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    Study guide / Studiegids 

    Department of Physiology

    Departement Fisiologie

    FLG 212 – Circulatory physiology / Sirkulatoriesefisiologie 

    2016

    © Copyright reserved / © Kopiereg voorbehou 

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    TABLE OF CONTENTS 

    TIME TABLE ............................................................................................................................................... 1

    LOGISTICS ................................................................................................................................................ 2

    Official communications ........ .......... ......... .......... ......... .......... ......... .......... ......... .. 2

    Study materials .......... ......... .......... .......... ......... .......... .......... ......... .......... ......... .. 2

     Assessments and contribution to final mark ...... ........ ........ ........ ...... ........ ........ ....... 3

    Promotion ......... ......... .......... ......... .......... ......... .......... ......... .......... ......... .......... . 4

    Sub-minimum for admission to the examination .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .. 4

     Absence from examination ............ ........ ........ ...... ........ ........ ........ ........ ...... ........ .. 5

    Plagiarism ......... ......... .......... ......... .......... ......... .......... ......... .......... ......... .......... . 5

    STUDY COMPONENT .......... .......... ......... .......... .......... ......... .......... ......... .......... .. 6

    STUDY UNITS ............................................................................................................................................ 7

    SYLLABUS THEME 1: BODY WATER ...................................................................................................... 7

    SYLLABUS THEME 2: HAEMATOLOGY AND AN INTRODUCTION TO IMMUNOLOGY ANDDEFENCE SYSTEMS ................................................................................................................................ 7

    SYLLABUS THEME 3: CARDIOVASCULAR PHYSIOLOGY .................................................................... 12

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    LOG ISTICS

    Lecturer: Office: Tel. nr: E-mail address:

    Guardian Dr M v Rooy BMS 9-12 (Prinshof) 012 319-2423 [email protected]

    Lecturer Dr M Coetzee BMS 9-23 (Prinshof) 012 319-2445 [email protected]

    Tutor Ms D Fraser 073 101 1128 [email protected]

    Administrative personnel Office: Tel. nr: E-mail address:

    Ms MS Botha NW 1 2-1.2 012 420 4482 [email protected]

    O f fi c i a l c o m m u n i c a t io n s

    The official notice board is situated at the entrance of level 2, NS1 building, west wing. Some

    communications may be made via the Click UP. It is the student’s responsibility to verify any changes

    and additional information regarding for example the lecturing schedule, test-, and exam venues posted

    on click UP or the official notice board. Students’ test mark and test memo’s will be posted on the notice

    board. Students are kindly requested not to leave Pretoria for the holidays until they know they do not

    have a supplementary examination.

    Appointments can be made with the lecturers by personal arrangement during working hours.

    Le c t u re i n fo r m a t io n

    Fridays  08:30 – 10:20 (2 lectures) Venue: Louw Hall

    Pra c t ic a l s

    Thursday 14:30 – 17:20 Venue: See ClickUP

    St u d y m a t e r ia l s

    Prescribed text book:

      Dee Unglaub SilverthornHuman Physiology, an integrated approach. (6th edition)

    Where necessary the following book will be utilised, but relevant information will be includedin the lecturers 

      BJ Meyer, DH van Papendorp, HS Meij en M ViljoenHuman Physiology (3nd Revised edition), Juta & Co., 2002

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    A s se s sm e n t s a n d c o n t ri b u t i o n t o f in a l m a rk

    Theory: Test 1 + Test 2 = 80%Practicals:  = 20%Semester mark  = 100%

    Examination: written paper = 100%Final mark:  =  (Semester mark + Examination mark)/2

    Test dates - Will be available on UP PortalExamination dates - Will be available on UP Portal

    If a student fails to attend a practical or class test, or does not submit an assignment due tomedical reasons he/she needs to submit a medical certificate to the department administrator (ONLY Ms Botha) within 72 hours.

    o  If no medical certificate is submitted to the department administrator (ONLY Ms Botha) within72 hours, the student will receive zero for that specific assessment.

    o  If a medical certificate is submitted to the department administrator (ONLY Ms Botha) within 72hours that specific assessment will not  be taken in consideration for the calculation of themodule mark.

    Criteria for a valid medical certificateIf the doctor has seen the student on the day of, or on the previous day of the test.Consultations on the day after the test/examination, or a certificate based on hear-say will beconsidered invalid. Medical certificates will be accepted as valid after consultation with the partiesinvolved and in consultation with the medical officer. Students are reminded that, issuing of a falsemedical certificate may result in the name of the medical practitioner being removed from the medicalregister. Tampering with a medical certificate will be brought to the attention of the disciplinary

    committee and may result in expulsion.

