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South Korea Names: John Alexander Ferguson, Elaine Hsieh, Shuhan Zhan, Emily Takeuchi, Minjueng Ma, Lumeng Bai, Brett Jackson, Ho Ting Leung

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South KoreaNames: John Alexander Ferguson, Elaine Hsieh, Shuhan Zhan, Emily Takeuchi, Minjueng Ma, Lumeng Bai, Brett Jackson, Ho Ting Leung

bibimbapSide dishes



Diet primarily made up of rice, legumes, meats, seafoods and vegetables Kimchi used commonly, a fermented vegetable dish Wide variety of alcoholic and non-alcoholic drinksFrequent use of condiments to season food (Ma, 2016).Quick Overview

E- Today well be focusing mostly on the sociocultural, socioeconomic, and environmental factors that go into the Korean cuisine.

Environmental FactorsGeographic Setting and EnvironmentClimate supports agriculture: cold winters, warm summers and long, pleasant autumnsMain rivers (the Han and the Kum) help to provide adequate water supply for the agricultural lands to grow rice and grainsThe seas surrounding the Korean peninsulathe Yellow and East China seas, and the Sea of Japan---provide plenty of seafoods.Koreans eat many preserved foods because these had to be made for keeping over wintertime.Chinese invasions: 1) Foods that evolved in China were passed on to Korea and then to Japan. Rice, cabbage, domesticated animals were first domesticated in China. 2) Eating with chopsticks from small bowls was initially developed in China in the Han Dynasty (about 200 B.C.-about 200 A.D.)

Socio-CulturalHot foods believed to restore Qi or chi (energy flow)Long noodles symbolize long life and good health Buddhist traditions have strong influences on Korean cuisine/dietRitual food only eaten during those times in the past

Ritual food include rice, liquor, soup, vinegar and soy sauce (1st row); noodles, skewered meat, vegetable and fish dishes, and rice cake (2nd row); three types of hot soup, meat and vegetable dishes (3rd row); dried snacks, kimchi, and sweet rice drink (4th row); and variety of fruit (5th row).[71]Because of poor English language skills and conceptualization of illness, it is difficult for many older Korean-Americans to communicate with health care providers. Most Koreans are much more comfortable with same sex health care providers, especially in the case of obstetricians and gynecologists. Many more traditional Koreans do not usually speak their mind to unfamiliar peopleThe eating of dog meat has a long history in Korea, originating during the era of Samkug (Three Kingdoms,57 BC to AD 676). It was not common after this period, though, as Buddhism grew in popularity and became the state religion during the Koryo Dynasty (9181392). However, during the Choson Dynasty (13921910), Confucianism became the state ideology, paving the way for the return of dog meat as food. The consumption of dog meat has been mainly associated with farmers trying to maintain their stamina during the oppressive heat of summer. Eating a dog during the hottest days of summer is meant to fight the debilitating effects of heat and humidity. Dog meat has always been a medicine as well as a food. During the preparations of Seoul olympics in 1988, protests were made to the South Korean government by individuals, international and local animal welfare charities and local governments leading to the ban of selling dog meat in markets. In response, restaurants who served dog meat soup moved to places where foreigners would less likely see them and they changed the name to make dog meat soup seem more appealing

Uniqueness of Korean Cuisine (V): Beverages. These caffeinated drinks are consumed on occasion and in much smaller sizes. Korean children are not served sweetened drinks with meals either, avoiding the addictive properties of caffeine and sugar at a young age. Teenagers occasionally consume soda with friends as it infrequently infiltrates the home.


Socioeconomic Transition

PhysicalActivity Transition

Dietary Transition

Nutrition Transition

Body Weight Transition

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Socio-economic transition: 1) The GNP of South Korea increased more than 50-fold over the 24 years, from $66 billion to $3308 billion. 2) The proportion of the population living in urban areas also grew more than 30% from 1970s-1990s.3) The education level increased: people who had high school diploma increased 24% from 1970s-1990s.

Physical activity transition: Physical activities decrease no. of people in the primary industry sector (agriculture, fishing and forestry) decreased , while the number of people in the tertiary industry sector (service industries) reached more than half the working population in South Korea. no. of drivers licenses started to go up from 1978 and increased steadily from then on.

