Handbook of Electronics Tables and Formulas.6-Th Ed

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<p>SIXTH EDITION</p> <p>Compiled and FAited by The Howard W. Sams Engineering Staff</p> <p>Howard W. Sams &amp; Co.A Division of Macmillan, Inc. 4300 West 62nd Street, Indianapolis, IN 46268 USA</p> <p>,:', 1959, 1962, 1964, 1968, 1973, 1979, and 1986 by Howard W. Sams &amp; Co. A Division of Macmillan, Inc.</p> <p>SIXTH EDITION 1:IRST PRINTING-1986All rights reserved. No part of this book shall be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without written permission from the publisher. No patent liability is assumed with respect to the use of the information contained herein. While every precaution has been taken in the preparation of this book, the publisher assumes no responsibility for errors or omissions. Neither is any liability assumed for damages resulting from the use of the information contained herein. International Standard Book Number: 0-672-22469-0 1.ibrary of Congress Catalog Card Number: 86-60032 Editor: Sara Black Illustrator: Ralph E. Lund Interior Design: 7: R. Ernrick Cover Art: Stephanie RayShirley Engraving Co., Inc. Jutnes F: Mier, Keller, Mier, Inc. Composition: I-'horo Cornp Corp. Printed in the United Stales of America</p> <p>Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v .. Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v ~ i List of Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix Chapter 1 ELECTRONICS FORMULAS AND LAWS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1Ohm's Law for Direct Current . . . . . 1 DC Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I Ohm's Law Formulas . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Ohm's Law Nomograph . . . . . . . . . . 2 Kirchhoff's Laws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Capacitance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Inductance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Q Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Resonance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Admittance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1I Susceptance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I I Conductance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Energy Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Reactance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Impedance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Ohm's Law for Alternating Current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Average. RMS. Peak. and Peakto-Peak Voltage and Current . . . . 21 Power Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Time Constants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Transformer Formulas . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Voltage Regulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 DC-Meter Formulas . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26</p> <p>Frequency and Wavelength . . . . . . . . 28 Transmission-Line Formulas . . . . . . 30 Modulation Formulas . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Decibels and Volume Units . . . . . . . . 32</p> <p>Chapter 2 CONSTANTS AND STANDARDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 ...Dielectric Constants of Materials . . 39 Metric System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Conversion Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Standard Frequencies and Time Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 World Time Conversion Chart . . . . . 57 Frequency and Operating Power Tolerances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Commercial Operator Licenses . . . . 64 Amateur Operator Privileges . . . . . . 69 Amateur ("Ham") Bands . . . . . . . . . 70 Types of Emissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Television Signal Standards . . . . . . . 74 Television Channel Frequencies . . . . 77 Frequency Spectrum-Sound and Electromagnetic Radiation . . . . . . 78 Audiofrequency Spectrum . . . . . . . . 79 Radiofrequency Spectrum . . . . . . . . 79 NOAA Weather Frequencies . . . . . . 83</p> <p>Chapter 3</p> <p>SYMBOLS D CODES . 85 AN .</p> <p>International Q Signals . . . . . . . . . . . 85 Z Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 10-Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 1 1-Code Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 The International Code . . . . . . . . . . . 94</p> <p>SINPO Radio-Signal Reporting Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 Greek Alphabet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 Letter Symbols and Abbreviations . 97 Semiconductor Abbreviations . . . . . 105 Resistor Color Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 1 1 Capacitor Color Codes . . . . . . . . . . . 1 12 Semiconductor Color Code . . . . . . . 116 Electronics Schematic Symbols . . . .116</p> <p>Chapter 4 SERVICED AN INSTALLATION DATA. . . . . . . . . . .123Coaxial Cable Characteristics . . . . .123 Test-Pattern Interpretation . . . . . . . . 123 Miniature Lamp Data . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 Gas-Filled Lamp Data . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 Receiver Audiopower and Frequency Response Check . . . . .13 1 Speaker Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . .133 Machine Screw and Drill Sizes . . . . .133 Types o t' Screw Heads . . . . . . . . . . . .1 33 Sheet-Metal Gages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 Resistance of Metals and Alloys . . . 