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Instruction to Meet the Needs of Diverse Learners Effective Teaching Practices to Insure Student Success

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  • Instruction to Meet the Needs of Diverse LearnersEffective Teaching Practices to Insure Student Success

  • InclusionLegally Required: LREAccess to General CurriculumAccess to PeersBetter CurriculumHigher Expectations

  • Inclusion IssuesAssuming that exposure to class is enoughPlacement without pre-planningNot individualizing placementOver or under using paraprofessionalsFocusing on activities-not objectivesNot utilizing explicit instruction

  • Successful InclusionAll teachers responsible for ALL studentsTeach skills needed for success All teachers us effective teaching and behavior management-Universal DesignSpecial Ed. provides ongoing supportFrequent, regular monitoring of teachers and students (data gathering)Team problem solving

  • Universal DesignSchool established effective practice goalsSchool wide rulesUniform classroom rulesProcedures/expectations taught to all studentsHigh levels of OTR-Opportunities to Respond and student engagementLearning/study and organizational strategies explicitly taught to all students

  • Teaching PracticesGood teaching produces higher levels of appropriate behaviorGood teaching produces higher levels of academic skillsGood teaching produces greater learner progressGood teaching is a planned process-not a seat of the pants proposition

  • Effective LearnersAre engagedAre interactiveHave a wide knowledge baseAre active in their learningAre motivated from withinAre goal drivenMonitor their learningCan adjust behavior to not interfere with learning

  • Ineffective LearnersAre passiveDo not interact appropriatelyHave a limited knowledge baseAre not able to effectively monitor learningExternally motivated/controlledAre not goal orientedBehaviors interfere with learning

  • Good TeachingNew material is presented through teacher-led instructionEffective instructional methods usedPractice activities are varied, motivating, and promote generalization of skillsStudents are engaged more that they are notStudents participate in group activitiesStudents are successful most of the timeLearning is more rewarding than not learning

  • Multi-Level teachingHomogeneous groups for reading and math instructionWhole group instruction for Social Skills, Social Studies, ScienceParas assist with groups where availableUse peer-tutoring, learning centers, projects, paired learning, etc. for students who are not with teachersTeacher should regularly teach every student

  • Instructional Activities and ArrangementsLarge GroupSmall Group-most time hereIndividual

    Direct Teach (one on one)Direct Instruction-most time herePractice

  • Ensuring Student LearningProvide high rates of active student responding (OTR)Provide immediate and complete error correctionTeach Vocabulary!!Teach students learning tools (mnemonics, learning strategiesUse research-based instructionPrimingConspicuous strategiesMediated scaffoldingJudicious review

  • Opportunities to RespondNew Learning4-6 opportunities per minute with 80% correct

    Review8-12 opportunities per minute with 90% correct

  • Active Student RespondingChoral ResponsesResponse CardsGuided Notes

  • Choral RespondingProvides high level of OTRAllows anonymous participationTeacher provides cue for when to respond-visual or auditoryUncertain responses-do firmingListen for errors-correct immediatelyUse individual responses for assessment and differentiation

  • Response CardsStrong research supportHigh motivational valueUsed in large groups, individually, in pairsPre-printed or write onTeacher asks question, provides wait time, cues-students respond with cardsMany variations-all effective

  • Guided NotesTree outlineFlow ChartsVenn DiagramsFraming-go to www.graphicorganizers.com for ideasGuided notes provide a structure-beneficial if all students in a school are taught a basic frame in common.

