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Interim Portfolio Carolyn Butler DS10

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  • LEARN

    DS10 CAROLYN BUTLER

  • DS10 CAROLYN BUTLER

    FREI OTTO [NATURAL STRUCTURES]

    Frei O o is a german architect who studied architecture in Berlin

    before being dra" ed into the Lu" wa e as a pilot in the last years

    of World War II. It is said that he was interned in a French POW

    camp and, with his avia$ on engineering training and lack of

    material and an urgent need for housing, began experimen$ ng

    with tents for shelter. O o is a leading authority on lightweight

    tensile and membrane structures, and has pioneered advances

    in structural mathema$ cs and civil engineering. He founded the

    Ins$ tute for Lightweight Structures at the University of Stu gart.

    Occupying and connec$ ng. 2009 Frei O o. Form nding techniques & models

    With buildings of animals all kinds of construc$ ons are found:

    caves, beam structures (many birds nests), membrane and

    rope-construc$ ons (webs of spiders and caterpillars), shells...

    folded structures (honeycomb structures of bees), vaults (above

    ground ant-hills), massive construc$ ons (pu' ed, cast and high

    strength termite mounds).

    - Natrliche Konstruk$ onen p.20. 1985. Frei O o.

    The Olympiastadion was considered revolu$ onary for its $ me.

    It included large sweeping canopies of acrylic glass stabilized

    by steel cables that were used for the rst $ me in a large scale.

    The idea was to imitate the Alps and to set a counterpart to the

    1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin, held during the Nazi-Regime.

    The sweeping and transparent canopy was to symbolize the

    new, democra$ c and op$ mis$ c Germany.

    Biomime$ cs in Architecture | 2011 Petra Gruber

    Olympia Park in Munich. 1972 Frei O o. Japan Pavillion Hanover Expo. 2000 Shigeru Ban & Frei O o.

    Frei O o and Shigeru Ban addressed this ques$ on of inter-

    connec$ on and interac$ on of architectural systems and their

    environment from a global ecological perspec$ ve. The main theme

    of their Japan Pavilion at Hanover Expo was to create a structure

    that would produce as li le industrial waste as possible when it was

    dismantled. The goal was either to recycle or to reuse almost all of

    the materials that went into the building. The structural idea is a

    grid shell using lengthy paper tubing without joints. The tunnel arch

    was about 73.8m long stronger when it comes to lateral strain.

  • Frei O o is a german architect who studied architecture in Berlin

    before being dra! ed into the Lu! wa e as a ghter pilot in the last

    years of World War II. It is said that he was interned in a French

    POW camp and, with his avia$ on engineering training and lack of

    material and an urgent need for housing, began experimen$ ng with

    tents for shelter. O o is a worlds leading authority on lightweight

    tensile and membrane structures, and has pioneered advances in

    structural mathema$ cs and civil engineering. He founded the

    Ins$ tute for Lightweight Structures at the University of Stu gart.

    THREAD MODELS 01 | every point is connected to every other point by a $ ght wool thread 02 | an 8% over-length is added to each thread

    Frei O o studied op$ mized path systems by developing a method

    of genera$ ng forms, he used wool thread, and soap & water to

    generate vectorized systems that minimize the number of paths and

    make them share the same geometry.

    This algorithmic procedure is developed in three steps, mapping the

    di erent program points, increasing the length of the wool thread

    by at least 8% and then dipping the en$ re model in water. The

    threads mix and form a di erent pa ern every $ me.

    Finding Form p. 69 | 1995

    03 | model dipped in water 04 | superimposed models models 01 & 03

    Image 4 is made of model 1 in black and model 3 in red

    superimposed. Both models are e cient in di erent ways. It

    depends what the objec$ ve is as to which is considered more

    e cient. While model 1 has large lengths of path system and a 0

    detour factor, model 3 computes a solu$ on that signi cantly

    reduces the overall length of the path system while maintaining a

    low average detour factor. This strategy could be used to compute

    many types of urbansystems such as fabric modula$ on, street

    systems, a system of open spaces.

    DS10 CAROLYN BUTLER

    MINIMAL PATH SYSTEMS [FREI OTTO]

  • DS10 CAROLYN BUTLER

    PATH SYSTEM EXPERIMENTS [SELF ORGANISATION]

    SELF ORGANISATION | The theory of self-organisa! on is also

    called theory of non-linear (dynamic) systems (chaos theory).