    Please take note:1.  Attendance of all practicals is compulsory.2.  If a student misses more than one  of the above mentioned assessments he/she will not be

    allowed to write the examination of the specific module.

    Semester testsIf a student fails to write a semester test due to medical reasons he/she needs to submit a medicalcertificate to the department administrator (ONLY Ms Botha) within 72 hours.If no medical certificate is submitted to the department administrator (ONLY Ms Botha) within 72

    hours, the student will receive zero for the semester test.o  If a medical certificate is submitted to the department administrator (ONLY Ms Botha) within 72

    hours, no module mark will be calculated. In such a case, the student’s exam mark will be usedas his/her final mark (Thus, a student needs to obtain a minimum of 50% in the exam to passthe module).

    o  Please take note: Submission of a forged medical certificate is a criminal offence!NB! If a student misses both semester tests he/she will not be allowed to write the examination ofthe specific module.

    VERY IMPORTANT:Sick tests are no longer offered for physiology modules.

    Submission of a forged medical certificate or affidavit is a criminal offence!

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    Promotion

       A student can only promote if he/she:o  Obtains a module mark of 65% or more.o  Obtains60% or more for each semester test.o  Attended and completed all assessment opportunities (semester tests, class tests,

    assignments, practical classes, etc.). Thus a student may not   promote if he/she fails tocomplete any one of the assessment opportunities, irrespective of the reason (with or withoutthe submission of a medical certificate) (continued on next page). 

    o  Is going to enroll for 300-level Physiology subjects during the following year. If the student isnot enrolling for any third year Physiology subjects during the following year, he/she cannotpromote and has to write the examination. (See the official statement below, as stipulated in theUniversity’s General Regulations, 2009) 

    General  Regulations 2009 

    Promotion to a subsequent   year  of  study  and   promotion in a module. 

    Students who have reached  the required  standard  in a module as stipulated  in G10.3 (b), 

    may  

    be 

     promoted, 

    in 

    accordance 

    with 

    authorised  

     faculty  

    regulations, 

    to 

    the 

    next  

    semester  

    or  level  in a module without  writing the  prescribed  examination,  provided  that  a student  

    receives credit   for  such  promoted  modules only  if  study   in those modules  is concluded  by  

    successfully  completing a  prescribed  examination 

      If a student promotes his/her module mark will be used as his/her final mark.

    Sub-minimum for admission to the examination:

     A semester mark of 40% or higher for a semester mark is required for admission to the examination.

    Examples:

    Minimum requirement Example Outcome

    Semester mark ≥ 40%Semester mark 0-39%

    NOT admitted to examinationFAIL module

    Semester mark 40-100% Admitted to examination

    In order to pass this module:A final mark of 50% or higher AND an examination mark of 40% or higher must be obtained.

    Examples:

    Minimum requirements Example Outcome

    Final mark ≥ 50%AND

    Examination mark ≥ 40%

    Final mark 0-39% FAIL

    Final mark 40-49% Admitted to supplementary

    examination

    Final mark 50-100%Examination mark 0-39%

     Admitted to supplementaryexamination

    Final mark 50-100%

    Examination mark 40-100% PASS

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    Absence from the examination

    If a student is absent from the examination, the student has to apply for a sick or special examination atFaculty Administration on the Ground Floor, Agricultural Sciences Building within 3 working days of theoriginal examination date (thus medical certificates have to be handed in at Administration of theFaculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences and not at the Department of Physiology).

    Pl a g i a r i sm

    “Plagiarism refers to the appropriation of the work or ideas of others. Plagiarism is both unethical andillegal   and may be regarded as a criminal offence   in terms of the Copyright Act 98 of 1978. TheUniversity of Pretoria places a high premium on its academic standards and subscribes to a valuesystem that requires strong action against plagiarism. For more information, seehttp://upetd.up.ac.za/authors/create/plagiarism.htm.” 

