History of Jews in Russia

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    L orhup hn jlmd lei ndjlmd rlkk`s hn tcd [dnhrj Jhvdjdet.

    V`efd tcd -97 FD), Fcr`st`le`ty `s`etrhiufdi `e @srldm lei lei jley let`-Adw`sc mlws lrd delftdi. Ky tcd >tc fdetury, Adws

    clvd kdfhjd l j`ehr`ty `e tcd`r hwe mlei. Lntdr tcd Lrlk fhequdst, tcd Adw`sc

    phpumlt`he idfm`eds nurtcdr. Lt tcd t`jd hn tcd n`rst fruslids (

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    ?

    [hjle shmi`drs flrry`eo hnn tcd Jdehrlc, tcd sdvde-krlefcdi fleidmlkrl, lei htcdr sph`ms nrhj

    tcd Ydjpmd `e Adruslmdj. Ycd [hjle odedrlm Y`tus cli tcd Ydjpmd idstrhydi (?H FD) lei tcd

    Adw`sc phpumlt`he dxpdmmdi. Adws kdole th sdttmd tcrhuochut tcd [hjle Djp`rd, lmheo tcd fhlst hn

    Ehrtc Lnr`fl, e @tlmy lei Vpl`e, lmheo tcd r vdr [c`ed lei e Nrlefd.

    Idtl`m nrhj tcd Lrfc hn Y`tus, [hjd

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    3

    Kubclrle Adws lrhuei

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    0

    Fhuetr`ds w`tc jhrd tcle

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    Whpd Trkle sujjhe`eo tcd kdm`dvdrs th tcd fruslid `e

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    ;7

    Le lmmdodi idsdfrlt`he hn tcd chst ky Adws `e Vtdrekdro, Odrjley, `e Adws

    wdrd kuredi.

    Odrjle whhifut,

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    ;

    L prhpcdt `e l fcurfc w`eihw `e _`efcdstdr Fltcdirlm, wdlr`eo tcd "Adw Clt."

    Chmy Vdpumfcrd Fclpdm, _`efcdstdr, Deomlei,

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    ;?

    Ycd ocdtth `e [hjd `e tcd mltd

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    ;3

    Ycd frdsfdet-sclpdi "Adw Vtrddt" `e Nrlebnurt, Odrjley, dstlkm`scdi `e ;. @t wls s`tultdi

    huts`id tcd f`ty wlmms lei cli hemy twh oltds.

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    ;0

    Ycd ocdtth `e Nrlebnurt lntdr tcd f`ty wlmms wdrd pummdi ihwe `e tcd

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    67

    "Tsury"

    IT[@EO YCD VDFHEI CLMN hn tcd J`iimd Lods, thwes orhw lei trlid dxpleis.

    Jley dfhehj`f nueft`hes tcd Adws cli numn`mmdi `e tcd plst lrd tlbde hvdr ky htcdrorhups. Jhrd lei jhrd prhndss`hes lei frlnts lrd hrole`zdi `e ou`mis. Ls hemy ou`mi

    jdjkdrs lrd lmmhwdi th prlft`fd `e tcdsd prhndss`hes, lei edw jdjkdrs clvd th pmdiodle hltc he tcd K`kmd, Adws lrd dnndft`vdmy dxfmuidi nrhj jdjkdrsc`p.

    @e _dstdre lei Fdetrlm Durhpd, Adws lrd ir`vde nrhj hed hffuplt`he lntdr lehtcdr. Hemytrlid lei jhedy-mdei`eo rdjl`es hpde th tcdj. Jley Adw`sc fhjjue`t`ds s`eb `eth

    phvdrty, lei hemy l ndw fhet`eud th prhspdr. Ls tcd Fcurfc nhrk`is Fcr`st`les th mdei

    jhedy lol`est `etdrdst, kut tcd eddi nhr frdi`t `e tcd dxplei`eo dfhehjy `efrdlsds, Adwslrd hntde tcd hemy heds th prhv`id mhles. @etdrdst he mhles `s c`oc kdflusd hn tcd r`sbs

    `evhmvdi lei tcd mlfb hn flp`tlm.

    Adws kdfhjd `idet`n`di w`tc "usury," tcd mdei`eo hn jhedy lol`est dxfdss`vd `etdrdst.

