ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT ASSIGNMENT No: 2 ASSIGNMENT environmental management assignment no: 2 assignment name: environmental material accounting tools student names id numbers: carla isabel

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<ul><li><p>CVEN9888 </p><p>ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT </p><p>ASSIGNMENT No: 2 </p><p>ASSIGNMENT NAME: ENVIRONMENTAL MATERIAL ACCOUNTING TOOLS </p><p>STUDENT NAMES &amp; ID NUMBERS: </p><p>Carla Isabel Guilcapi Duran z3402968 </p><p>Solange Kamanzi z3402599 </p><p>Jenani Paramarajah z3400773 </p><p>PHONE: 0487651504 </p><p> 0478843925 </p><p> 0449572893 </p><p>EMAIL: carla_guilcapi@yahoo.es </p><p> kamsol3@yahoo.fr </p><p> janani.paramarajah@gmail.com </p><p>DATE SUBMITTED: 14/05/2013 </p><p>PLACE SUBMITTTED: Room 308 Civil Engineering, submission box </p></li><li><p>Table of Contents </p><p>1. Introduction ...................................................................................................................................... 1 </p><p>2. Phosphorus and Carbon in GMR Sydney ........................................................................................ 1 </p><p>2.1 System Boundaries for P and C in Metapolis ................................................................................ 2 </p><p>2.1.1 System Boundary of Phosphorus in Metapolis ....................................................................... 2 </p><p>2.1.2 System Boundary of Carbon in Metapolis ............................................................................. 3 </p><p>3. Design Development and Associated Infrastructure for Metapolis Suburb in terms of Phosphorus </p><p>and Carbon ........................................................................................................................................... 3 </p><p>3.1 Proposal for Phosphorus Sustainability in Metapolis Suburb ................................................... 3 </p><p>3.2 Commerce Sector ....................................................................................................................... 3 </p><p>3.3 Houselhold ................................................................................................................................. 4 </p><p>3.4 Agriculture Sector ...................................................................................................................... 4 </p><p>3.5 Reducing P flow from sewage system plants to the oceans ..................................................... 5 </p><p>4. Design Development and Associated Infrastructure for Metapolis Suburb in terms of C .......... 6 </p><p>4. 1 Domestic sector .................................................................................................................... 6 </p><p>4.2 Commercial Sector ............................................................................................................... 8 </p><p>4.3 Transport Sector .................................................................................................................... 9 </p><p>4.4 Other considerations ............................................................................................................... 11 </p><p>5. Conclusion and Recommendations ................................................................................................ 12 </p><p>Reference ........................................................................................................................................... 13 </p></li><li><p>Appendix A: Sources associated with Phosphorus and Carbon and MFA ........................................ 15 </p><p>Appendix B: Process contributing to the inflow of P across GMR ................................................... 19 </p><p>Appendix C: Process contributing to the outflow of P from GMR Sydney ...................................... 19 </p><p>Appendix D: Main carbon flows in the GRM of Sydney .................................................................. 20 </p><p>Appendix E: Calculations of the population, density and total area of Metapolis suburb ................ 21 </p><p>Appendix F: Phosphorus MFA in Metapolis no change and change scenarios ................................ 28 </p><p>Appendix I: Remaining world Phosphate rock in 2009 ..................................................................... 31 </p><p>Appendix J: Sustainable scenario for meeting long term future phosphorus demand through </p><p>phosphorus use efficiency and recovery ............................................................................................ 31 </p><p>Appendix K: Material used for house construction ........................................................................... 32 </p><p>Appendix L: Insulated concrete slab. ................................................................................................ 32 </p><p>Appendix M: Single glazed aluminium windows ............................................................................. 32 </p><p>Appendix N: Solar pergola window .................................................................................................. 33 </p><p>Appendix O: PV Roofs ...................................................................................................................... 