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    STUDY C O M PO NENT

    The statements used to define the outcomes determine the level (higher-lower) of thinking skills challenged by

    the outcome. The characterisation of the levels is given in the table below. Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational

    Objectives (Bloom BS and Krathwohl DR, Taxonomy of educational objectives. Handbook 1. Cognitive domain, 

     Addison-Wesley, 1984)

    Level of cognition Definition Typical action verbs Skills demonstrated 

    1. Knowledge Remembering

    previously

    learned

    information

     Arrange, define, describe, identify,

    label, list, match, name, outline,  show,

    label, collect, examine, tabulate, quote

      Observe and recall information

      Knowledge of dates, events, places

      Knowledge of major ideas

      Mastery of subject matter

    2. Comprehension Understanding

    the meaning of

    information

    Classify, discuss, estimate, explain,

    give example(s), identify, predict,

    report, review, select, summarise,interpret, ‘in your own words’, contrast,

    predict, associate, distinguish,

    estimate, differentiate

      Understand information

      Grasp meaning

      Translate knowledge into newcontext

      Interpret facts, compare, contrast

      Order, group, infer causes

      Predict consequences

    3. Application Using the

    information

    appropriately in

    different

    situations

     Apply, calculate, demonstrate,

    illustrate, interpret, modify, predict,

    prepare, produce, solve, use,

    manipulate, put into practice, calculate,

    examine, relate, change, classify

      Use information

      Use methods, concepts andtheories in new situations

      Solve problems using requiredskills or knowledge

    4. Analysis Breaking downthe information

    into the

    component parts

    and seeing the

    relationships

     Analyze, appraise, calculate, compare,criticise, derive, differentiate, choose,

    distinguish, examine, subdivide,

    organise, deduce  separate, order,

    connect, infer, divide

      Seeing patterns  Organisation of parts

      Recognition of hidden meanings

      Identification of components

    5. Synthesis Putting the

    component parts

    together to form

    new products

    and ideas

     Assemble, compose, construct, create,

    design, determine, develop, devise,

    formulate, propose, synthesise, plan,

    discuss, support  combine, integrate,

    modify, rearrange, substitute, design,

    invent, what if? prepare, generalise,

    rewrite

      Use old ideas to create new ones

      Generalise from given facts

      Relate knowledge from severalareas

      Predict, draw conclusions

    6. Evaluation Making

     judgements of

    an idea, theory,

    opinion, etc,

    based on criteria

     Appraise, assess, compare, conclude,defend, determine, evaluate, judge, justify, optimise, predict, criticise,assess, decide, rank, grade, test,measure, recommend, convince,select, judge, explain, discriminate,support, summarise

      Compare and discriminatebetween ideas

       Assess value of theories,presentations

      Make choices based on reasonedargument

      Verify value of evidence

      Recognise subjectivity 

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    STUDY UNITS

    M O DULE FLG 21 2 : C IRC ULA TO RY PHYSIO LO G Y 21 2  

    SYLLABUS THEMES:

    1.  BODY WATER2.  HAEMATOLOGY AND DEFENCE SYSTEMS3.  CARDIOVASCULAR PHYSIOLOGY AND THE LYMPHATIC SYSTEM

    SYLLABUS THEME 1: BODY WATER

    Study unit 1.1: Occurrence and functions of body water

    Learning objectives:

    Students should be able to describe the:o  Water content and distribution of water in the bodyo  Functions and importance of water in the bodyo  Concept of water balance

    Sources: Meyer p 3.1-3.2; Silverthorn p 131-132, 659-660.

    Study unit 1.2: Pathophysiology

    Learning objectives:

    o  Students should obtain a basic knowledge of the causes, symptoms and treatment ofdehydration and overhydration.

    Meyer p 3.3-3.4

    SYLLABUS THEME 2: HAEMATOLOGY AND AN INTRO DUCTION TO IMMUNOLO GY

    AND DEFENCE SYSTEMS

    SYLLABUS THEME OBJECTIVES: To understand the central role of blood in normal bodyhomeostasis and functioning, and to study the essential functions of the individual components ofblood, i.e., of plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets.

    STUDY UNITS

    2.1. Whole blood2.2. Plasma2.3. Haemopoiesis2.4. Red blood cells (RBC)2.5. Blood groups2.6. Blood platelets and haemostasis2.7. White blood cells (WBC) and an introduction to immunology

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    Study unit 2.1: Whole blood

    Study Unit Themes

    2.1.1 Composition

    Learning objectives:  o  Students should be able to list the various components of blood as well as the normal

    concentrations and volumes of it.

    Source: Silverthorn p 545-551

    2.1.2  Functions of blood

    Learning objectives:

    o  Students should be able to list the functions and describe the importance of blood in normal

    body homeostasis.

