Equine Behavior. What Affects Behavior? Environment Experiences Experiences Diet Diet Exercise Exercise Stress Stress Genetics Gender Type Breed Family

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  • Slide 1
  • Equine Behavior
  • Slide 2
  • What Affects Behavior? Environment Experiences Experiences Diet Diet Exercise Exercise Stress Stress Genetics Gender Type Breed Family group
  • Slide 3
  • Smell Identify other horses Mating Locate water, feed Vomeronasal organ Pheromones Ears & Hearing Detect sounds Determine location of sound To provide sensory information Hear in range 14 Hz to 25 kHz (humans 20 Hz to 20 kHz) Auricle 180 o rotation Ear position generally relates to visual attention
  • Slide 4
  • Touch Responsive to pain, pressure, cold and heat Sensitive areas Eyes, ears and nose Withers, ribs, flanks and legs Suffers fatigue
  • Slide 5
  • VISION Primary detector of danger Acute ability to detect movement Monocular & Binocular vision Monocular field of vision: 215 o for each eye Binocular field of vision: 60 o -70 o Often raise head to observe close objects Lower head to observe faraway objects Monocular field Up to 215 o Monocular field Binocular field 60-70 o Marginal zone
  • Slide 6
  • Visual Signs Ears Ears Tail Tail Mouth & lips Mouth & lips Eyes Eyes Nostrils Nostrils
  • Slide 7
  • Slide 8
  • Horse Behavior Social Organization Harem groups Domestic horses, Przewalski horse & some zebra Harem groups Domestic horses, Przewalski horse & some zebra Territorial breeders- Donkeys & some zebras
  • Slide 9
  • Social Organization Harem Harem Family Family Mares Mares Stallion Stallion Bachelor Group Bachelor Group
  • Slide 10
  • Ten Natural Survival Traits Depends on flight as its primary means of survival Depends on flight as its primary means of survival One of the most perceptive of all domestic animals One of the most perceptive of all domestic animals Very fast response time Very fast response time Can be desensitized from frightening stimuli Can be desensitized from frightening stimuli Horses forgive, but do not forget Horses forgive, but do not forget
  • Slide 11
  • Ten Natural Survival Traits Horses categorize Horses categorize A) something not to fear, so ignore or explore A) something not to fear, so ignore or explore B) Something to fear, so flee B) Something to fear, so flee Horses are easily dominated Horses are easily dominated Horses exert dominance by controlling the movement of their peers. Horse accept dominance when: Horses exert dominance by controlling the movement of their peers. Horse accept dominance when: We or another animal cause them to move when they prefer not to We or another animal cause them to move when they prefer not to We or another animal inhibit movement when they want to flee We or another animal inhibit movement when they want to flee
  • Slide 12
  • Ten Natural Survival Traits The body language of a horse is unique to the equine species The body language of a horse is unique to the equine species Horse is a precocial species (newborn foals are neurologically mature at birth) Horse is a precocial species (newborn foals are neurologically mature at birth)
  • Slide 13
  • Types of Horse Behavior Ingestive behavior Ingestive behavior Eliminative behavior Eliminative behavior Epimeletic behavior - Care-giving & care- seeking behavior Epimeletic behavior - Care-giving & care- seeking behavior
  • Slide 14
  • Types of Horse Behavior Sexual Sexual Polygamous Polygamous One offspring One offspring Seasonal Breeders Seasonal Breeders Fetal behavior Fetal behavior Parturient behavior Parturient behavior
  • Slide 15
  • Horse Behavior Self-care behavior Self-care behavior Homeostatic influences Homeostatic influences Grooming Grooming Rest Rest Awake 80% Awake 80% Drowsiness 8% Drowsiness 8% Sleep 12% Sleep 12% Autogroom Mutual Groom
  • Slide 16
  • Types of Horse Behavior Investigative Behavior Play behavior Play behavior Exploratory behavior Exploratory behavior
  • Slide 17
  • Types of Horse Behavior Allelomimetic Behavior Allelomimetic Behavior Mimicry Mimicry
  • Slide 18
  • Types of Horse Behavior Agonistic Behavior
  • Slide 19
  • Types of Horse Behavior Dominance/Submission (Social Order)
  • Slide 20
  • Horse Behavior Spacing Spacing Individual distance Individual distance Group distance Group distance Social distance Social distance Flight distance Flight distance Home range Home range Territorial Territorial
  • Slide 21
  • Activity Diurnal Diurnal Travel up to 16 km/d (10 mile/d) Travel up to 16 km/d (10 mile/d) Home range, can be up to 1000 ha.(2500 acres) Home range, can be up to 1000 ha.(2500 acres) Range: 0.8-303 sq. km (0.5-188 sq. mile) Range: 0.8-303 sq. km (0.5-188 sq. mile)
  • Slide 22
  • Average Time Budgets For Horses
  • Slide 23
  • Behavioral Considerations in Equine Handling HERD INSTINCT HERD INSTINCT HOMING INSTINCT HOMING INSTINCT FLIGHT FLIGHT DOMINANCE HEIREACHY DOMINANCE HEIREACHY TERRITORIAL BEHAVIOR TERRITORIAL BEHAVIOR SELF-DEFENSE SELF-DEFENSE HABIT HABIT
  • Slide 24
  • Good Stress The stressful condition in which the horse can find a solution that will relieve the stress Good Stress The stressful condition in which the horse can find a solution that will relieve the stress Harmful Stress A stressful condition in which there is no possible solution or escape. Stress
  • Slide 25
  • Responses To Harmful Stress Habituate Habituate Develop abnormal behavior Develop abnormal behavior Permanent fear memory Permanent fear memory
  • Slide 26
  • Equine Stereotypes Oral Oral Cribbing Cribbing Tongue movements Tongue movements Lip movements Lip movements
  • Slide 27
  • Equine Stereotypes Locomotion Locomotion Head movements (bobbing, tossing, shaking, swinging, nodding) Head movements (bobbing, tossing, shaking, swinging, nodding) Throat rubbing Throat rubbing Pacing Pacing Weaving Weaving Fence or stall walking Fence or stall walking
  • Slide 28
  • Equine Stereotypes Locomotion Locomotion Circling Circling Stomping Stomping Kicking Kicking Pawing Pawing Digging Digging Tail rubbing Tail rubbing
  • Slide 29
  • Equine Stereotypes Self-Mutilation Self-Mutilation Self-biting (flank, chest, shoulder) Self-biting (flank, chest, shoulder) Wall-kicking Wall-kicking Lunging into objects Lunging into objects
  • Slide 30
  • EQUINE VICES AGGRESSIVE VICES AGGRESSIVE VICES Biting Biting Charging Charging Crowding Crowding Rearing Rearing Kicking Kicking Striking Striking Fighting Fighting
  • Slide 31
  • EQUINE VICES METABOLIC VICES METABOLIC VICES Coprophagy or dirt eating Coprophagy or dirt eating Cribbing Cribbing Mane and tail chewing Mane and tail chewing Wood chewing Wood chewing
  • Slide 32