33 </p><p>Appendix P: Matrix of Density per Household According to Accessibility to Public Transportation </p><p>and Local Facilities ............................................................................................................................ 34 </p><p>Appendix Q:Mixed-use development to encourage social interaction in the commuting to different </p><p>services by walking and cycling. Taken from ................................................................................... 35 </p><p>Appendix R: Characteristics of a walking suburb ............................................................................. 36 </p><p>Appendix S: Comparative summary of emissions between petrol and electric cars ......................... 37 </p><p>Appendix T: Typical length of car journeys in Australia .................................................................. 37 </p><p>Appendix U: GHG emissions according to transport means ............................................................. 38 </p><p>Appendix V: Relationship between vehicle speed and emissions level ............................................ 38 </p><p>Appendix W:Minimum design requirements for cycleways ............................................................. 39 </p><p>Appendix X: Integration of landscape and city ................................................................................ 39 </p></li><li><p>1 </p><p>1. Introduction </p><p>On the basis of a hypothetical relocation of Sydney Airport to Badgery's Creek, a study has been </p><p>requested to the consultants Guilcapi, Paramarajah and Kamanzi in order to assist the town </p><p>planners and architects to redevelop the site that was occupied by the airport, and as far as possible </p><p>its vicinity into townhouses and apartments of medium to high density, as well as business parks </p><p>uses. According to the current consumption patterns, and in particular of such products as </p><p>phosphorus and carbon, some constraints are essential in order to reach a sustainable consumption </p><p>minimizing on the long-term environmental impacts. Aiming at developing a "low phosphorus and </p><p>carbon" city, Metapolis, this report is addressed to the Minister of Environment and Infrastructure </p><p>and contains some suggestions on the conceptual development of the aforementioned city as well as </p><p>its infrastructures. This was made possible by the close analysis of phosphorus and carbon flows in </p><p>the "GMR" of Sydney which was taken as reference. </p><p>2. Phosphorus and Carbon in GMR Sydney </p><p>Based on the first results from the study in current development by the University of New South </p><p>Wales about Phosphorus and Carbon within the system boundary of Greater Metropolitan Region </p><p>of Sydney (GMR) in the financial period of 2007-08, there has been identified major inflows and </p><p>outflows of these materials. It is important to mention that in the GMR Sydney's system boundary </p><p>the amount of some P and C flows have not been identified yet and it might change the final </p><p>figures. However, as a previous results, they can be used to identify what are the processes that </p><p>require attention to build a low carbon Metapolis. In the case of phosphorus, the main outflow </p><p>occurs from the commerce sector to the sewage system and treatment (3454 t/a) and from this one </p><p>to the ocean (2664 t/a). In addition, there has been identified high inflows to the commerce sector </p><p>which comes from the importation of phosphorus goods contained in animal feed (1545 t/a), food </p><p>products (2090 t/a) and detergent (1244 t/a). On the other hand, for carbon, the main outflow occurs </p><p>by the exportation of carbon from the mining sector as export coal (13,200,000 t/a) and as coking </p><p>coal (4,640,000 t/a) and from power station to air (12,000,000 t/a) (taken only the correspondent </p><p>proportion inside GMR Sydney's system boundary) as CO2 emissions. Furthermore, also important </p><p>output flows as CO2 to air comes from transport (4,220,000 t/a), mining (3,080,000 t/a) and </p><p>industrial and commercial (2,780,000t/a) sectors. Finally, a considerable output flow occurs from </p><p>mining to power stations (5,400,000 t/a), but this flow is exported outside the GMR Sydney's </p><p>system boundary. In regards to the inflows of carbon to the system, it was identified high carbon </p><p>flows from outside the system boundary to refinery (5,520,000 t/a) and to the industrial and </p><p>commercial sector (5,110,000 t/a). In addition, a significant inflow takes place from the industrial </p><p>and commercial sector to the transport sector (5,270,000 t/a). Further explanation about the flow of </p><p>P and C are given in Appendix A. </p><p>After carrying out the MFA of phosphorus and carbon (Appendix A), it seems that the sectors that </p><p>use more P are commerce sector, through the importation of Food product, animal feed and </p><p>detergent, and Households (Appendix B), whereas the sectors with the higher outflow of P are </p><p>sewage from households and the discharge from sewage to ocean outfall (Appendix C). On the </p><p>other hand, the processes that appear as major consumers of fossil-fuel carbon sources are power </p><p>stations, and industrial and commercial, refinery and transport (Appendix D), while the processes </p></li><li><p>2 </p><p>that generate more GHG emissions in terms of CO2 are power station, transport, and industrial and </p><p>commercial sectors. </p><p>It is essential to