    It is applicable to physical and chemical, biological,

    psychological and social systems.

    By self-organisa! on we understand the ability of systems to

    develop and sustain their inherent order with no control from

    outside. The implicit ability of complex adap! ve behaviour is a

    central characteris! c of living systems - M. Euler.

    00 | threads connec! ng points with 8% over-length

    Frei O" os thread models used wool and soap & water. The

    bres of the wool mesh together in the soap & water to form

    a path system. This experiment used the same concept as

    O" os models using thread with at least 8% over-length

    connec! ng all the points to each other but three

    dimensionally.

    This model was then dipped into soap & water and photographed.

    This process was repeated 5 ! mes fully drying the model between

    each dipping to produce the above sequence of images. Each ! me

    it was dipped in the water it self organised itself into a di erent

    forma! on.

    03 | models dipped in soap & water 05 | model dipped in soap & water01 | model dipped in soap & water 02 | model dipped in soap & water 04 | model dipped in soap & water

  • DS10 CAROLYN BUTLER

    PATH SYSTEM ANALYSIS [PHYSICAL MODEL]

    Each result from dipping the thread model in water & soap is

    superimposed onto the original dry model (fainter linework).

    The resultant images show how the thread pa ern deforms

    and how the bunching of the threads self organise into

    structural and aesthe cally interes ng forms.

    Above | detail of thread bunching Right | superimposed images of thread models

  • DS10 CAROLYN BUTLER

    PATH SYSTEM ANALYSIS [DIGITAL MODEL]

    These images show a digital imita! on of the physical model

    previously explored. It illustrates the threads movement

    during the process of dipping it in water. The freeze frames

    were taken at progressing stages as the physics simula! on was

    ac! ve, they were then superimposed.

    The darkest linework was the resultant con gura! on while

    the fainter llines were the original and process arrangement of

    threads.

    Renders of digital thread model

    Detail of physical thread model

  • DS10 CAROLYN BUTLER

    THREAD ANALYSIS [WET THREAD BEHAVIOUR]

    01 | diagram with low sepera! on 02 | diagram with high sepera! on 03 | diagram with high cohesion 04 | diagram with high sepera! on power 05 | diagram with low tension 06 | diagram with high tension

    tensile forces

    operates between nodes of a single thread.

    seek

    controls ac! ve range of cohesive and separa! ve forces.

    power

    controls magnitude of each force

    ! mestep

    controls rate of simula! on.

    decay

    controls the amount of velocity lost from one itera! on to the next.

    0 = total velocity loss

    1 = no velocity loss

    source code by David Reeves 2011

    This sequence of diagrams shows how the thread points react

    under cohesion, tension and sepera! on.

    separa! ve forces

    operates between nodes of a single thread.

    cohesive forces

    operates between nodes of di erent threads.

  • DS10 CAROLYN BUTLER

    THREAD ANALYSIS [DIGITAL MODEL]

    This experiment illustrates the thread behaviour seen in the

    previous physical experiments by using Grasshopper so! ware.

    These ini al renders show how the individual threads bunch

    together digitally in the same way they do physically. However,

    unless the ini al points are moved the result of the physics

    simulta on will be the same every me. In the physical model

    this was not the case, the result each me the threads were

    dipped into water was di erent due to minor changes in the

    environment, such as air movement.

    Renders of digital thread model

  • DS10 CAROLYN BUTLER

    RADIOLARIA [HAND DRAWINGS]

    01 | Cenosphaera cristata [DRAWN FROM PHOTOGRAPH] 02 | Spumullarian radiolaria [DRAWN FROM HAECKEL DRAWING] 03 | Androcyclas gamphonycha [DRAWN FROM PHOTOGRAPH]

    These hand drawings illustrate a few species of radiolaria that

    par! cularly fascinated me due to their complex geometry. Drawing

    them helped analyse their forms.

    A" er learning of Ernst Haeckels work on radiolarians I researched

    further. Radiolarians have existed since the beginning of the

    Paleozoic era, producing an astonishing diversity of intricate shapes

    during their 600 million year history. They take their name from the

    radial symmetry, o" en marked by radial skeletal spines,

    characteris c of many forms.

    Spumellarians come in various shapes ranging from spherical to

    ellipsoidal to discoidal, typically with radial symmetry. It is common

    for the Spumellarians to have several concentric shells connected

    by radial bars.

