Evolution - molecular homology apoptosis Click on each word below to go to the definition. adaptative

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  • Slide 1 / 137 Slide 2 / 137

    Evolution

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    Vocabulary

    allelic frequency

    adaptation

    behavioral isolation

    bottleneck effect biogeography

    coevolution comparative anatomy comparative embryology convergent evolution directional selection disruptive selection divergent evolution

    epigenetics evolution founder effect

    gene pool genetic drift geographical isolation homologous structure

    gene conservation

    macroevolution

    microevolution mechanical isolation

    natural selection molecular homology

    apoptosis

    Click on each word below to go to the definition.

    adaptative radiation

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    Vocabulary

    population genetics population

    punctuated equilibrium

    Click on each word below to go to the definition.

    speciation species stabilizing selection temporal isolation vestigial structure

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    Evolution Unit Topics

    · Adaptations · Theories of Evolution

    Click on the topic to go to that section

    · Natural Selection & Speciation

    · Population Genetics

    · Genetic Drift & Patterns of Macroevolution

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    Adaptations

    Return to Table of Contents

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  • Slide 7 / 137

    ALL LIVING THINGS - from a tiny amoeba, to a massive redwood tree - share common characteristics.

    Review: Characteristics of Life

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    · Order

    · Adaptations

    · Response to the environment

    · Regulation

    · Energy processing

    · Growth and Development

    · Reproduction

    Review: Characteristics of Life

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    The most reasonable explanation that ALL LIFE uses the exact same genetic code is that the code was in place before life branched out.

    Last Universal Common Ancestor (LUCA)

    LUCA (3.5 - 3.8 BYA)

    The common features of life on Earth are so profound that all life must have evolved from a single ancestor.

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    Review: Universal Genetic Code

    All living things have DNA made up of the same 4 nucleotide bases: A-T C-G

    The Universal Genetic Code is common to all life.

    All living things use RNA is made up of the same 4 nucleotide bases: A-U C-G

    The 64 codons of this RNA code for the same 20 amino acids

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    Evolution

    Evolution is the process by which modern organisms have descended from ancient organisms over time.

    Time is the critical element in seeing how life could have developed from simple chemicals to the complex world we see around us today.

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    Review: Time Earth is approximately 4.6 billion years old. Our first records from human history are about 10,000 years old.

    The process of developing life started about a million times further back in time than that.

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    Why Evolve?

    The Earth is a dynamic, continuously changing environment.

    Groups of living things must adapt, adjusting to these changes in order to survive and pass on their genes to their offspring.

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    Adaptations An adaptation is a trait - structure, function, or behavior - that makes a living organism better able to survive and reproduce in its environment.

    Example: A koala has two thumbs on each hand, which enables it to get a better grip when climbing trees.

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    Competition Organisms that share an environment compete with each other to obtain necessities like water, food, and living space.

    An organism with an adaptation specific to its environment that helps it obtain resources has a better chance of survival and reproduction than the other organisms in its environment.

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    + =

    Horse Donkey Mule

    In some cases, two closely related yet different species can interbreed, but they produce sterile offspring.

    + =

    Male Lion Female Lion Lion Cubs

    A species is a group of individuals that can actually or potentially interbreed, producing viable offspring. It is estimated that there are 8.7 million species of organisms currently living on Earth.

    Evolution Leads to Diversity

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    1 Apes and chimpanzees are different species because...

    A they live in different environments B they have different physical features C they cannot produce offspring together D they eat different foods

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    1 Apes and chimpanzees are different species because...

    A they live in different environments B they have different physical features C they cannot produce offspring together D they eat different foods

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    C

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    2 Which of the following is not a characteristic of all life?

    A adaptations B energy processing C movement D reproduction

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    2 Which of the following is not a characteristic of all life?

    A adaptations B energy processing C movement D reproduction

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    C

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    Theories of Evolution

    Return to Table of Contents

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    Jean-Baptiste Lamarck

    Recall Lamarck's Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics theory. This idea stated that traits present in parents are modified, through use, and passed on to their offspring in the modified form.

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    During Lamarck's time, there was no notion of DNA or genes; no knowledge of chromosomes or how inheritance happened.

    Today we know Lamarck was wrong because characteristics acquired over a lifetime do not usually change the DNA and, therefore, are not passed on to the offspring.

    An organism can only exhibit traits coded for by its inherited DNA.

    Inherited vs. Acquired Characteristics

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    While the environment cannot change the inheritance of traits, biologists and geneticists are now discovering that non-genetic factors from an organism's environment can influence the way genes are expressed.

    Epigentics is the study of how environmental factors - including chemical signals in the cell triggered by stress and nutrition - regulate gene expression.

    Epigenetics

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    3Lamarck suggested that if an organism does not use the structures they are born with, they will

    A develop different structures they can use

    B lose those structures in the next generation

    C acquire different structures from other organisms

    D stop evolving

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    3Lamarck suggested that if an organism does not use the structures they are born with, they will

    A develop different structures they can use

    B lose those structures in the next generation

    C acquire different structures from other organisms

    D stop evolving

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    B

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    4Lamarck argued for which of the following ideas?

    A Life evolves towards perfection and organization and this can be traced

    B Life has consisted of creations and catastrophies

    C Species evolve through development of characteristics individuals use throughout their lives

    D Environments spontaneously produce species fitted to it

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    4Lamarck argued for which of the following ideas?

    A Life evolves towards perfection and organization and this can be traced

    B Life has consisted of creations and catastrophies

    C Species evolve through development of characteristics individuals use throughout their lives

    D Environments spontaneously produce species fitted to it

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    5 What is epigenetics the study of?

    A the environment's impact on gene expression B the inheritance of certain traits C the evolution of eukaryotes D the adaptive value of traits

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    5 What is epigenetics the study of?

    A the environment's impact on gene expression B the inheritance of certain traits C the evolution of eukaryotes D the adaptive value of traits

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    A

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    Upon graduation from university, Charles Darwin took a position as a naturalist on a ship called the H.M.S. Beagle. The main purpose of the Beagle was to map out the coastline of South America.

    Darwin was on board the Beagle from 1831 to 1836 to record all natural and geological characteristics of the landscape he saw.

    Charles Darwin

    The scientist who contributed most to our current understanding of evolution was Charles Darwin.

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    Journey of the H.M.S. Beagle 1831-1836

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    Roughly one third of the way into the journey, Darwin spen