Hawthorne Studies Nitesh

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Nitesh KhatiwadaMasters of Business ManagementNepal CommerceCampusThe Behavioural Management

The Hawthorne StudiesCoined in 1950 by Henry A. Landsberger when analyzing earlier experiments from 192432 at theHawthorne Works

First Phase:Sequence of illumination tests from 1924 to 1927Second Phase:Experiments beginning in 1927 focused on the relay assembly departmentFurther Study:Interview with the employeesSimultaneous Study:Bank wiring test roomSource: Management and The Worker: 1939

Illumination Tests1Source: Management and The Worker: 1939

Employees taking part in Illumination Studies: 1930

Illuminatin StudiesSet out to determine the effects of lighting on worker efficiencyAccounts of the study revealed no significant correlation between productivity and light levelsThe results prompted researchers to investigate other factors affecting worker output

Relay Assembly Room2Source: Management and The Worker: 1939

Relay Assembly RoomResearchers were unsure if productivity increased in this experiment because ofthe introduction of rest periodsshorter working hourswage incentivesthe dynamics of a smaller groupor the special attention the women receivedIntroduction of Elton Mayo and Fritz Roethlisberger - 1928

Source: Management and The Worker: 1939

Bank Wiring Test Room3Source: Management and The Worker: 1939

Bank Wiring Test RoomTo identify the effect of wage incentivesThe study of fourteen menConditions were unaltered no change in productivity occurredAn implicit understanding among the workers not to exceed what they considered a fair quotaSource: Management and The Worker: 1939

Interview Process4Source: Management and The Worker: 1939

Interview ProcessEmployees didnt respond well to scheduled questionsEmployees were allowed to have free talks

Source: Management and The Worker: 1939

Variables DiscussedIndependent:Confounding:

Dependent:Light IlluminationDuration of work daysFoodHumidityTemperatureVentilationRest BrakesWagesSupervision

AttentionParticipant ReactivitySocial NormsParticipants ExpectationsWork GroupPerformance Feedback

ProductivityAttendanceMorale

FindingMental attitudes, proper supervision, informal social relationships experienced in a group were key to productivity and job satisfactionEmployees often did all sorts of non-logical things in order to belong in the groupEmployees believed in a sense of common purpose and value of their workSource: Management and The Worker: 1939

Informal organization constituted by the activities, sentiments, interactions, norms, and personal and professional connections of individuals and groups that had developed over extended periods of time makes organization strongerThe social system, which defined a workers relation to her work and to her companions, was not the product of rational engineering but of actual, deep-rooted human associations and sentiments.FindingSource: Management and The Worker: 1939

ContributionSource: Management and The Worker: 1939

ContributionBrought to light ideas concerningMotivational influencesJob satisfactionResistance to changeGroup normsWorker participationSource: Management and The Worker: 1939

From the leadership point of view organizations that do not paySufficient attention to people and cultural are consistently less successful than those that doSufficient attention to people and the deep sentiments and relationships connecting them are consistently less successful than those that do.The change which you and your associates are working to effect will not be mechanical but humane.ConclusionSource: : http://www.library.hbs.edu/hc/hawthorne/Source: Management and The Worker: 1939

Thanks!