    Individual radiolarians are normally in the size range of hundredths

    to tenths of millimeters, but some reach dimensions of a millimeter

    or more, large enough to be seen with the naked eye. Some species

    are amassed into colonies, which may reach sizes of cen meter and

    even meter scale.

    Radiolarians cytoplasmic mass, which cons tutes the majority of

    the space within the cell, is divided into two regions separated by a

    perforated membrane. The rst of these regions is the central mass,

    also known as the central capsule, and the second is the extraca-

    psulum, a peripheral layer of cytoplasm surrounding the central

    capsule. The central capsule contains the organelles common to

    all eukaryo c cells, such as the mitochondria and vacuoles, while

    the extracapsulum is characterized by its thread-like extensions of

    cytoplasm, the rhizopodia.

    Aiding in the capture of prey, the rhizopodia are crucial in obtaining

    the energy necessary for the successful comple on of the Radio-

    larian life cycle. Addi onally, the rhizopodia act to increase the

    surface area of the cell, improving the rates of release of metabolic

    wastes and the uptake of oxygen. The separa on of the cytoplasm

    is thought to allow for increased control of the di usion of large

    molecules within the cell, such as fat globules, and organelles.

    04 | Acanthodesmia micropora [DRAWN FROM PHOTOGRAPH]

  • DS10 CAROLYN BUTLER

    BUCKMINSTER FULLER [GEODESIC DOME]

    Buckminster Fuller was an architect, engineer, geometrician,

    cartographer, philosopher, futurist, inventor of the geodesic

    dome and one of the most brilliant thinkers of his ! me. He

    was renowned for his comprehensive perspec! ve on the

    worlds problems.

    To make man a sucess on earth... we must design our way to

    posi! ve e ec! veness.

    Above | Dome in Montreal, world exhibi! on. 1967 Fuller.Le# | Transparent dome over Manha$ an. 1950 Buckminster Fuller.

    Man now enters the phase of meager yet conscious

    par! cipa! on in the an! cipatory design undertakings of

    Nature. This conscious par! cipa! on itself is changing from

    an awkward, arbitrary, trial and error ignorance to an

    intui! vely concieved, yet rigorously serviced, disciplined

    elegance.

    - Ideas and Integri! es p.323 | 1960 Buckminster Fuller

    Fuller patented his geodesic domes in 1954. The

    geometry of the domes is derived from the basic

    geometry of the icosahedron, a volume with 20 equal

    faces, a Platonic body. The edges are projected onto an

    inscribed sphere, genera! ng sec! ons of great circles,

    which are connected to a regular trigonometric pat-

    tern.

    - Biomime! cs in Architecture p.47 | 2011 Petra Gruber

    Excerpts of patent speci ca! on of Fullers domes.

  • DS10 CAROLYN BUTLER

    MINIMAL SURFACE [GEODESIC DOME]

    The main advantage Fuller cited in his 1954 patent appli-

    ca! on for the geodesic dome was its shape, because it is

    self-reinforcing, it requires far less building material than

    any other design.

    Conven! onal buildings, according to Fuller, weigh about

    50 pounds (22.7kg) for each square foot (0.09 sq meter) of

    oor space. A geodesic dome can weigh less than 1 pound

    (0.5kg) for each square foot of oor space.

    02 | Geodesic Dome for the Ford Motor Company 195253

    He called this shape a geodesic dome, because the pa# ern

    of triangles forms an interlocking web of geodesics. A

    geodesic is the shortest path between two points. This is a

    line in two-dimensional geometry, but on the surface of a

    sphere, the shortest distance between two points is an arc

    de ned by a great circle - a circle with the same diameter

    as the sphere.

    03 | Diagram of geodesic dome area calcula! ons 04 | Diagram of tradi! onal form area comparison

    To compare building shape the following criteria are taken into

    considera! on:

    Floor area

    Height

    Volume

    Surface area

    When comparing the two forms the variables, height and

    volume, cannot be kept the same due to the nature of the

    shapes so two varia! ons have been calculated.

    Fuller loved geometry, and was par! cularly impressed by the

    triangle, the most stable geometrical shape - providing struc-

    tural integrity. He also knew that the sphere was the most

    e cient three dimensional shape, enclosing the largest pos-

    sible volume with the smallest surface area - meaning a dome

    being a par! al sphere should be a logical shape for a build-

    ing. Reducing the surface area in contact with the exterior

    reduces heat loss as well as maximising material e ciency.

