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Gendered Lives, Eighth Edition Chapter 8 Gendered Education: Communication in Schools

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Text of Gendered Lives, Eighth Edition Chapter 8 Gendered Education: Communication in Schools

  • Gendered Lives,Eighth EditionChapter 8

    Gendered Education: Communication in Schools

  • Gendered Education: Communication in SchoolsHistorically, girls had less educational opportunityNow much discrimination eliminatedSchools still marked by gendered dynamics

  • AcademicsMales and females encounter gendered expectations in schoolsBoys developmentally disadvantaged in early school environmentFeminine environmentsAdult females outnumber adult malesBoys have less impulse control difficulty adjusting to school

  • AcademicsTime of frustration and failureMales lag behind females in all levels of schoolingBiology contributes to males slower development of verbal skillsMales more likely to drop out of high school

  • AcademicsFemales success reflects cognitive ability and good study skills and habits Gap expands after high schoolFemales likely to attend collegeRace and socio-economic class also linked to success in higher education

  • AcademicsPersonal choices affect academic performanceStudying or engaging in recreation

  • AcademicsSchooling reproduces gender stereotypesMen not encouraged to enter feminine fieldsSex combines with race to further disadvantage malesAfrican American males targets of teacher disapproval drop out in higher numbers

  • AcademicsFemales perform better at all levels of educationEarn more and higher degrees than males

  • AcademicsBelief females have less ability in math helped erect barriersFemales drop out of math Encounter faculty and peers who believe women are less ableAffect self-confidence and how perform on tasks

  • AcademicsWomen may face gender-related barriers in fields such as engineeringSocial disapprovalAssertiveness needed in field may be counter to social prescriptions for femininity

  • AcademicsSex-related differences in brains and hormones give males edge in math and scienceHigher mean averages for males come from a few males Innate differences less important than social influences in the U.S.Not true in all cultures

  • AcademicsAfrican American girls are encouraged to be more activeMay encounter stereotypes and be encouraged to be less assertive and autonomous when in school

  • Gendered-Stereotyped CurriculaCurriculum content is less biased than in pastBut gender stereotypes persistAccounts of war focus on battles and leadersWomens contributions on home front seldom noted

  • Gendered-Stereotyped CurriculaWomen highlighted in curricula:Women who fit traditional stereotypesBetsy RossWomen who distinguished self on mens termsElla Baker

  • Gendered-Stereotyped CurriculaEpochs taught in terms of effects on menNeglect impact on women and minorities

  • Gendered-Stereotyped CurriculaScience has gender stereotypes that distort how taughtSexism in education intersects with other forms of discriminationMinorities underrepresented in educational materials

  • Gendered-Stereotyped CurriculaCurriculum diminishes education Students deprived of understanding how half the population experiences the worldEncourages men to see themselves as able to fulfill ambitions and women not able to

  • AthleticsFemale students have unprecedented athletic opportunitiesDue in part to Title IXPlaying field not evenNumber of female athletes in college has not increased proportionately

  • AthleticsPrior to Title IX, most coaches of womens sports were womenToday fewer womens sports coached by womenDivision I colleges pay male coaches more than women coachesOnly 37 percent of expenses for athletics allocated to women

  • Athletics2005: Supreme Court ruling regarding Title IX:All colleges required to send students survey about athletic interests and abilitiesIf dont reply, may assume satisfied with policies

  • Gender Socialization in Peer CulturesMales more insistent boys do boy things than females are that girls do girl thingsGender socialization more rigid for boys

  • Gender Socialization in Peer CulturesMale bonding in peer groups reinforces masculine identificationOften engage in drinking and sexual activity

  • Gender Socialization in Peer CulturesFraternities encourage brothers to embody extreme versions of masculinityDesire to be accepted overshadows values and sense of decency

  • Gender Socialization in Peer CulturesFaculty treat women students in gender-stereotyped waysThese actions tell women students they are not taken seriously

  • Gender Socialization in Peer CulturesWomen in college feel two sets of pressures:Be successful as feminine womanBe smart and academically successful

  • Gender Socialization in Peer CulturesRelentless pressure to achieve effortless perfectionUndergraduate women feel overwhelmed by expectations

  • Single-Sex Educational ProgramsSingle-sex schools may solve some of these problemsHeterosexual males more likely to make academics priority in single-sex schools

  • Single-Sex Educational ProgramsDisproportionate number of women in Congress and running top businesses graduated from womens colleges

  • Single-Sex Educational ProgramsCritics argue sex-segregated education isnt answerBetter solution is make sure teachers in all schools treat students equallySingle-sex schools tend to be private and charge tuition

  • Gendered Expectations & Pressures Facing FacultyGender stereotypes also affect faculty membersGender biases and barriers greater for women faculty than for women students

  • Gendered HierarchiesProportion of male and female faculty affect studentsWomen and minority students have fewer role modelsIf more men in administrative roles, students may infer its normal for men to hold positions of status

  • Gender Bias in EvaluationsWomen and minorities more likely to be hired when blind selection processPredominantly male hiring committees hire fewer female faculty

  • Gender Bias in EvaluationsOnce hired, women continue to face biasPerformance more closely scrutinizedJudged by stricter standardsHard to be perceived as competent

  • Gender Bias in EvaluationsMen have to give more convincing demonstrations of incompetenceMale candidates judged on promiseFemale candidates judged by accomplishments

  • Gender Bias in EvaluationsInvisible hand discrimination unwitting discrimination in applying policies that are not inherently biasedLargely unconscious makes it difficult to eliminate

  • Gender Bias in EvaluationsAssertiveness in males taken as brillianceAssertiveness in females judged negatively

    Womens achievements - luckMens achievements - competence

  • Gender Bias in EvaluationsGender bias in evaluations has material consequencesDiscrepancies between salaries

  • Gendered Policies & ExpectationsInstitutions based on outdated family modelAssume faculty committed to job dont have to worry about domestic life

  • Gendered Policies & ExpectationsEarly years require long hoursThese years usually coincide with ideal years for bearing childrenWomen faculty find it challenging to be professionals and parents

  • Gendered Policies & ExpectationsFaculty member who has child loses work timeTenure clock penalizes womenMales penalized if career is not primary focusNo paternity leave

  • Gendered Policies & ExpectationsDue to small numbers, excessive service and mentoring responsibilities for womenContribute to overload on female faculty

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