Text of Impressionism. Art History Timeline RENAISSANCE 1400 - 1800 AD (CE) Renaissance: Italy 1400 - 1600...
Art History Timeline RENAISSANCE 1400 - 1800 AD (CE) Renaissance: Italy 1400 - 1600 AD Renaissance: Europe 1500 - 1600 AD Baroque 1600 - 1700 AD Rococo 1700 - 1750 AD PRE-MODERN 1800 - 1880 AD (CE) Neo-Classicism 1750 - 1880 AD Romanticism 1800 - 1880 AD Realism 1830's - 1850's AD Impressionism 1870's - 1890's AD MODERNISM 1880 - 1945 AD (CE) Post Impressionism 1880 - 1900 AD Expressionism 1900 - 1920 AD
Italian Renaissance (1400-1600) In the arts and sciences as well as society and government, Italy was the major catalyst for progress during the Renaissance: the rich period of development that occurred in Europe at the end of the Middle Ages. Because of the number of different fields in which it applied, ``Renaissance'' is a word with many layers of meaning. Accordingly, Renaissance painting cannot signify any one common or clearly definable style. As Gothic paintinghad been shaped by the feudal societies of the Middle Ages, with its roots in the Romanesque and Byzantine traditions, Renaissance art was born out of a new, rapidly evolving civilization. It marked the point of departure from the medieval to the modern world and, as such, laid the foundations for modern Western values and society.
Leonardo da Vinci The Last Supper
Titian Sacred and Profane Love, 1513
Renaissance art of the Low Countries Renaissance artists painted a wide variety of themes. Religious altarpieces, fresco cycles, and small works for private devotion were very popular. The rebirth of classical antiquity and Renaissance humanism also resulted in many Mythological and history paintings. Ovidian stories, for example, were very popular. Decorative ornament, often used in painted architectural elements, was especially influenced by classical Roman motifs.altarpiecesfresco Renaissance humanism Mythologicalhistory paintingsOvidianornament
Jan van Eyck Ghent Altarpiece (1432)
The Garden of Earthly DelightsThe Garden of Earthly Delights by Hieronymus Bosch
Portrait of Charles VII of France by Jean Fouquet
Diane de Poitiers by Franois Clouet (1571)
Baroque Baroque period, era in the history of the Western arts roughly coinciding with the 17th century. Its earliest manifestations, which occurred in Italy, date from the latter decades of the 16th century, while in some regions, notably Germany and colonial South America, certain of its culminating achievements did not occur until the 18th century. The work that distinguishes the Baroque period is stylistically complex, even contradictory. In general, however, the desire to evoke emotional states by appealing to the senses, often in dramatic ways, underlies its manifestations. Some of the qualities most frequently associated with the Baroque are grandeur, sensuous richness, drama, vitality, movement, tension, emotional exuberance, and a tendency to blur distinctions between the various arts.
The Adoration of the Magi, a 1624 oil-on- canvas painting by Peter Paul Reubens
Federico Barocci, Aeneas' Flight from Troy, 1598
Rococo KEY DATES: 1700sThroughout the 18th century in France, a new wealthy and influential middle- class was beginning to rise, even though the royalty and nobility continued to be patrons of the arts. Upon the death of Louis XIV and the abandonment of Versailles, the Paris high society became the purveyors of style. This style, primarily used in interior decoration, came to be called Rococo. The term Rococo was derived from the French word "rocaille", which means pebbles and refers to the stones and shells use to decorate the interiors of caves. Therefore, shell forms became the principal motif in Rococo. The society women competed for the best and most elaborate decorations for their houses. Hence the Rococo style was highly dominated by the feminine taste and influence. Francois Boucher was the 18th century painter and engraver whose works are regarded as the perfect expression of French taste in the Rococo period. Trained by his father who was a lace designer, Boucher won fame with his sensuous and light-hearted mythological paintings and landscapes. He executed important works for both the Queen of France and Mme. de Pompadour, Louis XV's mistress, who was considered the most powerful woman in France at the time. Boucher was Mme. de Pompadour's favorite artist and was commissioned by her for numerous paintings and decorations. Boucher also became the principal designer for the royal porcelain factory and the director of the Gobelins tapestry factory. The Vulcan Presenting Venus with Arms for Aeneas is a template for a tapestry made by this factory. Characterized by elegant and refined yet playful subject matters, Boucher's style became the epitome of the court of Louis XV. His style consisted of delicate colors and gentle forms painted within a frivolous subject matter. His works typically utilized delightful and decorative designs to illustrate graceful stories with Arcadian shepherds, goddesses and cupids playing against a pink and blue sky. These works mirrored the frolicsome, artificial and ornamented decadence of the French aristocracy of the time.The Rococo is sometimes considered a final phase of the Baroque period.