    01 | Tensegrity model

  • DS10 CAROLYN BUTLER

    FOLDING GEODESIC SPHERE [FOLDING SEQUENCE]

    The sequences of images above show how the geodesic sphere

    deforms as it is folded into itself. Due to the element of exibility in

    the plas" c straws, the junc" ons are able to pop in and out freely.

    Each stage of the geodesic spheres deforma" on creates interes" ng

    and beau" ful geometries. Side and top view sequences.

  • DS10 CAROLYN BUTLER

    GEODESIC SPHERE + PATH SYSTEMS [CONSTRUCTION SEQUENCE]

    The sequences of images above show how the geodesic sphere is

    constructed in a series of stages. Star ng with ve short struts

    connected together with one brad, this central pentagon is

    subsequently connected to ve hexagons on each of its sides.

    The hexagons are constructed from the longest struts while the

    connec ng struts forming the edges between the pentagons and

    hexagons are a middle length strut.

  • DS10 CAROLYN BUTLER

    GEODESIC SPHERE [PHYSICAL MODEL]

    02 | Plas! c geodesic sphere model centred on a hexagon

    To construct this geodesic sphere the following strut lengths

    were required:

    hexagon - 140mm

    pentagon - 118mm

    edges - 136mm

    The adjacent diagrams show how the pentagons and hexa-

    gons are connected together to form the geodesic sphere.

    This model is constructed with plas! c straws for the struts

    and silver brads serving as the connec! ons. It spans 600mm

    and is surprisingly robust. It is made up of regular pentagons

    and hexagons with three di erent strut lengths.

    01 | Plas! c geodesic sphere model centred on a pentagon

  • DS10 CAROLYN BUTLER

    GEODESIC SPHERE + PATH SYSTEMS [WET EXPERIMENTS]

    This model is constructed in the same way the geodesic

    sphere was, with plas! c straws and brads. It addi! onally

    connects threads to opposite ends points of the sphere.

    This model integrates the geometry of the geodesic sphere

    and the minimal path thread experiments, that has been

    researched previously. It starts to explore the use of the

    minimal path system principles in another context other

    that path networks.

    01 & 02 | top view of geodesic sphere + thread model 02 | top view of geodesic sphere + thread model dipped in water 03 & 04 | front view of geodesic sphere + thread model

    Model process

  • DS10 CAROLYN BUTLER

    LE RICOLAIS [1894-1977]

    Above | hexacore steel model

    In 1935, as a prac! cing hydraulics engineer, he

    introduced the concept of corrugated stress skins to

    the building industry. In 1940 his work on three-

    dimensional network systems introduced many ar-

    chitects to the concept of space frames. A" er years

    of research he was well established as the father of

    space structures.

    the art of structure is where to put the holes

    Images from the Visions and Paradox exibi! on

    Le Ricolais was considered along with Fuller & O# o

    a leading expert on structural morphology in archi-

    tecture. He was an engineer, architect, poet and

    painter, known for his theore! cal research on trellis

    structures and tensegrity during the 1950s. His

    works roots are in nature and science, in a seashell,

    a soap bubble or le Ricolais fantasy of going inside

    a rope to nd a new way to realize his central vision

    of zero weight, in nite span.

  • BURN

    DS10 CAROLYN BUTLER

  • DS10 CAROLYN BUTLER

    BURNING MAN FESTIVAL [BRIEF]

  • Above | burning e gies at the end of the fes val

    Every year, they establish themselves in a new loca on

    to seek freedom and self-reliance. Nevadas dry Black

    Rock Desert comes to life some weeks before the actual

    start of the fes val. It ends with the burning of a larger-

    than-life e gy made of wood and straw, from which the

    fes val gets its name. theme camps are sta onary and

    some are moving; the moving ones are probably art cars.

    Rethink, Reduce, Reuse, Recycle, Respect & Restore!

    It is impossible to describe Burning Man. It is

    the closest to going to a di erent planet, it is

    the biggest party on earth, it is an utopia

    Burning Man is no ordinary fes val. There are

    no large stages or big bands; nevertheless, it is

    extremely popular. More than 50,000 people

    gather in the Nevada desert over the course of

    the six days in early September.

    Right | Burning Man Fes val - night satellite image

    11 days before the fes val Tra c jam into fes val

    DS10 CAROLYN BUTLER

    BURNING MAN FESTIVAL [RESEARCH]

    Burning Man is much more than just a temporary

    community. Its a city in the desert, dedicated to radical self

    reliance, radical self-expression and art. Innova ve sculpture,

    installa ons, performance, theme camps, art cars and

    costumes all ower from the playa and spread to our

    communi es and back again. Our mission is to promote

    and support interac ve public art, even beyond our event.

