European Territorial Cooperation: Overview and Evaluation

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  • Wydawnictwo Naukowe Scholar Spka z o.o.ul. Krakowskie Przedmiecie 62, 00-322 WarszawaTel./Fax: +48 228265921, +48 228289563, +48 228289391e-mail: info@scholar.com.pl; scholar@neostrada.plhttp://www.scholar.com.pl

    First editionTypeset: WN Scholar (Jerzy azarski)Printed by Drukarnia KM Druk, d

    This publication presents selected results of ESPON TERCO project conducted within the framework of the ESPON 2013 Programme.

    The partnership behind the ESPON Programme consists of the EU Commission and the Member States of the EU27, plus Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland. Each partner is represented in the ESPON Monitoring Committee.

    This publication does not necessarily refl ect the opinion of the members of the Monitoring Committee.

    Information on the ESPON Programme and projects can be found on www.espon.eu. The website provides the possibility to download and examine the most recent documents produced by fi nalised and ongoing ESPON projects.

    Proofreading: Keith Clement, UK, Dorota Szmajda-KuberczykCover project: Katarzyna Wojnar, Katarzyna JurasCover photo: Maciej Smtkowski This publication was fi nanced by the ESPON 2013 Programme: part-fi nanced by the European Regional Development Fund, the EU Member States and the Partners States Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland.

    ISBN 978-83-7383-643-3

    ESPON & EUROREG - Centre for European Regional and Local Studies,University of Warsaw, 2013

    Printing, reproduction or quotation is authorised provided the source is acknowledged and a copy is forwarded to the ESPON Coordination Unit in Luxembourg.

    An appropriate citation for this publication is: Gorzelak, G. and Zawaliska, K. (eds.) 2013. European Territories: From Cooperation to Integration? Warsaw: Scholar.

  • CONTENTS

    Grzegorz Gorzelak, Katarzyna Zawaliska Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

    PART ITERRITORIAL COOPERATION AND INTEGRATION:

    THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS

    James W. Scott1.1 Territorial Cooperation the Research State of the Art . . . . 15

    Philippe Doucet1.2 Territorial Integration Food for Thought . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

    Joaqun Farins Das 1.3 Territorial Cooperation as a Means of Achieving Territorial Integration? From Local Place-based to European Union Territorial Cohesion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

    Irene McMaster1.4 European Territorial Cooperation: Overview and Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54

    PART IIEUROPEAN TERRITORIAL COOPERATION

    FROM TERCO PERSPECTIVE

    Adam Poszaj2.1 Two Faces of Territorial Cooperation in Europe: Twinning Cities and European Territorial Cooperation Programmes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69

  • Maciej Smtkowski2.2 Typologies of Regions According to Determinants and Types of Territorial Cooperation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97

    Dorota Celiska-Janowicz, Katarzyna Zawaliska, ukasz Wida-Domaradzki2.3 Structural Equation Model of Successful Territorial Cooperation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134

    Irene McMaster, Arno Van der Zwet and Heidi Vironen2.4 Territorial Cooperation Governance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155

    Valrie Biot2.5 The European Grouping for Territorial Cooperation (EGTC): An Asset for Territorial Governance Towards Territorial Integration? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167

    Javier Alfonso-Gil, Juan Carlos Rodrguez-Cohard, Antonio Vzquez-Barquero2.6 Transcontinental Territorial Cooperation with North Africa and South America . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177

    PART IIITERRITORIAL COOPERATION VS. TERRITORIAL

    INTEGRATION EVIDENCE FROM CASE STUDIES

    Katarzyna Zawaliska3.1 Introduction to Case Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193

    Heikki Eskelinen, Sarolta Nmeth, Matti Fritsch3.2 Territorial Cooperation in Finnish-Russian Border Region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200

    Olga Mrinska, Maciej Smtkowski, Tymoteusz Wronka3.3 Territorial Cooperation in Poland-Slovakia-Ukraine Border Regions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210

