Home and Business Security - Auto Locksmith USA Professional Locksmith Study Unit 8 Home and Business

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  • Professional Locksmith

    Study Unit 8

    Home and Business Security

  • This study unit is designed to give you an overview of the entire security field of which you’re a part. As you’ll see in this unit, locksmithing involves more than locks. As a locksmith you must be familiar with who commits crimes, how crimes are com- mitted, and how to prevent them. This study unit will teach you the basics of home and business security. You’ll learn of the many threats to both the workplace and the home. You’ll also learn the costs of such crimes to us all. Working with other security professionals, you’ll recognize security weaknesses and what to do about making both home and business more secure.

    When you complete this unit, you’ll be able to

    • Define the different types of crime

    • Interpret crime statistics

    • Discuss home security and some of the devices and techniques used to provide it

    • Discuss retail security and some of the devices and techniques used to provide it

    • Discuss industrial security and some of the devices and techniques used to provide it

    • Define the term target hardening

    • Name the six most frequent groups of shoplifters

    • Define the term retail shrinkage

    • Name four common precautions against burglary

    • Define the term access control

    • Explain how to achieve access control

    Preview

    iii

  • THE GROWING CRIME PROBLEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Basic Crime Definitions The FBI Uniform Crime Report National Crime Index Statistics

    RECENT TRENDS AND CHARACTERISTICS OF CRIMES AGAINST PROPERTY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

    Burglary Typical Burglars Larceny-Theft Motor Vehicle Theft Preventing Property Crime

    HOME SECURITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Home Security Concerns Protecting Your Client’s Home Against Burglary Home Security Checklist

    RETAIL SECURITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Retail Security Concerns Combatting Internal Theft Theft of Merchandise

    INDUSTRIAL SECURITY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 The Essential Role of Security Protecting Materials and Information Fire Protection Disaster Plans Internal Threat to Industrial Settings External Threat to Industrial Settings

    ACCESS CONTROL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 What is Access Control? Three Types of Security Understanding the Terms Encouraging Management Commitment Environmental Design

    Contents

    v

  • Locks Lighting Alarms

    SECURITY SURVEYS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 An Objective Tool Security Survey versus Insurance Survey Survey Objectives Looking at Everything Creating a Security Survey A Typical Security Survey Form Basic Elements of a Security Survey Assessing Loss Potential Buildings Open Areas Surveying Potential Loss within a Department Specialized Departments and Their Security Security Survey Contents Summary

    RISK ANALYSIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 A Subjective Tool Analysis Recommendations: The Security Survey Report Implementation

    THE KEY TO SUCCESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77

    KEY POINTS TO REMEMBER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77

    LOCKING IT UP! ANSWERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83

    EXAMINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85

    COMING ATTRACTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89

    vi Contents

  • Do You Know. . .

    What is target hardening?

    What is access control?

    What is risk analysis?

    In these pages you’ll find the answers to these and many more questions about home and business security.

    THE GROWING CRIME PROBLEM

    Basic Crime Definitions

    The profession of locksmithing has a long tradition. For over 4,000 years, people have been making and using locks for protection and security against criminals and thieves. As a locksmith, you’ll be part of the fight against those who still try to break the law today.

    You may remember the old saying, “Know your enemy.” Because you’ll be working to prevent crime, it’s important to know more about it. In this lesson you’ll learn some of the basics of security in the home and in the business world. Let’s start by looking at a definition of crime.

    A crime is an action or an omission that’s forbidden by law and punishable by the government (local, state, or national). A criminal omission is something that wasn’t done that should have been. Not cleaning up hazardous wastes is an example of criminal omission. Not conforming to fire codes is another criminal omission (especially if a building catches fire and employees are hurt or killed because of the fire) (Figure 1).

    Home and Business Security

    1

  • These actions or crimes are gener- ally grouped into three categories— felonies, misde- meanors, and infractions. Felo- nies are the most serious of the three. A felony is normally defined as a criminal act that may be pun-

    ishable by imprisonment for more than one year, or, in some states, by the death penalty. Murder and forgery are two examples of felonies. Misdemeanors are somewhat less serious crimes which are usually punishable by fines and/or short- term jail sentences, normally for a period of one year or less.

    An infraction of the law is simply a violation of a city or county ordinance. Although the action is illegal, it isn’t neces- sarily criminal. For example, simple speeding is an infraction of the law. Parking violations are infractions. Hunting out of season or fishing without a license are also infractions. These offenses are usually punishable by fines.

    The FBI Uniform Crime Report Each year, the U. S. Department of Justice produces the FBI Uniform Crime Report, a series of reports and statistics about crime. To understand how important your job as a locksmith is, you should be aware of this report. It gives an overview of crime across the nation based on statistics contributed by state and local law enforcement agencies. Since it’s a yearly report, you can see the changes that occur in the national and international crime picture. Statistics concerning crime in Canada and other industrialized nations are similarly tracked by the appropriate agencies. Exploring and anticipating trends in crime can make you a better-informed locksmith and businessperson.

    National Crime Index Statistics Another reference for an informed locksmith is the National Crime Index, which records statistics on crimes of violence and crimes against property. The statistics are staggering. In

    2 Home and Business Security

    FIGURE 1—Because the bakery owner violated fire codes, he is guilty of criminal omission.

  • 1988, one Crime Index offense was committed every two sec- onds. One violent crime was committed every 20 seconds, and one property crime was committed every three seconds (Figure 2).

    In this same year, a total of 13.9 million Crime Index offenses were reported. Violent crimes (murder and non-negligent manslaughter, rape, robbery, and aggravated assault) ac- counted for 11 percent of this total. Crimes against property (burglary, larceny-theft, motor vehicle theft, and arson) ac-

    Home and Business Security 3

    FIGURE 2—The Crime Clock in 1988

  • counted for the remaining 89 percent. Your job will be to help in the fight against property crimes.

    A review of the Uniform Crime Report shows that the reports of violent and property crimes have increased every year. In addition, the crime rate (the number of crimes reported per 100,000 inhabitants) has also increased dramatically. From 1984 to 1988, the crime rate increased 12.6 percent. During that period, the crime rate for violent crimes rose 18.2 percent and the rate for crimes against property rose 11.9 percent. These statistics may seem discouraging. But they also demon- strate that there’s plenty of work for a skilled locksmith who can offer the right services and advice.

    What these statistics also point out is that many criminals are not arrested; many crimes—especially those dealing with property—are not solved in the same year they are commit- ted (and may never be solved). Such a realization can be very discouraging. But it means that you can offer help where help is needed most. By installing devices to cut down this rate of theft, you can be secure in knowing that you’re doing your part in the war against crime.

    RECENT TRENDS AND CHARACTERISTICS OF CRIMES AGAINST PROPERTY

    As we just mentioned, crimes against property constitute the greatest number of crimes recorded in the Crime Index. Since, as a locksmith, you’ll be working to prevent crimes against property, it’s important to understand the nature of such crimes. Let’s begin with a common danger: burglary.

    Burglary

    Burglary is the unlawful entry of a structure in order to com- mit a felony or theft. The felony or theft does not actually have to be completed in order for someone to be arrested for burglary. Likewise, the use of force to gain entry isn’t a neces- sary requirement for the crime to be classified as a burglary.

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  • The Crime Index list