Dietary transition: 1) Consumed more animal foods and less plant foods, while less dependent on cereals as a staple source of energy.2) More protein and fat were consumed from both animal and plant foods. Total protein consumption per capita per day increased steadily over the years, and the increase was primarily from animal protein.

Socioeconomic in Detail

Lee, S. K., & Sobal, J. (2003). Socio-economic, dietary, activity, nutrition and body weight transitions in South Korea. Public health nutrition, 6(07), 665-674.

Socioeconomic Transition


Physical Activity Transition

Dietary Transition

Vegetables expensive Economical

Nutrition transition: The dietary transition led to the nutrition transition, represented by increased energy from protein and fat and decreased energy from carbohydrates.

Bodyweight transition: The average BMI of 17-year-old adolescents increased steadily over this time period.

Socioeconomic cont.

Pokorski, R. in the Journal of insurance medicine

The World Health Organization estimated that 45% of Korean men and 54% of women were overweight in 2005, and the percentages are expected to increase to 66% and 67%, respectively, by 2015.

Socioeconomic-Health Care Costs

(Korean Diabetes Association, 2015)

Nutritional Status of PopulationOne study shows that even with an increase in meat consumption and average purchasing power, consumption of fat did not increase (Kim, Moon, & Popkin, 2000).Study also stated obesity did not increase significantly although this was in 2000 (Kim, Moon, & Popkin, 2000).However, another study shows worse results as over 32% of adult Koreans were overweight in 2013 and over 4% were obese in 2012, a 2.5% increase from 2002 (Lee, 2015).Korean Paradox refers to South Koreas lower than average developed nations obesity but similar diabetes rates though this could be due to high levels of smoking and sedentary lifestyles more than food (Mendosa, 2010).Nearly 11% of Koreans had diabetes in 2013 with most being type 2 as well as 25% having pre-diabetes/hyperglycemia (Korean Diabetes Association, 2015).

Q: How does Korean food in America differ from that in Korea? A: Sweeter, Korean food is not usually sweet. Portion size is much larger. Q: Why do you think its sweeter? A: Well, Ive heard that the sugar consumption level in America is much higher, that might be an influencer. Q: Alcohol consumption in Korea is fairly high, even compared to that in America. Why do you think this is true? A: Drinking games are very common in Korean colleges, and are used as a social

Interview ...tool to get to know each other better. Drinks are also popular amongst korean business people for meetings.Q: Do you know anyone in your family that has diabetes?A: Yes, my grandfather has diabetes. Q: Do you think religion is a strong factor in influencing the Korean diet? Like there is a high percentage of buddhism but pork is a major meat in your diet.A: Not really... Maybe in the past, but there are more christians right now, so I dont really think buddhism affects.

APA SourcesKim, S., Moon, S., and Popkin, B. M. (2000). The nutrition transition in south korea. Am J Clin Nutr, 71(1), 44-53. Retrieved from http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/71/1/44.fullKorean Diabetes Association. (2015). Korean diabetes fact sheet 2015. Korean Diabetes Association, retrieved from http://www.diabetes.or.kr/bbs/index.html?code=e_resource&category=1 Lee, C. (August 13, 2015). Obesity emerges as major health threat in south korea. The Korea Herald, retrieved from http://www.koreaherald.com/view.php?ud=20150813001101Lee, S. K., & Sobal, J. (2003). Socio-economic, dietary, activity, nutrition and body weight transitions in south korea. Public Health Nutrition, 6(07), 665-674, retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14552667 Ma, M. (April 10, 2016). Interview with minjueng ma. Personal Experience.Mendosa, D. (October 29, 2010). Diabetes in korea: less obesity but similar diabetes rates. HealthCentral, retrieved from http://www.healthcentral.com/diabetes/c/17/123246/korean-paradox/Podberscek, A.L. (2009). Good to pet and to eat: The keeping and consuming of dogs and cats in South Korea. Journal of Social Issues, 65, 615-632. retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1540-4560.2009.01616.x/epdf Ferdman, R.A., King R. (February 2, 2014). South Koreans drink twice as much liquor as Russians and more than four times as much as Americans. Quartz, retrieved from http://qz.com/171191/south-koreans-drink-twice-as-much-liquor-as-russians-and-more-than-four-times-as-much-as-americans/Pokorski, R. (2010). Effect of increasing body weight on morbidity and mortality in South Korea. Journal of insurance medicine (New York, NY), 42(2-4), 78-84.