    Lehtcdr stdrdhtypd hn "tcd Adw" `s frdltdi lol`est tcd klfborhuei hn tcd sljd dfhehj`ff`rfujstlefds1 tcd Adws ls phhr pdiimdrs hn sdfhei-clei lrt`fmds. Ycdsd twh

    fhetrli`fthry `jlods hn tcd Adws, tcd clrsc lei uenl`r jhedymdeidr lei tcd phhr lei

    uetrustwhrtcy pdiimdr, surv`vd `eth tcd ;7tc fdetury - mheo lntdr tcd`r hr`o`es `e rdm`o`hus

    `ethmdrlefd lei dfhehj`f jlro`elm`zlt`he clvd i`slppdlrdi.

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    Ndri`elei Mlslmmd (

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    ??

    AD_V @E YCD [TVV@LE DJW@[D

    L "Adw`sc Wrhkmdj"

    @E YCD W[@EF@WLM@YP HN JHVFH_ lei tcd [uss`le Djp`rd tcd prdsdefd hn Adwswls eht thmdrltdi s`efd tcd J`iimd Lods. Adws wdrd fhes`idrdi tcd dedjy hn Fcr`st kyHrtchihx Fcr`st`le`ty lei kdm`dvdi th l`j lt fhevdrt`eo Fcr`st`les th Auil`sj. Ycd

    Fzlrs, `e tcd`r rhmd ls Wrhtdfthrs hn tcd Nl`tc, rdoumlrmy rdnusdi pdrj`ss`he dvde nhr

    Adw`sc jdrfclets th detdr [uss`l.

    _cde lntdr tcd plrt`t`hes hn Whmlei sdvdrlm cueirdi tchuslei Adws kdfhjd `efhrphrltdi`eth tcd [uss`le Djp`rd, tcd [uss`le ohvdrejdet `jjdi`ltdmy pdrfd`vds tcdj ls "tcd

    Adw`sc Wrhkmdj," d`tcdr th kd shmvdi ky denhrfdi lss`j`mlt`he hr dxpums`he.

    Ycd n`rst "prhkmdj" tcd Adws phsd `s th tcd elt`helm`st hr plesmlv`f fhefdpt`he hn tcd[uss`le Djp`rd. @e tc`s fhefdpt`he, tcd Adws ih eht n`t `eth tcd l`j th nhrj "hn lmm

    elt`helm`t`ds l s`eomd pdhpmd" klsdi he "fhjjhe mleoulod, fhjjhe rdm`o`he lei tcd

    Vmlv`f J`r."

    Ycd sdfhei `ssud `s dfhehj`f1 tcd jlahr`ty hn Adws m`vds `e v`mmlods lei numn`mms l v`tlm

    rhmd `e tcd v`mmlod dfhehjy. Yc`s phsds l prhkmdj th tcd nduilm hridr hn tcd Djp`rd, lsnrdd thwespdhpmd lrd eht pdrj`ttdi th m`vd `e v`mmlods wcdrd khtc tcd mlei lei tcd pdhpmd -

    sdrns - lrd tcd pr`vltd prhpdrty hn tcd ehk`m`ty. Ycd Whm`sc ehk`m`ty, clv`eo mhst `ts nduilm

    r`octs lntdr tcd plrt`t`he, wlets th rdol`e tcd dfhehj`f nueft`hes tcdy hefd idmdoltdi th

    tcd Adws - l phm`t`flm idjlei tclt [uss`le ohvdrejdets lrd dlodr th lffhjjhiltd.

    Khtc `ssuds, Adw`sc fumturlm lei rdm`o`hus luthehjy lei Adw`sc rds`idefd `e tcd v`mmlods,

    lrd liirdssdi t`jd lei lol`e ky idordds lei fhuetdr-idordds. Chwdvdr, khtc "prhkmdjs"

    rdjl`e mlrodmy uerdshmvdi tcrhuochut tcd

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    ?3

    Ycd Wlmd hn Vdttmdjdet

    Nrhj

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    ?0

    L Adw`sc nlj`my lt chjd. Vdvdrlm Fzlr`st idfrdds prhc`k`tdi tcd trli`t`helm Adw`sc irdss sufc ls

    tcd flntle whre ky tcd jle he tcd r`oct, lei tcd orhw`eo hn "pdyht," hr s`idmhfbs, whre ky tcd

    khy.

    Fl.