  • 2009 & 2010 BLACK ROCK CITY PLAN

    Due to a great deal of feedback cri cal of the expanded size of the 2008 city,

    2009 returned to nearly the same, smaller footprint of 2007. The distance

    from the inner-most road to the Man was reduced from 2700 to just 2100

    feet. The Center Camp was also smaller than 2008, a compromise between

    2007 and 2008. The 2010 city plan was very similar to 2009 - the only change

    was the addi on of three new public plazas at 3:00, 6:00 and 09:00.

    DS10 CAROLYN BUTLER

    A TEMPORARY CITY [PLANNING]

    2007 & 2008 BLACK ROCK CITY PLAN

    Compared to the 2007 city plan the distance from the Man to the Esplanade

    road increased from 2200 to 2700 feet in 2008, which meant the length of the

    Esplanade grew over 2500 feet longer. 2007s three inner blocks were removed

    crea ng a new Esplanade for 2008. Two longer concentric roads at the back of

    the city replace the three shortest concentric streets from the inside.

    2011 BLACK ROCK CITY PLAN

    The city grew again. The distance from the inner-most Esplanade street to the Man was

    2400 feet. This means all blocks from Esplanade to Gradua on were wider between the

    clock streets. By far, the most drama c change in the 2011 plan was the addi on of

    sixteen new streets. To ease pedestrian and bicycle movement and access at the back of

    the city, the new streets were short radials at the # een and forty- ve clock posi! ons.

    Public Plazas also returned at Kindergarten and 3:00, 6:00, and 9:00.

    THE PENTAGON

    The Pentagon surrounding the city de nes the land used by the event, the

    7-mile long temporary plas! c fence that surrounds the event. This 4-foot high

    barrier is known as the trash fence because its ini! al use was to catch wind-

    blown debris that might escape from campsites during the event.

  • Image of Burning Man Fes val

    This place is a bike city, you have never seen so

    many bikes in your life, and at night? Wow every-

    thing is glowing! Bikes are all decked out. They even

    have a pimp my bike camp!

    DS10 CAROLYN BUTLER

    BURNING MAN FESTIVAL [TRANSPORT]

  • DS10 CAROLYN BUTLER

    BICYCLE WHEEL [ANALYSIS]

    Above | detail of bicycle wheel hub Right | bicycle wheel forces analysis

    A bicycle is the most e cient mode of transporta on, in terms of

    energy conversion e ciency from a human to mobility. Part of this

    e ciency results from its structure, resul ng from an e cient

    deployment of tensile forces requiring, as a result, minimal mass.

    Spokes dont push outward holding the rim at bay, rather the rim

    is evenly pulled inward by spokes that are laced through the hub,

    which makes it extraordinarily strong. These spokes coming from

    the hub then radiate outward to the rim, where they a ach to nip-

    ples, which are like li le nuts res ng in the rim. ROAD

    TORQUE

    Spokes play a key role in the transferring the power from your legs

    to the rim to make the bike move. The force driving the bike for-

    ward gets distributed among many spokes. Even under a very heavy

    load many spokes help spread out the weight so that it is more

    evenly carried and doesnt put too much stress on any single spoke.

    Though some bicycles have appeared with sta cally determinant

    cables deploying tension in one plane, and for one triangle of the

    frame, there is no bicycle yet available that deploys omnidirec onal

    tension.

    HUB

    RIM

    SPOKES

    TEN

    SIO

    N

    Another type of bicycle wheel can be formed in one piece from

    a material such as thermoplas c and carbon ber composite.

    Although spoked wheels are lighter, the solid wheels are more aero-

    dynamic. A solid wheel is never used on the front for a road race

    but can be used on the rear of the bike.

  • The top sequence of images show the deforma on of a bicycle wheel

    using a direct force to the rim on the opposite side of the oor. The

    bo om sequence of images show the further deforma on rota ng

    the bicycle wheel and applying force to di erent points of the rim.

    DS10 CAROLYN BUTLER

    BICYCLE WHEEL DEFORMATION [DEFORMING SEQUENCE]

  • Details of deformed bicycle wheel

    Views of deformed bicycle wheel

    These close up photographs of the deformed bicycle wheel

    illustrate the spokes buckling under the force applied to the rim of

    the wheel. The spokes either bent or became una! ached to the rim,

    poking through its hole and s cking out at bizarre angles due to the

    lack of tension in the material.