emphasize that the processes identified above use significant amounts of P and C, </p><p>respectively, but their origin comes from the demand of consumers. As a result, consumers indirectly </p><p>are the ones who determine the rate of use and disposal of those materials. Further explanation will be </p><p>given at the sections of defining the system boundary and the design development and associated </p><p>infrastructure for Metapolis. </p><p>2.1 System Boundaries for P and C in Metapolis </p><p>In order to define the system boundaries of Metapolis in terms of P and C, it was first estimated the </p><p>MFA of Metapolis for P and for C under no change scenario conditions making a relationship of </p><p>proportion between the population in GMR Sydney and Metapolis. The population of Metapolis in 2023 </p><p>was estimated to be 41,154 persons. The total area was estimated to be 1534 ha with a surrounding area </p><p>(buffer zone) of 634 ha which gives a population density equivalent to 26.83 persons/ha. From the total </p><p>area of Metapolis, 50 % will be allocated to green spaces. </p><p>The system boundary for Phosphorus in Metapolis was the same that for GMR Sydney; however, for </p><p>the system boundary of carbon in Metapolis, only were considered inside of the system transport, </p><p>domestic and commercial sectors because those are present in Metapolis; nevertheless, it has also been </p><p>considered the transboundary impacts of the system in the major sources of use of carbon. </p><p>The assumptions and calculations about population, total area, population density and buffer zone of </p><p>Metapolis are shown in Appendix E. </p><p>2.1.1 System Boundary of Phosphorus in Metapolis </p><p>According to the phosphorus (P) flow in Sydney, P is mainly used in food production at the rate of </p><p>2090tons per year. Animal feed is the second most contributor to the P flow at about 1545t/year. Apart </p><p>from these major contributors, detergent, fertilizer and other products also contribute to the P flow </p><p>across the GMR in the amount of 1244ton/year, 420 ton/year and 693 ton/year respectively. The biggest </p><p>flow of P goes to ocean as waste water (2664 ton/ yr) which is out of the boundary for this analysis. </p><p>From these totals we calculate that the total inflow of P is 5992 ton/ year and the outflow of P is 2911 </p><p>ton/year and significant amount of P, around 3000 tons, is accumulated within the Sydney region. </p><p>Phosphorus plays a dual role in terms of crop production and as a pollutant to the environment. </p><p>Analysis of the amounts of phosphorus entering city boundaries through human activity sheds light into </p><p>the environmental impacts of such vast flows MFA is used to analyse the P flow in the new suburb </p><p>called Metapolis. The given data about the P flow across the GMR was used to find the P flow across </p><p>Metapolis. Since our boundary has been defined as Sydney airport and the surrounded area, our </p><p>challenge is to identify the P flow across our boundary. Since the redevelopment of Metapolis, the </p><p>suburb now mainly consists of residential town houses, apartments and business parks;production and </p><p>application of fertilizer can be excluded from the boundary. However phosphate fertilizer is essential </p><p>for the food production, therefore fertilizers used in agriculture sector indirectly influence the P flow </p><p>across the boundary. Since there is not enough research done within the Sydney region, research in </p><p>other areas was considered to explain the identified phosphorus flow. The MFA of Metapolis in terms </p><p>of P is shown in Appendix F. </p></li><li><p>3 </p><p>2.1.2 System Boundary of Carbon in Metapolis </p><p>In order to define the Metapolis's system boundary, the sectors that has been considered are </p><p>domestic, transport, and commercial. However, due to the new design of development and </p><p>associated infrastructure at Metapolis, the transboundary impacts of these changes at the power </p><p>stations, mining, refinery and landfill sectors, placed outside the system boundary, will also be </p><p>considered to achieve a sustainable suburb (Obernosterer et al., 1998). Metapolis system boundary </p><p>consider the proposal of design development and associated infrastructure described in the next </p><p>section. The MFA of Metapolis in terms of C is shown in Appendix G. </p><p>3. Design Development and Associated Infrastructure for Metapolis Suburb in terms of </p><p>Phosphorus and Carbon </p><p>A design development and associated infrastructure has been proposed in order to make Metapolis </p><p>more sustainable in terms of phosphorus and carbon. The proposal not only takes into account </p><p>physical infrastructure considerations, but also prescribe covenants and constraints which helped </p><p>the new suburb to be sustainable in terms of P use and to be low carbon living. </p><p>3.1 Proposal for Phosphorus Sustainability in Metapolis Suburb </p><p>3.2 Commerce Sector </p><p>In order to reduce the importation of P in commerce sector (animal feed, food product, , detergent , </p><p>fertiliser), the following measures are proposed: </p><p>Supermarkets: sell detergents free of P. Detergents that combine citric acid together with zeolites </p><p>that perform equally or better than detergents containing...</p></li></ul>

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