    Sources: Meyer 12.1; Silverthorn p 545-547.

    2.1.3 General characteristic and related analyses

    Learning objectives:

    o   At the end of this unit students should be able to define:

      The relative density of blood, plasma and cells

      Red cell aggregation

      Sedimentation rate  Haematocrit

      Viscosity

    Source: Meyer p 12.1-12.3

    Study unit 2.2: Plasma

    Study Unit Themes

    2.2.1 Composition

    Learning objectives:

    o  Students should know the inorganic as well as the organic composition and volume of plasmaSources: Meyer p 12.6 (table); Silverthorn p 545-547

    2.2.2 Functions

    Learning objectives:  o  Students should know the origin and functions of plasma components as well as the effects of

    deficiencies.

    Source: Meyer 12.3 – 12.5; Silverthorn p 545-547

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    Study unit 2.3: Haemopoiesis (Production of blood cells)

    Learning objectives:

    Students should be able to:o  Describe the ontogenic phases

    o  Describe the various stages of erythropoiesis, leukopoiesis and thrombopoiesiso  Identify the factors that influence haemopoiesis and explain the role of each

    Source Meyer p 12.6 – 12.7, 12.23-24; Silverthorn p 547-551

    Study unit 2.4: Red blood cells (RBC)

    Study Unit Themes

    2.4.1 Red blood cells - General

    Learning objectives: At the end of this study unit theme the students should be able to:

    o  Describe the production and characteristics of the RBCo  Give values for the normal red blood cell count and to describe physiological and pathological

    variationso  Describe the morphology of the RBC in terms of MCV, MCH, MCHC - including pathological

    variations (Red blood cell profile) (FLG 212 Practical study guide)o  Demonstrate a basic knowledge on haemoglobin which would allow them to describe the

      structure

      the functional arranging of the various structural components

      abnormalities in biosynthesis or structureo  Describe the functions of the red blood cell (Meyer p12.22-12.23)o  Give a basic account of the metabolic activities of red blood cells (Meyer p 12.24)o  Describe the importance of iron balance for erythropoiesis

    Sources: Meyer 12.24 - 12.30; Silverthorn p 551-557

    2.4.2 Lifespan of red blood cells

    Learning objectives:

    Students should be able to:

    o  Describe the factors which influence erythropoiesiso  Describe the normal RBC lifespano  List the causes of haemolysis and explain haemoglobin breakdown (Meyer fig 12.5)

    Sources: Meyer p 12.23-12.25; Silverthorn p 554-557

    2.4.3 Abnormalities of the erythron

    Learning objectives:

    Students should be able to:o  Describe polycythaemia as well as the causes of it

    o  Define anaemia as well as its diagnostic characteristicso  Classify anaemia on the basis of both morphology and aetiology

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    o  Describe the causes and consequences of the deficiency states of Fe++, Vit B12 and folic acid

    Sources: Meyer p 12.26-12.27, 12.23-12.24; Silverthorn p 556-557

     After completion of the practical course in haematology, the students should be able to:

    o  Calculate the red cell indices (red blood cell profile) by making use of the relevant formulae andblood values

    o  Make a diagnosis and suggest possible causes by referring to relevant information obtained inthe haematology course

    Study unit 2.5: Blood groups

    Learning objectives:

     After completion of this study unit the students should be able to:o  Define the ABO and the Rh blood group systems and to describe the characteristic differences

    between the two systems

    o  Explain the clinical implications of the two blood group systems with special reference to bloodtransfusions and erythroblastosis foetalis

    o  Handle problem solving exercises with regard to blood groups, donors and recipients

    Sources: Meyer 12.28-12.31; Silverthorn p 825-827 

    Study unit 2.6: Blood platelets and haemostasis

    Study Unit Themes

    2.6.1  Blood platelets

    Learning objectives:

    Students should be able to:o  Define normal and abnormal platelet countso  Describe the structure of platelets and to relate structure to functiono  Describe the role of platelets in haemostasis

    Sources: Silverthorn p 557-565

    2.6.2 Haemostasis

    Learning objectives:

     After completion of this study students should be able to:o  Describe the reactions which follow upon damage to a blood vessel chronologicallyo  Describe the clotting cascadeo  Explain the causes of clotting abnormalitieso  Describe fibrinolysis

    Source : Silverthorn p 557-565

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    Study unit 2.7: White blood cells (WBC) and an introduction to immunology

    Study Unit Themes

    2.7.1  White blood cells

    Learning objectives:   After completion of this study unit the students should have a basic knowledge of white blood cells andbe able to:o  Identify and classify the different leukocytes on the basis of their morphological characteristicso  Explain the contribution of each type to the defence systemo  List their concentrations, recognise abnormal values and explain the consequences of

    abnormal WBC counts in general.