  • Marek W. Kozak, Sabine Zillmer3.4 Territorial Cooperation in Poland-Germany-Czech Republic Border Regions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220

    Valrie Biot, Christian Vandermotten3.5 Territorial cooperation in Belgium-France Border Regions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230

    Arno van der Zwet, Heidi Vironen3.6 Territorial Cooperation in Scotland-Norway-Sweden Border Regions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238

    Lefteris Topaloglou, George Petrakos, Dimitris Kallioras, Panagiotis Artelaris, Ageliki Anagnostou, Panagiotis Pantazis, Victor Cupcea, Christos Georgiadis3.7 Territorial Cooperation in Greece-Bulgaria-Turkey Border Regions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248

    Katarzyna Zawaliska, Tymoteusz Wronka3.8 Lessons Learnt from the Case Studies on Territorial Cooperation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265

    Grzegorz Gorzelak, Katarzyna ZawaliskaConcluding Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275

    Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280

    Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287

  • GRZEGORZ GORZELAK, KATARZYNA ZAWALISKA1

    INTRODUCTION

    This publication summarises selected fi ndings from the project TERCO European Territorial Cooperation as a Factor of Growth, Jobs and Quality of Life which was completed as part of the ESPON 2007-2013 Programme. The project focused on various types of territorial cooperation (INTERREG A, B, C, twinning cities, transcontinental cooperation) and their impact on the socio-economic development of the cooperating territories.

    Over the last decade, a large number of policy documents have addressed the role of territorial approaches in regional development. In its Green Paper on Territorial Cohesion, the European Commission emphasises the role of territorial cooperation and attaches great importance to it in the framework of European territorial development and in the long-term and sustainable growth performance of the EU as a whole (CEC, 2008a: 3). In order to deal with environmental, economic and social challenges, the cooperation of stakeholders across national borders, different policy sectors and policy levels is required. The European Commission notes that in the new Member States much remains to be done to develop coherent policies for infrastructure and economic cooperation and that external border regions lag further behind in economic development and GDP per head (CEC, 2008a: 8). Accordingly, in its title this book poses the relevant question of whether cooperation truly leads to territorial integration, which would be a desirable outcome of the policy.

    From a historical perspective, the main objective of EU territorial cooperation (TC) was to overcome the negative effects of borders as barriers, maximise potential synergies, promote joint solutions to common problems and, as a result, promote further harmonious and balanced integration of the EU territory and enhance the quality of life for citizens. However, the expectations of TC have expanded over time to encompass contributions to economic development and competitiveness (TA2020,

    1 EUROREG, University of Warsaw.

  • 10 GRZEGORZ GORZELAK, KATARZYNA ZAWALISKA

    2011: 7), territorial integration (Fifth Cohesion Report, 2010: 202), city networking (TA2020, 2011: 7), good neighbourhood relations (Territorial State, 2011: 28), labour markets (CEC, 2011d: 3), and the unifi cation of natural ecosystems divided by borders.

    In contrast to the growing expectations, TC currently faces a number of challenges. For example, it is biased towards old Member States (MS), e.g. the great majority of leaders in INTERREG projects are from the old MS. A positive development in this respect is the implementation of the new European instrument of the European Grouping of Territorial Cooperation (EGTC): it has been used albeit to a limited extent in both old and new Member States, and it is regarded in new Member States as of major assistance in organising territorial cooperation for less experienced actors. Cooperation across EU borders is still cumbersome. At the level of specifi c EU-neighbouring state partnerships, the ENPI-CBC2 programme envisaged the creation of a single funding vehicle with joint managing authorities, but in practice it has limited authority to decide on project funding and management. Furthermore, the application of development aid rules presently appears inappropriate for cross-border cooperation in the area of regional development, as joint projects are burdened by onerous contracting rules.

    Accordingly, strengthening territorial cooperation to make it achieve what is expected requires further research on understanding cooperation drivers, determinants and governance structures, which may result in greater interest by regions, cities and countries to enter into cooperation arrangements. TERCO investigated the issues by applying new research methods that have never b