines Programme of SOPAC. The UNDP DSM Programme was aimed at increasing the awareness of demand side management among the electric power utilities in the Pacific region and a total of ten (10) Pacific Island electric power utilities3 participated in the programme. Although under the current climate where the smaller Pacific island states produce only a tiny fraction of the global greenhouse gas emissions (~ 0.03%) they are among the most vulnerable to the effects of climate change. Hence, there is a need in a number of countries to adapt to climate change and also where possible transform their energy systems to renewable and non-fossil fuel sources. In addition to adaptation and transformation processes there have been significant opportunities identified in the area of mitigation, supply side or demand side management (energy efficiency). Reduction in the demand for electricity and use of fossil fuels for the generation of electricity in conjunction with the adoption of renewable energy technologies where financially and economically feasible will assist in meeting these targets. It is unfortunate that a number of the smaller Pacific Island countries are heavily dependent on imported petroleum products for electricity generation and transport. In addition, there are a number of cases where the use of fossil fuels is highly inefficient due to the lack of importance placed on energy efficiency and conservation. The lack of competition due the relatively small size and often-dispersed nature of the power supply systems is also constrained by reliance being placed on a single supplier or power generator. The individual countries scale of economy also impacts on the longer-term economic situation and the importance accorded to sustainable development. Often there is no alternative for some countries. However, opportunities do exist for reducing energy consumption that in turn will reduce the demand for electricity. As noted above the benefit from this reduced demand for energy will be a comparable reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. As a result of the original DSM programme there were a number of subsequent follow-up opportunities identified. These were in particular to assist the participating utilities in the implementation of DSM pilot projects and their refinement into full-scale programmes that provide benefits to the utilities, their customers and their national economies. 2 Now known as the Pacific Islands Forum Secretariat (PIFS) 3 1. Papua New Guinea Electricity Commission (ELCOM), now PNG Power Limited 2. Fiji Electricity Authority (FEA) 3. Marshall Islands Energy Company (MEC) 4. Palau Public Utilities Corporation (PPUC) 5. Solomon Islands Electricity Authority (SIEA) 6. Tonga Electric Power Board (TEPB), now also Shoreline (for Generation) 7. Samoa (Western) Electric Power Corporation (EPC) 8. Cook Islands Te Aponga Uira O Tumu-Te-Varovaro (TAU) 9. Kiribati Public Utilities Board (PUB) 10. Tuvalu Electricity Corporation (TEC)
[SOPAC Trip Report 319 – Mario]
With these objectives in mind the development and expansion of the DSM work within these ten utilities is seen priority in the longer term, provided there is the necessary utility and government commitment. Activities such as data gathering (ie collection of customer end-use DSM data for each of the ten participating utilities), data analysis and programme planning will be required to ensure the successful development of a detailed DSM programme on which preliminary designs can be based. The programme is in accord with the overall Regional Energy Programme Design Report 1999, which has been adopted as the framework for the region in the medium to long term by member countries at both the SOPAC Annual Session and the Secretariat for the Pacific Community (SPC) CRGA. This was again restated at the Regional Energy Meeting in Kiribati in 2000 and continues to be seen as a priority in SOPAC’s work programme and further endorsed by its member countries at the 30th Annual Session in the Republic of the Marshall Islands in October 2001. Current Status The present DSM project has recently been granted funding from the UNDESA. Thus SOPAC, together with PPA, is currently seeking responses from SOPAC member country power utilities by filling-in a questionnaire. In addition, there is a need for a commitment from the power utility in terms say in-kind contributions if they are to participate in the implementation of projects. The DSM project now has about US$110,000.00 to implement at least 3 projects in the Pacific region. The response from the respective utilities to the questionnaire would be an initial indication on whether the utility would like to participate. Following this an in country visit would be carried out to further discuss the details and the type of commitment that will be rendered by the utility.