    Source : Silverthorn p 547-549, 804-825

    Study Unit Themes

    2.7.2 Defence mechanisms

    Learning objectives:

    Students should be able to distinguish between non-specific (general) and specific defencemechanisms.

    2.7.3 Non-specific defence mechanisms (innate immunity)

    Learning objectives

    Students should be able too  explain the different mechanisms involved in non-specific defence

    Source: Silverthorn p 811-814

    2.7.4 Specific immunity (acquired immunity)

    Learning objectives:

    Students should have the basic knowledge which would enable them to:o  Define and describe the characteristics of an immune reactiono

      Distinguish between and give the characteristics of a secondary and a primary immunereactiono  Distinguish between active and passive immunity and explain the reactions which can be

    elicited either naturally or artificiallyo  Define the term antigeno  Give an annotated sketch of a basic immunoglobino  Classify immunoglobulins and to name the characteristics of each classo  Describe the functions of the antibodieso  Define and describe cellular and humoral immunityo  Describe the cause and onset of the allergic reaction

    Source: Silverthorn p 814-825

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    SYLLABUS THEME 3: CARDIOVASCULAR PHYSIOLOGY

    SYLLABUS THEME GOAL: To become conversant with the physiological anatomy, the controlmechanisms, the mechanisms of action and the functions of the cardiovascular system.

    STUDY UNITS

    3.1.  Overview of the cardiovascular system3.2.  Mechanisms and forces involved in blood flow3.3.  The heart3.4.  The heart as a pump3.5.  The blood vessels3.6.  Blood pressure3.7.  Resistance in arterioles3.8.  Distribution of blood in the tissues3.9.  Cardiovascular control centre

    3.10.  Exchange at capillaries3.11.  Lymphatic system

    Study unit 3.1: Overview of the cardiovascular system

    Study Unit Theme

    1.1.1  Transport of substances by the cardiovascular system

    Learning objectives:

    Students must know the substances that are transported by the cardiovascular system and why they

    are important.

    3.1.2 Components of the cardiovascular system

    Learning objectives:

    Students must know the:o  The components of the cardiovascular systemo  Difference between arteries and veinso  Functions of the chambers of the hearto  Be able to distinguish between the pulmonary and systemic circulation and special

    arrangements in the circulation.

    Source: Silverthorn pp. 462-466

    Study unit 3.2: Mechanism and forces involved in blood flow

    Study Unit Theme

    3.2.1 Pressure

    Learning objectives:

    Students should be able to describe:o  Pressure in the cardiovascular systemo  Effect of distance and contraction of the heart on pressure

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    o  Driving pressureo  The importance of a pressure gradient with regards to blood flow

    3.2.2 Resistance

    Learning objectives:Students must be able to explain:o  Resistanceo  The relationship between resistance and flowo  Factors affecting resistanceo  The difference between flow rate and velocity of flowo  Relationship between velocity of flow, flow rate and cross-sectional area

    Source: Silverthorn pp. 466-471

    Study unit 3.3: The heart

    Study Unit Theme

    3.3.1 Anatomy of the heart

    Learning objectives:

    Students should know and be able to describe:o  The layers of the hearto  Pathway of blood flow through the hearto  Heart valves, positions and function

    3.3.2 Contraction of cardiac muscle cells

    Learning objectives:

    Students should be able to distinguish between autorythmic and contractile cells.

    3.3.3 Cardiac contractile cell excitation-contraction coupling

    Learning objectives:

    Students should be able to describe the process of EC coupling as well as the grading of cardiacmuscle cells

    3.3.4 Myocardial action potentials

    Learning objectives:

    Students must be able to recognise and describe the different phases of action potentials in myocardialcontractile and myocardial autorythmic cells.

    Source: Silverthorn pp. 471-482

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    Study unit 3.4: The heart as a pump

    Study Unit Themes

    3.4.1 Conducting system of the heart

    Learning objectives:

    Students should be able to describe the pathway of the electrical conduction system through the heartas well as the importance of each structure.

