Helping English Learners Meet High Standards . Diane August Managing Research Scientist. June 2012 . Presentation Overview. The need to improve educational outcomes for English learners (ELs) Guiding principles for helping ELs meet high standards - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Helping English Language Learners Meet the New Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts
Helping English Learners Meet High Standards Diane AugustManaging Research Scientist
June 2012 Copyright 2012 American Institutes for Research.All rights reserved.1Presentation OverviewThe need to improve educational outcomes for English learners (ELs) Guiding principles for helping ELs meet high standardsExamples based on a model EL lesson: Lincolns Gettysburg AddressThis work was partially supported by DSF Consulting LLC with funds from the NY State Board of Regents.
#2The Need to Improve Educational Outcomes for English LearnersThere is a large gap between ELs and native English speaking students in all subjects.Average 8th grade scale scores for the 2009 National Assessment for Educational Progress assessment:
English LearnersNative EnglishDifferenceScience103153-50Math243285-42Reading219264-45#A scale score is a score derived from student responses to assessment items, that summarizes the overall level of performance attained by that student. While NAEP does not produce scale scores for individual students, NAEP does produce summary statistics describing scale scores for groups of students. NAEP scale score range from 0-500 for reading and math and 0-300 for science
Because NAEP scales are developed independently for each subject, scale score and achievement level results cannot be compared across subjects. However, these reporting metrics greatly facilitate performance comparisons within a subject from year to year and from one group of students to another in the same grade.31. Select Grade Appropriate Standards and TextCollaboration between content area teachers and ESL specialist to select grade appropriate standards From the beginning, expose ELs to text at grade-appropriate levels.For ELLs, text at instructional/independent reading levels can also be used to teach grade appropriate skills.#ELs need access to cognitively challenging, grade-appropriate text and grade-appropriate skills and knowledge so that they do not fall behind their English-speaking peers academically. While it is important to expose ELs to text at grade-appropriate lexile bands, grade appropriate skills can be taught using text at instructional and or independent reading levels as well.4
Qualitative: levels ofmeaning or purpose; structure; language conventionality andclarity; and knowledge demandsQuantitative: word length or frequency;sentence length; and text cohesionReader and Task: specific to particular readers (e.g., motivation, knowledge, and experiences) and to particular tasks (e.g., purpose and the complexity of the task)1. Select Grade Appropriate Standards and TextFrom: National Governors Association Center for Best Practices & Council of Chief State School Officers (2010, p. 4) #Quantitative: Lexile Bandshttps://lexile.com/
1. Select Grade Appropriate Standards and Text#Example: The Gettysburg Address by Abraham Lincoln
TextLexile LevelGrade BandFour score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal.
Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battlefield of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this.
But, in a larger sense, we can not dedicatewe can not consecrate we can not hallowthis ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before usthat from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotionthat we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vainthat this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedomand that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.150011+1. Select Grade Appropriate Standards and Text#Quantitative: Coh-Metrix (University of Memphis)http://cohmetrix.memphis.edu/
Type in the text titleChoose the text genreNote the source of the textName the job (for later look-up)Select a discourse typePaste the text into the boxClick on submit1. Select Grade Appropriate Standards and Text#Important Quantitative Output File Measures
NameDescriptionRange (Easy-Hard)WORD CacwThe mean concreteness value of all content words700 to 100WORDCmcsThe mean of the most abstract words in each sentence700 to 100HYNOUNawThe mean hypernym (concreteness) value of nouns10+ to 1HYVERBawThe mean hypernym (concreteness) value of verbs10+ to 1SYNHwNumber of high order syntactic constituents 0 and upSYNLEThe mean number of words before the main verb0 and upDENSPR2The ratio of pronouns to nouns0 and upCREFPauProportion of pronouns with referents in earlier sentences0 and upTYPTOKcA ratio indicating the number of unique words0 to 1CONiThe number of connectives0 and up1. Select Grade Appropriate Standards and Text#Text with multiple levels of meaningDistortions in organization of text (e.g. time sequences)Sophisticated figurative language Significant use of variations to standard EnglishSpecialized or technical content knowledge assumed/required Limited use of text features and graphics to cue the readerExtensive and unfamiliar general and domain-specific vocabularyUse of language that is archaic
Qualitative Measures of Text Complexity*
*From: Fisher, D., Frey, N., & Lapp, D. (2012) Text complexity: Raising rigor in reading. Newark, DE: International Reading Association. 1. Select Grade Appropriate Standards and Text#102. Provide Additional Support for ELsELs need additional support because they are learning language and content at the same time.Additional support is a legal obligation (Lau v. Nichols).Methods:Scaffold instruction so it is comprehensible.Develop academic language associated with key subject areas.#Research shows that while ELs benefit from instructional practices that are also effective for native English speakers, they benefit from additional support because they are learning language and content concurrently Providing this support is a legal obligation (Lau v. Nichols). Examples of methods that provide additional support include using gestures, paraphrasing, and lower-level questions to increase comprehension of text and oral discourse, glossing key vocabulary; and instruction in word-learning strategies and comprehension strategies. August & Shanahan, 2010; Genesee, Lindholm-Leary, Saunders, & Christian, 2006
112. Provide Additional Support for ELsWatch a video clip of an actor playing Abraham Lincoln deliver the Gettysburg AddressRead about the Gettysburg AddressWatch a video clip about Abraham LincolnDo an interactive reading about the Civil WarDo an interactive reading about the Declaration of Independence (a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal).
Scaffolding Example Students engage in activities to build background knowledge about the Gettysburg Address prior to reading it.#12Scaffolding Example Students engage in interactive reading of the Gettysburg Address and have access to glossed vocabulary; students answer questions with sentence frames that can be adapted for different levels of language proficiency.
2. Provide Additional Support for ELsFour score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal.score twenty
bring forth create 1. What does Lincoln mean by four score and seven years ago? Four score and seven years ago means______ years ago.
87#132. Provide Additional Support for ELsFour score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal.score twenty
bring forth create 2. What does Lincoln mean by our fathers? By our fathers Lincoln means ___________________________. 3. What nation was brought forth or created four score and seven years before the Gettysburg address? _________________was brought forth or created.the men who founded the United StatesThe United States#142. Provide Additional Support for ELsFour score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal.score twenty
bring forth create 4. The new nation was conceived in liberty. What does the phrase conceived in liberty mean? Conceived in liberty means that _____________________.
5. The nation was dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal What does the proposition or idea all men are created equal mean? All men are created equal means that ______________________.it was created to be freeeveryone has the samerights and freedoms. #15Academic Language Example Students receive direct instruction in key/high frequency vocabulary
2. Provide Additional Support for ELs
#16Academic Language Example Students engage in a functional analysis of the text to help them unpack complex sentences
2. Provide Additional Support for ELs
#18Four score and seven years ago our f