India's Maritime Military Strategy

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FREEDOM TOUSE THESEAS:INDIASMARITIMEMILITARYSTRATEGYiii iiForeword Copyright Integrated Headquarters Ministry of Defence (Navy) 2007All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in anyform or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recordingor by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writingfrom Integrated Headquarters Ministry of Defence (Navy).Compiled by the Directorate of Strategy, Concepts and Transformation, IntegratedHeadquarters Ministry of Defence (Navy), New Delhi.First Print May 2007."India's growing international stature gives it strategic relevance in the area rangingfrom the Persian Gulf to the Strait of Malacca. India has exploited the fluidities oftheemergingworldordertoforgenewlinksthroughacombinationof diplomaticrepositioning, economic resurgence and military firmness."Dr Manmohan Singh, Prime Minister Current projections indicate that India will be among the foremost centres of power- economic, technological and cultural, in the coming decades. This repositioning in theinternationalgeopoliticswouldcallforaconcomitantaccretionof nationalpower, ofwhichthemilitarypowerwillbeacriticaldimension. Enhancingnationalsecurity,encompassing both national defence and foreign relations, is what will allow the nationalleadership to protect nation's territory, its people and institutions from external threats aswell as internal dangers. Our primary national interest therefore is to ensure a secure andstableenvironment, whichwillenablecontinuedeconomicdevelopmentandsocialupliftmentof ourmasses. ThisinturnwillallowIndiatotakeitsrightfulplaceinthecomity of nations and attain its manifest destiny. As far as our overall defence policy isconcerned, we do not harbour any extra-territorial ambitions, but aim to safeguard ourvital national interests. Therefore, within this overall national and defence framework, ourprimary maritime military interest is to ensure national security, provide insulation fromexternalinterference, sothatthevitaltasksof fosteringeconomicgrowthandundertakingdevelopmentalactivities, cantakeplaceinasecureenvironment.Consequently, India'smaritimemilitarystrategyisunderpinnedon'thefreedomtousethe seas for our national purposes, under all circumstances'.+a =|. +r-.|| || = +, || = =+, | =|=.==.4.Admiral Sureesh MehtaPVSM, AVSM, ADCChief of the Naval StaffIntegrated HeadquartersMinistry of Defence (Navy)New Delhi-110011.. ++.a4=|=- +c4.a4 =.==.=: -a|-110011ivFREEDOM TO USE THE SEAS: INDIAS MARITIME MILITARY STRATEGY FOREWORDvThe Indian Navy is the primary maritime means by which the state ensures the use ofthe sea for its own purposes, while at the same time ensuring that others do not use it ina manner prejudicial to its interests. The Indian Navy, by virtue of its capability, strategicpositioning and robust presence in the Indian Ocean Region (IOR), can be the catalystfor peace, tranquillity and stability in the IOR. It can be used to engage other maritimenations and extend our hand of friendship and co-operation. Also, it can act as a strongdeterrent to prevent conflict, or to respond, should it become inevitable. All these facetshave been articulated in the document Freedom to Use the Seas: India's Maritime MilitaryStrategy, withthesingularpurposeof providinggreaterclarityandunderstandingonvarious facets of maritime military power, to our own people in particular and the worldcommunity, at large.First, theobviousmilitaryobjectives. Navalforceshavetraditionallybeentheinstrument of choice for crisis management and deterrence of conflicts because of theirinherentcharacteristics. TheIndianNavyisstructuredtocomprehensivelysubduearangeof potentialadversariesinaconflict. Hence, ourmaritimemilitarystrategyispredicated to preparing for a possible conflict whilst maintaining a deterrent posture thatensures peace. Strategic deterrence is a part of this spectrum.Fortunately, armed conflicts are rare occurrences, and to ensure that they remain so,duringthelongyearsof peace, theIndianNavyneedstoprojectpower; catalysepartnerships; buildtrustandcreateinteroperability; andwhenrequireduseconvincingpowertoachievenationalaims. Ourstrategyrecognisesthatthesealinesofcommunication passing through our region are critical for our economic growth and totheglobalcommunity. Smallernationsinourneighbourhoodaswellasnationsthatdepend on the waters of the Indian Ocean for their trade and energy supplies have cometo expect that the Indian Navy will ensure a measure of stability and tranquillity in thewaters around our shores. Ensuring good order at sea is therefore a legitimate duty of theIndian Navy. This task will require enhanced capabilities, cooperation and interoperabilitywith regional and extra regional navies. Hence, our strategy stresses the need for adequateforces, inconcertwithourCoastGuard, forundertakingtheconstabularyroleinourmaritimeareaof interest. Apartfromcombatingpiracyandterrorismatsea, thisalsoincludesresponsibilitiesof