  • Error CorrectionBe explicitBe immediateLead to independence (refer to rule or strategy during correction)

  • Explicit InstructionTell students what you want them to learnGive very clear, direct instructionsDemonstrate/model/guided practice/independent practiceModel/lead/test formatClear, consistent error correctionCorrect response-acknowledgeIncorrect response-correctUncertain response-firmwww.cast.org/publications/ncac/ncac_explicit.html

    www.xnet.rrc.mb.ca/glenh/understanding_by_design.htmFor good ideas for lesson design and evaluation

  • Priming Background KnowledgeRelating knowledge that students must know to learn a new skill, concept, or strategyPlan before lesson-What do students need to know before they can learn this?Question-discuss-review this background knowledge BEFORE presenting new skill

  • Examples of PrimingK-W-L: What do I know, what do I want to know, what have I learned?Direct instruction curricula (scripted lessons)Beginning of class warm-upsGraphic organizers

  • Conspicuous StrategiesTeach learners the tricks of the trade-what the experts knowExamples:Reminder acrosticsRules: Silent e makes the vowel say its name.How do experts find the main idea of a passage/How do experts set up a math problem from a story problem?

  • Mediated ScaffoldingHigh levels of support in the early stages of learningGradually fade support as student masters skillsFor ideas: go to www.projects.edtech.sandi.net/staff development/presentation/scaffolding.htm

  • Judicious ReviewWell thought outWell plannedCarefully reflects what they need to knowContinuous-spirals with additional knowledge throughout the year

  • VocabularyVocabulary knowledge has been proven to be critical to school successVocabulary development is a fundamental goal for early gradesThe vocabulary gap widens in early gradesExplicitly teaching vocabulary is essential at all grades

  • Teaching VocabularyProvides students skills and opportunities to learn vocabulary independentlyTeaches students the meanings of unfamiliar words and conceptsFosters an appreciation and awareness of words and their useBrings words to life-encourages word play

  • Direct Vocabulary InstructionProvides clear, understandable, kid-friendly definitionsUses both definitions and contextProvides lost of varied opportunities to interact with wordsProvides lost of review and opportunities for learning(English language learner dictionaries are a good source of kid friendly definitions)

  • Vocabulary Strategy-LINCSList the word and definitionIndicate a reminding word (looks like-sounds like)Note a LINCing storyConstruct a LINCing pictureSelf-Test

  • LINCS ExampleCompromiseEssential definition: an agreement, where each gives up something Reminding word: promise LINC-ing story: Both promised to give up something to reach an agreement. LINC-ing picture:

  • Levels of VocabularyNo knowledgeGeneral senseNarrow context-bound knowledgeKnowledge of a word without ability to recall and use it in appropriate situationsRich, decontextualized knowledge of a words meaning, its relationship to other works, and its extension to metaphorical uses (Beck, McKeon & Kucan, 2002)

  • MnemonicsKeywordsLetter Strategies (acrostics,acronyms)PegwordsResearch supports the use of mnemonics as a learning strategy for diverse learners. These techniques make learning easier.

  • KeywordsFor vocabulary or pairs of informationInvolves elaboration and imageryStudents use background knowledge to learn new concepts and vocabularyEx: Arkansas-picture of an ark being sawed in halfEx: Handel-Baroque composerPicture of a man bringing broken(baroque) handle bars (Handel) to a bikeshop

  • Letter StrategiesROYGBIV-order of colors in rainbowPlease excuse my dear aunt Sally-order of operations in mathFACE-space notesEvery good boy does fine: line notes

    Use letter strategies for lists of information.

  • PegwordsFor numbered or ordered informationInvolves elaboration and imagery combined with pegwords (words associated with numbers)In general, teach all kids one set of pegwords- Scruggs and Mastropieri have one, Quantum list is another-kids can tweak as they wish

  • Pegword Example

    one is a bun two is a shoe three is a tree four is a door five is a hive six is sticks seven is heaven eight is a gate nine is a line ten is a hen Other methods much like pegwords are also useful: go to www.memory-key.com/mnemonics/list-learning.htm

  • Learning StrategiesThere are many learning strategies that have been field tested with students with disabilities:Decoding-DISSECTWriting-TOWERMath-DRAWListening-SLANTTest-Taking-SCOREROrganization-PREP/WISEhttp://www.ku-crl.org (materials for purchase)www.ldonline.orgwww.teachingld.org

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