137 Copper-Wire Characteristics . . . . . .137</p> <p>Mathematical Symbols . . . . . . . . . . .165 Fractional Inch. Decimal. and Millimeter Equivalents . . . . . . . . . 166 Powers of 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 Algebraic Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . .168 Geometric Formulas . . . . . . . . . . . . .170 Trigonometric Functions . . . . . . . . .174 Binary Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .175 Other Number Systems . . . . . . . . . . .185 F'undamentals of Boolean Algebra .185 Common Logarithms . . . . . . . . . . . .188 Squares. Cubes. Square Roots. Cube Roots. and Reciprocals . . . .193</p> <p>Chapter 7</p> <p>Chapter 5</p> <p>DESIGN DATA . . . . . . . . 141 .</p> <p>Vacuum-Tube Formulas . . . . . . . . . .141 Transistor Formulas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 Operational Amplifiers (Op Amps) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 Heat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .145 Fiber Optics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 Three-Phase Power Formulas . . . . . . 147 Coil Windings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 Current Ratings for Equipment and Chassis Wiring . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 Filter Formulas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 Attenuator Formulas . . . . . . . . . . . . .156 Standard Potentiometer Tapers . . . . 163</p> <p>Metric System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224 Winds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225 225 Weight of Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225 Hydraulic Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226 Falling Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226 Speed of Sound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Properties of Free Space ..........226 Cost of Operation ...............226 Conversion of Matter into Energy . .227 227 Atomic Second . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . International and Absolute Units . .227 Degrees, Minutes, and Seconds of a Circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .227 Grad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227</p> <p>. . . . . .217 Temperature Conversion . . . . . . . . . . 217 Teleprinter Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217 . ASCII Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219 219 Kansas City Standard . . . . . . . . . . . . Characteristics of the Elements . . . .220 Measures and Weights ............223I~ISCELLANEOU~</p> <p>Appendix A CALCULATIONS USING COMMODORE COMPUTER. .229 64@ .. Appendix B PROGRAM CONVERSIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 247 Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253 .</p> <p>Chapter 6 MATHEMATICAL TABLES AND FORMULAS . . . . . . . . . . . . 165 ...Mathematical Constants . . . . . . . . . . 165</p> <p>The electronics industry is rapidly changing. New developments require frequent updating of information if any handbook such as this is to remain a useful tool. With this thought in mind, each item in the sixth edition was reviewed. Where necessary, additions or changes were made. In previous editions, we asked for recommendations of additional items to consider for inclusion in future editions. Many suggestions were received and considered; most of them are incorporated in this volume. Hence, this book contains the information that users of the first five editions-engineers, technicians, students, experimenters, and hobbyists-have told us they would like to have in a comprehensive, one-stop edition. We have added new sections on resistor and capacitor color codes, laws of heat flow in transistors and heat sinks, operational amplifiers, and basic fiber optics. We also detail how to add, subtract, multiply, and divide vectors on a computer as well as work ~ith natural logarithms in computer programs. Computer programs that calculate many of the electronics formulas that appear in the text are part of the two new appendices. Throughout the text we have attempted to clarify many misconceptions. For example, we clearly distinguish between the phys-</p> <p>ical movement of a free electron and the guided wave motion produced by the electron's field. In addition, we present the volt as a unit of work or energy rather than a unit of electrical pressure or force. We also make a distinction between formulas or mathematical concepts and physical objects or measurements. In addition, we have retained our comprehensive coverage of the broad range of commonly used electronics formulas and mathematical tables from the fifth edition.</p> <p>Chapter 1-The basic formulas and laws, so important in all branches of electronics. Nomographs that speed up the solution of DC power, parallel resistance, and reactance. Dimensions of the electrical units are also discussed. Chapter 2-Useful, but hard-toremember constants and governmentand industry-established standards. The comprehensive table of conversion factors is especially helpful in electronics calculations. Chapter 3-Symbols and codes that have been adopted over the years. The latest semiconductor information is included.