Hướng dẫn lựa chọn loa cho nhà thờ

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Hng dn la chn loa cho nh th

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  • Hng dn la chn loa cho nh th

    By: Pham Thanh Sn (Sonkeyboard)

    Phn 1

    Mua cc loa c l l mt nhim v kh khn nht m mt nh th phi i mt. Ngy nay chng

    ta c cc loa lin cng sut v khng lin cng sut; line arrays v loa thng; treo v t t; r

    tin v rt t. Trong mi th loi , chng ta c hng chc nh sn xut vi hng trm mu m

    la chn trong . Trong khun kh bi vit ny th khng cho bn bit nhng g

    mua, chng ti s c gng hng dn bn thng qua quy trnh la chn loa ph hp cho khng

    gian ca bn.

    Trc khi chng ta bt u, c mt s iu cnh bo cho bn. Th nht, khng c loa no l

    hon ho. Tt c cc loa thit k khng nm ngoi cc nh lut vt l. Loa ph hp cho khn

    phng ny c th cng tr nn hon ton khng ph hp vi khn phng khc. Khng nn b

    cun vo ci by ca t duy rng cc loa trong nh th ging nh trong cc phng hi ngh ln l

    cc loa ph hp vi bn. C th chng ph hp nhng cng c th khng.

    Th hai, khi bn t nhiu hn mt hoc hai loa trong mt phng nh, ti tin rng phi cn c

    ngi thit k chuyn nghip tham gia vo. Mt nh thit k gii nn ti to mu phng v cho

    bn mt s la chn da trn phn mm d on v gip bn thu hp cc la chn. C qu nhiu

    nh th mc sai lm khi ch treo mt vi thng loa trong phng, nh hng chng i theo

    hng ph hp, v hi vng m thanh s tt. T kinh nghim, ti c th ni vi bn rng phn ln

    chng khng nh vy. Hy ln k hoch chi tiu t nht s ngn sch mua loa ca bn trn

    mt thit k chuyn nghip. Bn c th cm n ti sau ny.

    Nh ti trnh by, khng c loa tt nht. Nhng g bn mun l loa ph hp vi mi trng

    ca bn. c c cc loa ph hp, chng ta phi t mt s cu hi, v xc nh nhng g

    chng ta ang c gng hon thnh. Mt khi chng ta bit cc kt qu d nh, chng ta c th

    bt u la chn loa m s cung cp cc kt qu mt cch hiu qu. N ging nh mua mt chic

    xe; bn s khng mua chic xe mui trn hai ch nu bn c xu hng chuyn ch cc vt dng

    cn che y. Hay ngc li, chic xe bn ti c l s khng phi l s la chn tt nht a

    i gia nh i tp bng chy. Vi suy ngh , hy t mt s cu hi.

    NGUN M L G?

    Tin hay khng, cc yu cu cho mt h thng loa m s cung cp ch yu l li ni v mt trong

    s s thu ht khn gi n vi bui biu din vi mc m kh khc nhau. Cc nh th khc

    nhau c cc kiu lp trnh cc k khc nhau, v h thng loa chnh cn thay i khi chng ta xem

    xt cc phong cch .

    Theo truyn thng, s thit t cho nghi l, cc h thng loa thc s ch cn thit cung cp

    ph tn s ca ting ni con ngi u khp trong phng vi r nt nht c th. Cc mc m

    khng cn thit phi cao (loa va phi), do chng ta khng cn nhiu tc nhn trong khng

    gian. ng b la, tuy nhin, c mt h thng ging th ny m thanh tt i hi mt s

    thit k thn trng. N ch khng c v l mt h thng t tin cho mt dch v y hin i.

  • Khi m nhc khuch i c gii thiu trong nh th, h thng m thanh i hi cn phi iu

    chnh. Mt s nh th mun m thanh mc m ca bui ha nhc, v cch duy thng thng

    nht t c iu l vi h thng ln hn. Thm ch trong cc phng nh hn, bn s cn

    dch chuyn rt nhiu khng gian, v iu i hi mt s lng tt cc loa ton di, cng nh

    trnh iu khin cc tn s thp (siu trm) cung cp nhng yu cu . Hu ht cc nh th

    ang trong cc thi cc v s cn mt h thng c thit k ph hp.

    Phn 2

    S RUNG CM L G?