The SwingThe Swing (French: L'escarpolette), 1767, Jean Honore Fragonard
Neo-classicism KEY DATES: 1750-1880A nineteenth century French art style and movement that originated as a reaction to the Baroque. It sought to revive the ideals of ancient Greek and Roman art. Neoclassic artists used classical forms to express their ideas about courage, sacrifice, and love of country. David and Canova are examples of neo-classicists.
Jacques Louis David - Napoleon at the Saint-Bernard Pass (1801) Napoleon at the Saint-Bernard Pass
Death of Marat
Romanticism KEY DATES: 1800-1880Romanticism was basically a reaction against Neoclassicism, it is a deeply-felt style which is individualistic, beautiful, exotic, and emotionally wrought. Although Romanticism and Neoclassicism were philosophically opposed, they were the dominant European styles for generations, and many artists were affected to a greater or lesser degree by both. Artists might work in both styles at different times or even mix the styles, creating an intellectually Romantic work using a Neoclassical visual style, for example. Great artists closely associated with Romanticism include J.M.W. Turner, Caspar David Friedrich, John Constable, and William Blake.In the United States, the leading Romantic movement was the Hudson River School of dramatic landscape painting.Obvious successors of Romanticism include the Pre-Raphaelite movement and the Symbolists. But Impressionism, and through it almost all of 20th century art, is also firmly rooted in the Romantic tradition.
The Lady of Shallot 1888, Alfred Lord Tennyson
Caspar David FriedrichCaspar David Friedrich, Wanderer above the Sea of Fog, 1818Wanderer above the Sea of Fog
Realism Realism, also known as the Realist school, was a mid- nineteenth century art movement and style in which artists discarded the formulas of Neoclassicism and the theatrical drama of Romanticism to paint familiar scenes and events as they actually looked. Typically it involved some sort of sociopolitical or moral message, in the depiction of ugly or commonplace subjects. Daumier, Millet and Courbet were realists.
Gustave Courbet -The Stonebreakers, 1849
Jean-Francois Millet - The Gleaners 1857
Impressionism was a 19 th century art movement that began as a loose association of Paris-based artists whose independent exhibiyions brought them to prominence in the 1870s and 1880s. The name of the movement is derived from the title of a Claude Monet work, (Impression, soleil levant), which provoked the critic Louis Leroy to coin the term in a satiric review.satiric Characteristics of Impressionist paintings include visible brush strokes, open composition, emphasis on light in its changing qualities (often accentuating the effects of the passage of time), ordinary subject matter, the inclusion of movement as a crucial element of human perception and experience, and unusual visual angles
Radicals in their time, early Impressionists broke the rules of academic painting. They began by giving colours, freely brushed, primacy over line, drawing inspiration from the work of painters such as Eugene Delacroix. They also took the act of painting out of the studio and into the modern world. Previously, still lifes and prtraits as well as landscapes had usually been painted indoors. The Impressionists found that they could capture the momentary and transient effects of sunlight by painting en plein air. Painting realistic scenes of modern life, they por