surveyingthewatersaroundus, providingSARfacilitiestothose in distress, coordinating navigational warnings over a vast oceanic area and a myriadof minorbutvitaltasksthatkeeptheglobalmaritime-relatedindustry, andtheglobaleconomy, ingoodhealth. Thesefacetsof ourstrategymakethepeacetimeobjectivesabundantly clear.Ourroleinthe2004Tsunamirelief operationsisaclassicexampleof thepositivepowerof naviesin'winningfriendsandinfluencingpeople.'Thethousandsof peoplewhose lives were touched by the assistance provided by Indian seamen remains etched intheir mindsets. The Naval effort in successfully evacuating our countrymen and afflictedcitizens of friendly nations from Lebanon in 2006 reaffirms the utility of naval forces incrisis response for the national leadership. These two specific operations demonstratedthecapabilityandresolveof theIndianNavyasastabilisingprofessionalforceintheregion. Consequently, ourmaritimecapabilitiesarebeingaugmentedtoprovidehumanitarian assistance, in our own territories, and if required, to our friends abroad.TheIndianNavyisdestinedtoenhanceitscapabilitiestodischargeitsroleintheregion. ThedirectionappearsabundantlyclearacompactbutcapableNavy. Theemphasis would be on force multipliers, quality of weapons, sensors and networking ofplatforms. In other words, the focus would be on critical capabilities than on the numberof shipsoraircraft. Thestrategyhasalsoattemptedtorationalisethereasonsandthedirection of our maritime capabilities in the future. This public articulation of the forcebuild-upstrategy, wehopewillactasaconfidencebuildingmeasure, byprovidinganinsight and the rationale for our capability enhancement.The Freedom to Use the Seas: India's Maritime Military Strategy, is intended to be read inconjunctionwiththeIndianMaritimeDoctrine andthe JointDoctrineIndianArmedForces toprovideacomprehensiveunderstandingof strategicthoughtprocess. Sincestrategy is meant to show the way to employ forces and build capabilities in pursuit ofnationalpoliticalaimsandmilitaryobjectives, itmustremainsensitivetothechangingcircumstances, environment and threats. It should therefore be revisited and revised tokeep it contemporary and relevant.In conclusion, I must acknowledge my gratitude for RAdm K Raja Menon (Retd), forthetimeandefforthesparedinguidingtheteamof officersintoproducingthispioneering document. In the absence of any precedence to this strategy, enunciating thisdocument was an arduous task. I also commend the team of officers at the IntegratedHeadquartersof theMinistryof Defence(Navy), whoworkedtirelesslytomakethisabstractvisionintoacredibleframework. Theirlabourshaveproducedaworthymanuscript, which I strongly recommend to all those interested in maritime security andthe Indian Navy.(Sureesh Mehta)New Delhi Admiral28 May 07 Chief of the Naval StaffviiCont ent sForeword iiiChapter 1Maritime Military Strategy in Perspective 1Strategies in ContextRelationship between Doctrine and StrategyTime Frame and Objectives for the Maritime Military StrategyKey Determinants for Shaping theMaritime Military StrategyChapter 2Implications of Recent Maritime History 15The Evolution of Indian Maritime StrategyThe 1965 WarThe 1971 WarOperations Other Than WarChapter 3Indian Ocean Region and its Geopolitics 25Indian Ocean Choke PointsOngoing Foreign Policy InitiativesGeopolitical Factors Contributing to ConflictTerrorismDiversities of IORRegional Maritime AssessmentsTrends Extra-Regional NaviesCONTENTSix viiiFREEDOM TO USE THE SEAS: INDIAS MARITIME MILITARY STRATEGYChapter 4Maritime Trade and Security of Energy 43India's Maritime TradeImportance of OilIndia's Energy Demand versusIndigenous AvailabilityStrategy for Security of EnergyChapter 5Maritime Domain Awareness 57Maritime Areas of InterestThe Areas of Focused InterestLikely Scenarios for the Use of Military Forceby the Indian NavyMaritime Domain AwarenessDegrees of SurveillanceElectronic SurveillanceChapter 6Strategy for Employment in Peace 71Deterrence PosturesStrategy for Enabling DeterrenceStrategy for Diplomatic RoleStrategy for Constabulary RoleStrategy for Benign RoleChapter 7Strategy for Employment in Conflict 99Emerging Threats and Conflict SpectrumThe New StrategyChapter 8Strategy for Force Build-up 115Thrust Areas for Force Build-upGuiding Factors for Capability CreationInvestments in Future TechnologyChapter 9Epilogue 129Notes 134Abbreviations 137Acknowledgements 142Bibliography 143Index 145Diagrams1.1 National Security Model 21.2 Relationship between Policy, Doctrine and Strategy 63.1 Choke Points in IOR 273.2 World Population Share from 2007 to 2050 354.1 Data on Oil Demand, Production and Imports 484.2 Major Sources of India's Crude Oil Import 505.1 Exclusive Economic Zone of India 586.1 Enablers for Deterrence 776.2 Drivers for Maritime Cooperation 866.3 Constabulary Role 906.4 Benign Role 957.1 Essential Maritime Factors for Expeditionary Warfare 1007.2 Phased Operations The New Strategy 111Tables5.1 Maritime Statistics of India 575.2Delimita