    Khi bt u thit k h thng m thanh, cch tt nht bt u l vi ngun m. C phi bn

    ang tm kim (mt) rung cm yn lng v trm t, hoc c phi bn mun n to v trn y

    nng lng? C phi chng ta ch n gin mun tng cng mt s thit b m thanh chng

    ta c th nghe thy pha sau cn phng, hay c phi chng ta mun t m thanh ngay trc

    mt mnh? Ngay c trong nhng thi cc , chng ta u c nhng la chn. Chng hn, nu

    chng ta s cho cm gic ca bui ha nhc, th loi nhc no chng ta mun m phng? Mt s

    h thng m thanh s cung cp rt ph hp vi rock n roll, trong khi mt s h thng khc li

    cung cp nhiu hi-fi hn. Bit c nhng rung cm g bn mun to ra s bt u iu tit h

    thng bn ci dt cui cng.

    MI TRNG L G?

    Cc nh th chy ton b t cc chng trnh trc tip, phn chiu cao, kiu khn phng nh th

    n cc a im b m t v x l kiu nh ht. Ging nh mi th cn li, mi trng s gip

    xc nh vic la chn cc loi loa. Cc khn phng c vang vng cao s i hi cc loa kim

    sot ph cc hon ho gi m thanh khng tc ng mnh vo cc bc tng, trn v sn. Rt

    nhiu phng cht (phng khng vang vng) s i hi nhiu loa hn tng thm nng lng

    cho khng gian v vt qua tt c s hp thu.

    Ngoi ra cn c vn v thm m. Rt nhiu gio dn s phn i mt mng en hin i treo

    trong mt nh th c. nhng khn phng th ny, mt h thng nh v t trc quan s ph hp

    hn. Thm ch trong cc nh th hin i, nhng dy loa nhn thy, chiu cao sc cnh v cc

    tnh nng kin trc khc s quyt nh vic la chn loi loa ny hay loa khc. Hy chc chn

    rng vic tch hp ca bn tha mn cc cu hi ny.

    CHNG TA C TH TREO CHNG LN CAO?

    Mt s khn phng thc hin vic treo loa rt d dng. Mt s khc l khng th. mt s khc

    na, n khng thc t hoc khng cn thit. Trc khi bn thit lp h thng line array nng 600

    pound (khong 300kg) p mt, treo cao, hy chc chn rng kin trc trn c th chu lc. V

    vng, cng c th trn khng h tr chu c nhiu trng lng. Trong nhiu a im

    truyn thng, loa gn tng hoc gn ct thng l s la chn tt nht bi v chng c th pha

    trn vi kin trc nh th mt cch d dng (c bit nu chng c th c mu sn ty chn).

    Trong mt s khn phng a mc ch nh hn, cc loa nh gn t trn chn c th li l s la

    chn tt nht.

    CHNG TA C TIN CHO CHNG?

  • Cc h thng loa c mc gi dao ng t vi trm ti vi ngn $ cho cc khn phng nh; t

    $10,000-$50,000 cho khn phng trung bnh v trn $100,000 ti gn 1 triu $ cho khn phng

    ln. Trong nhng hng mc ln v tt c cc loi bin th, mt s nh sn xut ni ting l rt tt

    v kh t tin. Cc cng ty t ni ting hn cng c th tt v ng k hn na l gi c phi

    chng. Khng phi tt c mi ngi u c nhu cu hoc c th chi tr cho chic xe Mercedes;

    nhng thng thng, chng ta c th c mt chic xe kh p mang nhn hiu Infinity hoc thm

    ch l mt chic Nissan.

    Ch cn chc chn mua h thng cho khn phng ca bn. Rt nhiu nh th mua vt qu

    ngn sch v cui cng khng hi lng vi kt qu. To lp mt s mc m d tr; chc chn

    rng h thng c th chy ln hn mc m cn thit bn s khng gp nguy khn vo mi

    cui tun.

    l nhng cu hi tng th v nhng thng s k thut bn nn xem xt trc khi bt u cng

    vic la chn loa ca bn. By gi chng ta c nhng th c thit lp, hy xem xt mt s

    hng mc v ph kin ca cc h thng loa.

    Phn 3

    LIN CNG SUT HAY KHNG LIN CNG SUT?

    Mt thp nin trc, mt cc khuch i m thanh c kch thc ln, nng v i hi rt nhiu

    dng in lm vic n nh. Ngy nay, cc cc khuch i thm ch cng sut rt ln cng c

    th va trong cc khng gian nh v gn nh khng nng lm. Kt qu l, nhiu nh sn xut

    la chn tch hp vo cc h thng loa ca h. C mt s li ch ng k lin quan n phng

    php ny. u tin, cc b khuch i c th c lm ph hp mt cch chnh xc vi cc loa.