</p> <p>Chapter 4-Items of particular interest to electronics service technicians. Chapter 5-Data most often used in circuit design work. The filter and attenuator configurations and formulas are particularly useful to service technicians and design engineers. Chapter 6-Mathematical tables and formulas. The comprehensive table of powers, roots, and reciprocals is a n important feature of this section.</p> <p>Chapter 7-Miscellaneous items such as measurement conversions, table of elements, and temperature scales. Appendices-Computer programs for basic electronics formulas. No effort has been spared to make this handbook of maximum value to anyone, in any branch of electronics. Once again your comments, criticisms, and recommendations for any additional data you would like t o see included in a future edition will be welcomed.</p> <p>1-1 Average. RMS. Peak. and Peak-to-Peak Values . . . . . . . . 21 1-2 Time Constants Versus Percent of Voltage or Current . . . . . . . . . . . 23 1-3 Dimensional Units of Mechanical Quantities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 1-4 Dimensional Units of Electrical Quantities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 1-5 Decibel Table (0-19.9 dB) . . . . . . . 33 1-6 Decibel Table (20-100 dB) . . . . . . . 36 2-1 Dielectric Constants of Materials . 40 2-2 SI Base and Supplementary Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 2-3 SI-Derived Units with Special Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1 2-4 Common S1 Derived Units . . . . . . 41 2-5 Units in Use with SI . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 2-6 Metric Prefixes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 2-7 Metric Conversion Table . . . . . . . . 43 2-8 Conversion Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 2-9 Binary and Decimal Equivalents . . 53 2-10 Other Standards Stations . . . . . . . . 60 2-1 1 Power Limits of Personal Radio Services Stations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 2-12 Frequency Tolerances of Personal Radio Services Stations . . . . . . . . . 64 2-13 Citizens Band Frequencies and Upper and Lower Tolerances . . . . . 65 2-14 "Ham" Bands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1 2-15 Maximum Power for the 160-m Band . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 2-16 Types of Emission . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 2-17 Television Channel Frequencies . . 77 2-18 Cable TV Channel Frequencies . . . 78 2-19 Frequency Classification . . . . . . . . 79</p> <p>3-1 3-2 3-3 3-4 3-5 3-6 3-7 3-8 3-9 3-10 3-11 3-12 3-13 3-15 3-15 4-1 4-2 4-3 4-4 4-5 4-6 4-7 4-8 4-9 4-10 5-1 5-2</p> <p>Q Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 Z-Code for Point-to-Point Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 APCO 10-Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 CBers 10-Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 Police 10-Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 Law Enforcement I ]-Code . . . . . . 94 SINPO Signal-Reporting Code . . . 95 Greek Alphabet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 Greek Symbol Designations . . . . . 96 Resistor Color Code . . . . . . . . . . . .112 Molded Paper Tubular Capacitor Color Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .113 Molded Flat Paper and Mica Capacitor Color Code . . . . . . . . . .114 Ceramic Capacitor Color Codes . .1 14 Tantalum Capacitor Color Codes . 116 Semiconductor Color Code . . . . . .116 Coaxial Cable Characteristics . . . .124 Miniature Lamp Data . . . . . . . . . . .126 Gas-Filled Lamp Data . . . . . . . . . .130 External Resistances Needed for Gas-Filled Lamps . . . . . . . . . . . . . .131 Drill Sizes and Decimal Equivalents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .134 Machine Screw Tap and Clearance Drill Sizes .....................135 Common Gage Practices ........135 Comparison of Gages . . . . . . . . . . .136 Resistance of Metals and Alloys . . 137 Copper-Wire Characteristics . . . . .138 Recommended Current Ratings (Continuous Duty) . . . . . . . . . . . . .150 K Factors for Calculating Attenuator Loss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .158</p> <p>Fractional Inch. Decimal. and Millimeter Equivalents . . . . . . . . . .166 Trigonometric Formulas . . . . . . . . . 175 Natural Trigonometric Functions . 176 182 Powers of 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Excess-3 Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .182 Gray Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .182 Basic Rules of Symbolic Logic ...186 Summary of Logical Statements . .186</p> <p>6-9 Common Logarithms . . . . . . . . . . .189 6-10 Squares. Cubes. Square Roots. Cube Roots. and Keciprocals . . . . .194 7-1 Moore ARQ Code (Compared with 5-Unit Teleprinter Code) . . . .219 7-2 ASCII Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220 7-3 Characteristics of the Elements ...220 7-4 Minutes and Seconds in Decimal Parts of a Degree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .228</p> <p>Chapter 1</p> <p>OHM'S LAW FOR DIRECT CURRENTAll substances offer some obstruction to the flow of current. According to Ohm's law, the current that flows is directly proportional to the applied v...</p>

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