    3.4.2 Cardiac cycle and electrocardiogram (ECG)

    Learning objectives:

    Students should be able to:o  Recognise the different waves on an ECG and how they correspond to each event in the

    cardiac cycle

    o  Describe each phase of the cardiac cycleo  Interpret the pressure-volume curveo  Distinguish between end-diastolic volume and end-systolic volume

    3.4.3 Stroke volume and cardiac output

    Learning objectives:

    Students should be familiar with and be able to relate the:o  Definition of stroke volume and cardiac output and their formulaeo  Parasympathetic and sympathetic effect on heart rateo  Factors that influence stroke volume and their effects on cardiac outputo  Chemical and neural control of cardiac outputo   Afterload

    Source: Silverthorn pp. 483-501

    Study unit 3.5: The blood vessels

    Study Unit Themes

    3.5.1 Anatomy of the blood vessels

    Learning objectives:

    Students should be familiar with and be able to describe the different layers in each of the bloodvessels and their role in the function of the blood vessel.

    3.5.2 Arteries and arterioles

    Learning objectives:

    Students should be able to describe the structure and characteristics of arteries, arterioles andmetarterioles

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    3.5.3 Capillaries

    Learning objectives:

    Students should be able to describe the structure and characteristics of capillaries as well as thefunction of pericytes.

    3.5.4 Venules and Veins

    Learning objectives:

    Students should be able to describe the structure and characteristics of venules and veins as well asthe importance of valves in the veins.

    3.5.5 Angiogenesis

    Learning objectives:

    Students should be able to define angiogenesis and describe situations where angiogenesis occurs.

    Source: Silverthorn pp. 510-513

    Study unit 3.6: Blood pressure

    Study Unit Theme

    3.6.1 Blood pressure in arteries and veins

    Learning objectives:

    Students should know and be able to describe:o  The origin of blood pressure in the circulationo  Causes of frictiono  Pulse and pulse pressureo  Pumps aiding venous return

    3.6.2 Mean arterial pressure (MAP)

    Learning objectives:

    Students should know and be able to describe:o  MAPo

      The difference between hypertension and hypotension

    3.6.3 Sphygmomanometry

    Learning objectives:

    Students should know and be able to describe the use of the sphygmomanometer in the measurementof blood pressure.

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    3.6.4 Biophysical factors and MAP

    Learning objectives:

    Students should know and be able to describe:o  Peripheral resistance

    o  The relationship between CO, peripheral resistance and MAPo   As well as apply the effects on this relationship when changes in flow, distribution of blood and

    total blood volume occuro  Changes in blood volume

    Source: Silverthorn pp. 513-519

    Study unit 3.7: Resistance in arterioles and blood pressure

    Study Unit Theme

    3.7.1 Poiseuilles’ Law

    Learning objectives:

    Students should be able to explain and apply the following:o  The relationship between resistance in arterioles, length of the arteriole, viscosity of the fluid

    and radius of the tubeo  Control mechanisms of arteriolar resistance including myogenic autoregulationo  Distribution of blood supplyo  Effect of hormones and neurotransmitters on resistance

    Source: Silverthorn pp. 519-524

    Study unit 3.8: Cardiovascular control centre

    Study Unit Theme

    3.8.1 Baroreceptor reflex

    Learning objectives:

    Students should be able to explain and apply the baroreceptor reflex and orthostatic hypertension.

    3.8.2 Other receptors influencing cardiovascular functions

    Learning objectives:

    Students should be able to explain and apply the effect of other receptors on cardiovascular function.

    Source: Silverthorn pp. 524-528

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    Study unit 3.9: Exchange at capillaries

    Study Unit Theme

    3.9.1 Efficiency of gas exchange

    Learning objectives:

    Students should be able to:o  Describe the importance of cross-sectional area of capillaries on the efficiency of exchangeo  Explain and differentiate between diffusion and transcytosis

    3.9.2 Bulk flow

    Learning objectives:

    Students should be able to:o  Describe bulk flow

    o  Compare absorption to filtrationo  Explain hydrostatic and colloid osmotic pressure and the effect thereof on exchangeo  Calculate net pressure

    Source: Silverthorn pp. 528-531

    Study unit 3.10: Lymphatic system

    Study Unit Theme

    3.10.1 Lymphatic system

    Learning objectives:

    Students should know and be able to explain the following:o  Functions of the lymphatic systemo  Composition and origin of lympho  Importance of filtered fluid being returned to the circulationo  Oedema and factors causing oedema

    Source: Silverthorn pp. 532-533