    K t khi b khuch i c a vo trong thng loa, cp tn hiu chy cc k ngn, iu c

    ngha l gn nh 100% cng sut ca b khuch i c cung cp ti loa, khng bin thnh

    nhit trong dy cp. Cc im chia phn tn gia cc c loa c th c thit lp ti u, v

    thng th DSP (thit b x l tn hiu k thut s) c tch hp ngay trong thng loa, lm cho

    h thng c th d on c sm hn.

    Nhc im l nu mt b khuch i t trong loa m treo khong cch 50 feet (15m) trong

    khng gian, ai s phi ln v thay i. Bn cng phi cp ngun in cho cc loa lin cng

    sut, c ngha l gp i s dy cp chy n cc thng loa. V s tch hp cc b khuch i

    cng c ngha l cc loa lin cng sut s c phn nng hn nhng ngi anh em khng lin

    cng sut. y thng khng phi l vn , nhng cng phi c cn nhc.

    Loi no tt hn? Ging nh tt c mi th trong m thanh, iu cn phi ph thuc. Thng

    thng, cc loa lin cng sut l mt la chn hon ho bi v rt nhiu quyt nh x l c

    ti u ha ti nh my, c ngha l n s mt t thi gian lm cho m thanh hay trong mi

    trng nht nh. Mt khc, nu ngi ci t ca bn mun lm iu g m khng ty chnh

    ph hp vi tnh hung c bit, i khi vic thm cc iu khin ca cc thnh phn ring

    bit l tt hn. Tnh sn c ca cng sut v khng gian cho cc b khuch i cng l cc nhn

    t quyt nh.

    Rt may, c cc s la chn tuyt vi c hai loi lin cng sut v khng lin cng sut, v

    cng khng c g lm l khi thy mt loa c c phin bn lin cng sut v khng lin cng sut.

  • LINE ARRAY HAY LOA THNG?

    Line array-nhiu thng loa ging ht treo gn nhau trong mt ng thng theo chiu ng. V

    chc chn chng gii quyt rt nhiu vn trong cc tnh hung nht nh. Chng kiu hnh vi

    vic iu khin ph cc tt in hnh, rt hiu qu v d dng treo ln, nhng c im m lm

    cho chng tr thnh la chn tt nht cho cc a im rng ln. Gn nh cc tour lu din ln

    u s dng line array cho nhng l do (v nhng l do khc na).

    Tuy nhin, chng cng khng phi l la chn ph hp cho rt c a im.

    Cc khn phng nh (di 500 ch) thng s tt hn vi loa thng truyn thng. Trong cc

    khn phng nh, rt kh treo h thng line array di t c vic iu chnh gc ph tt,

    v chng cng rt t tin khi so snh vi h thng loa thng. ng bao gi ri vo ci by ca

    vic ngh rng line array l cng ngh mi nn vn d tt hn. c rt nhiu ci tin trong c

    hai kiu, v cc h thng loa thng hin i c th v cng hiu qu nu bit cch thit k tt.

    Mt kiu h thng tng i mi ang ni ln nh mt ngi gii quyt cc vn ln cho cc

    khn phng nht nh: loa k thut s c th nh hng. S dng mt s lng ln cc c loa

    nh v mch x l tn hiu k thut s (DSP), cc h thng ny c th l ngi cu gip cc vn

    ca khn phng. Loa nh hng k thut s c th thay i gc ph ca c chiu dc v

    chiu ngang gi cho m thanh i n ch ngi nghe v khng i vo nhng vng khng cn

    thit. Bi v chng thng dng mt lot cc c loa nh, vng ph sng ca chng c lm hp

    li, l tng cho cc khn phng truyn thng ni vic thm m l rt quan trng.

    KT LUN

    Loi loa mua khng phi l c la chn loa tt nht (da trn gi thnh) m phi l h thng

    loa ph hp vi khn phng. Rt may, khoa hc ca vic thit k loa pht trin n mc m

    chng ta c th d on trc hiu sut trc khi treo cc thng loa ln. C th th nhiu mu

    loa khc nhau trong phn mm my tnh c c s tr gip ln nht mang li hiu qu nht

    cho cht lng m thanh. Cc loa bn la chn s thay i ty thuc vo khn phng c th,

    phong cch phc v v mi trng no bn ang c gng to ra. Rt may, c rt nhiu la chn

    cho cc yu cu nh vy, do vi nghin cu thch hp v thit k tt, kt qu cui cng s l

    mt h thng t c cc yu cu ca nh th ca bn.

    Chc bn thnh cng!