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    Adw`sc tlvdre sfded. @e tcd Wlmd, jley Adws trli`t`helmmy dlredi l m`v`eo ky `eebddp`eo, idsp`td l

    ohvdrejdet phm`fy th jhvd Adws hut hn tc`s hffuplt`he.

    M`tchorlpc, fl.

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    3

    L nlj`m`lr s`oct `e tcd Wlmd1 l phrtdr w`tc c`s rhpd, wl`t`eo nhr l whrb hnndr.

    Hmi lod chjd `e B`dv. Wlupdr`zlt`he `e tcd Wlmd krhuoct nhurtc l w`id rleod hn fclr`tlkmdlft`v`t`ds, flr`eo nhr tcd hmi lei s`fb, i`str`kut`eo nhhi lei fmhtc`eo.

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    3?

    L Odrjle phstflri nrhj tcd N`rst _hrmi _lr1 "me l Whm`sc Adw Yhwe." Dvde tcde, jhst hn tcd

    chusds wdrd jlid hn whhi.

    Adws fdmdkrlt`eo tcd fhjpmdt`he hn tcd wr`t`eo hn l thrlc sfrhmm w`tc l ilefd `e Iukrhvel,

    Kdmhruss`l, l f`ty wcdrd jhst hn tcd tlmd`s`j (prlydr sclwms) hn [uss`l wdrd prhiufdi.

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    33

    Jlb`eo w`ed e B`sc`edv, Kdsslrlk`l.

    Lmtchuoc Adws lrd lmmhwdi th detdr odedrlm sfchhms, eht jley ih kdflusd `estruft`hes lrd

    o`vde `e d`tcdr Whm`sc, [uss`le hr Odrjle - eht `e P`ii`sc, wc`fc `s ky nlr tcd jhst

    w`idmy sphbde.

    Nrhj 777 `e

    9. Vhjd detdr tcd jl`estrdlj hn tcd [uss`le `etdmm`odets`l, lei `e tc`s rdspdft tcd

    sfchhms numn`mm tcd`r purphsd. L eujkdr hn tcdsd stuidets mltdr ah`e tcd prhtdst jhvdjdet

    lol`est tcd hpprdss`vd Fzlr`st rdo`jd.

    M`tdrlfy hn tcd thtlm [uss`le phpumlt`he lei hn tcd Adw`sc phpumlt`he `e pdrfdetlod `e

    Ndjlmds

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    30

    Ivhrl Dstcdr Odmndr (

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    07

    L wdii`eo `e Whmheehyd, Tbrl`ed. Ycd kr`id `s stlei`eo ueidr tcd fcuplc, tcd jlrr`lod flehpy.

    L jdmljdi (tdlfcdr) `e

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    0;7 (:7). Ycd p`ebls fhetl`es tcd n`ei`eoslei m`st hn jdjkdrsc`p hn tcd shf`dty.

    Whhr khys `e Vzdrdszw kd`eo jdlsurdi nhr edw fmhtcds. Ycd bdc`mmht, hr Adw`sc fhjjuelmhrole`zlt`hes, fhmmdftdi spdf`lm tlxds, sufc ls tcd tlx he bhscdr jdlt, th flrd nhr tcd eddiy.

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    06

    [lkk` @sllf [d`es (

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    09

    Ycd wr`tdr Vchmdj Lmd`fcdj w`tc c`s nlj`my he l Edw Pdlr's flri nrhj

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    04

    Ycd klebdr Klrhe Chrlfd O`ezkuro hn Vt. Wdtdrskuro, l sphbdsjle nhr [uss`le Adwry leiprhjhtdr hn tcd lrts.

    Ycd Ordlt Vyelohoud hn Vt. Wdtdrskuro, lmsh flmmdi "Klrhe O`ezkuro syelohoud" lntdr `tskdednlfthr, hpdedi e

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    0>

    Ycd "Adws _lmb" `e Hidssl. @e tcd

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    0?

    Ycd nlj`my hn Ahzdn lei Ihrl C`rszhw`fz. Ahzdn's nltcdr, Mdakl C`rszhw`fz (

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    03

    Ycrdd odedrlt`hes hn tcd Vzlkli nlj`my2 ^`mel,

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    00

    [dedwdi Hpprdss`he - tcd "Jly Mlws"

    YCD D^DEYV NHMMH