[SOPAC Trip Report 319 – Mario]
Prepared by Jeff Shively Assistant Director for Technical Services
May14, 2003 Site: Aoloau Village Antennae site. Elevation is 1971 feet above sea level. Anemometer location: Blue Sky Tower 30 and 20 meters above grade Data points: November 26,2002 April 28, 2003 (3547 hours possible, 2845 hours logged) Sensors: Anemometers at 20 and 30 meters Direction vane at 30 meters Pyranometer Temperature Gauge Introduction: Meteorological instruments were installed on the Blue Sky tower at Aoloau to determine the potential for wind energy power generation. Anemometers were installed at 30 and 20 meters above grade. A wind direction instrument was installed at 40 meters. A Pyranometer and a temperature gauge were also installed. The Pyranometer was installed to determine the amount of solar radiation present at that location. This report addresses only the wind data collected to date. The instruments are all connected to a remote data acquisition system owned by the Territorial Energy Office. Of the 3547 hours the instruments have been installed, data was collected for only 2854 hours. At this location, the data logger receives too much RF interference to reliably transmit data to the mother computer at the Territorial Energy Office. After several attempts in December and January to correct the interference and on the advice of the data logger manufacturer, TEO began manually downloading the data at the site. Data collection was 100 percent successful when downloaded manually. The RF interference should not be a problem at any other site in the Territory.
Amfele T.F. Sunia Lt Governor
In reply refer to: No: American Samoa Government
Reupena S.T. Tagaloa Governor Togiola T. Tulafnno
[SOPAC Trip Report 319 – Mario]
Summary of Data: Table 1 shows the number of hours and percent of hours the wind blows in each wind class. Wind classes are used to generalize wind energy potential. A wind class of 3 or above is generally considered economically competitive with fossil fuel power generation. However, several factors can impact the feasibility such as construction costs and the system size. These will need to be examined in detail before a final assessment of the wind energy potential is determined. The data-gathering period (late November-April) is coincident with the region's seasonal period of low wind speeds. May through November is the period when the trade winds blow the most. May though November wind speeds and the number of hours wind speeds meet or exceed Wind Class 3 are expected to be substantially higher than the data gathered so far. Table 1. Number of Hours per Wind Class
<WC 3
Total hours 1326 1519 1306 1153 975 751 Of Tot hrs 46.6 53.4 45.9 40.5 34.3 26.4
Table 2. Wind Class Performance at Various Elevations Above Grade
Class Potential 20 Metres 30 Metres 50 Metres mph m/s mph m/s mph m/s
2 Marginal 11.0-12.5 4.9-5.6 11.6-13.3 5.2-5.9 12.5-14.3 5.6-6.4 3 Fair 12.5-13.8 5.6-6.2 13.3-14.6 5.9-6.5 14.3-15.7 6.4-7.0 4 Good 13.8-14.7 6.2-6.6 14.6-15.6 6.5-7.0 15.7-16.8 7.0-7.5 5 Excellent 14.7-15.7 6.6-7.0 15.6-16.7 7.0-7.4 16.8-17.9 7.5-8.0 6 Outstanding 15.7-17.3 7.0-7.7 16.7-18.3 7.4-8.2 17.9-19.7 8.0-8.8 7 Superb 17.3-21.8 7.7-9.7 18.3-23.1 8.2-10.3 19.7-24.8 8.8-11.1 The NRG Systems 9300 CEL Logger samples each channel once every second then averages the samples once per hour. Average wind speed at 100 feet (30 meters) was 14.4 MPH or 6.4 meters per second (m/s) or WC3. Maximum average wind speed at 100 feet was 41.3 MPH or 18.5 m/s. Average wind speed at 66 feet (20 meters) was 12.4 MPH or 5.5 m/s or WC3. Maximum average hourly wind speed at 66 feet was 34.1 MPH or 15.2 m/s. There were six occasions where the daily peak wind speed at 100 feet exceeded 50 MPH. The peak wind speed was 62.4 MPH. It occurred on 4/13/03 at 4:17 AM. The highest average hourly wind speed was 39.9 MPH (average of 360 samples during hour). It occurred…