    DS10 CAROLYN BUTLER

    BICYCLE WHEEL DEFORMATION [DETAILS]

  • DS10 CAROLYN BUTLER

    WHEEL STRUCTURE [DIGITAL MODEL]

    This digital model experiments with Le Ricolais enigma! c three dimensional

    la" ce system as illustrated on the previous sheet. The form is very en! cing

    and it was modelled in the hope of understnading it be# er. It takes the basic

    from of geodesic or hexagonal sphere and pulls out the geometry at points -

    the reverse of previous work on folding geodesic spheres.

    Three dimensional la" ce system

  • DS10 CAROLYN BUTLER

    ENERGY STORAGE WHEEL [SALTWATER BATTERY]

  • FLOATATION TANKS

    for relaxa on & healing

    SOLAR PIPES

    to collect heat in the salt water

    SALT WATER BATTERY CELLS

    to generate electricity for ligh ng at night

    WATER TABLE

    source of salt water

    DS10 CAROLYN BUTLER

    SALT CONCEPT [DESIGN DEVELOPMENT]

  • DS10 CAROLYN BUTLER

    MINIMAL PATH SITE ANALYSIS [BLACK ROCK CITY]

    This series of diagrams digitally illustrate the direct and minimal path

    networks that the plan arrangement of Black Rock City produce. The black

    markers indicate circula! on nodes at street entrances, the burning man and

    the temple.

    Diagram 01 shows the direct path routes from the streets of the city to the

    burning man. Diagram 02 shows the minimal path routes from the streets of

    city to the burning man superimposed on the fainter direct paths in order to

    clearly illustrate the comparision.

    Diagram 01 | direct path routes to the burning man Diagram 02 | superimposed direct and minimal path routes to the burning man Diagram 03 | direct path routes from all nodes to all other nodes Diagram 04 | minimal path routes from all nodes to all other nodes

    Diagram 03 shows the direct path routes from all nodes to all other nodes.

    Diagram 04 shows the minimal path network from all nodes to all other

    nodes. This network is produced by a digital algorithm - imita! ng the Frei

    O" os wet wool experiments that a" empted to form nd path organisa! ons.

    BURNING MAN

  • DS10 CAROLYN BUTLER

    PATH NETWORKS [BLACK ROCK CITY]

    Actual path routes from all nodes to all other nodes - satellite image of 2011 Burning Man Fes! val

    These images highlight the path networks to and within

    Black Rock City. The citys streets are structured radially

    but the path networks across the playa are formed from

    the natural foo" all of the crowds. In the satellite image,

    the lightness of the en! re central playa indicates that

    that the paths are not de ned but self formed. This led

    to the far right image that digitally generated a minimal

    path network connec! ng all nodes to all other nodes.

    This could not take account of all the art installa! ons in

    the Playa as these posi! ons change annually.

    This site analysis indicates where noisy areas would be

    i.e. areas of lots of movement therefore ideal sites for

    Flota! on Power would be o the most used paths. Theore! cal minimal path routes from all nodes to all other nodes - digital representa! on

    Detail of movement networks in the Playa centre

    Quiet site loca! on

  • DS10 CAROLYN BUTLER

    SALTWATER FLOTATION [EXPERIMENTS]

    Density is the amount of space something takes up per volume. When more

    mass is added to the same amount of space being taken up the density of the

    liquid changes. When a raw egg is dropped into fresh water the egg doesnt

    displace enough water making the egg more dense then the water around it.

    This creates an unbalanced force which sends the egg to the bo! om of the

    glass. When salt is added to the 250 ml of water and s" rred, the salt crys-

    tals break down into molecules and and ll in the gaps inbetween the water

    molecules.

    Saltwater ota" on experiment process

    The solu" on now has more mass in the same space or volume, which changes

    the density of the water. When the egg is added to the salt water you displace

    the same amount of water but that space has more molecules in it and the

    egg becomes less dense than the salt water around it. When fresh water is

    slowly added to the salt water the less dense fresh water oats on top of the

    more dense salt water.The egg sinks through the less dense fresh water and

    oats on the more dense salt water.

    Experiment with di erent salt concentra" ons of water - side

    Experiment with di erent salt concentra" ons of water - top

    DENSITY ANALYSIS

    Object oa" ng on saltwater Fresh water poured into glass Object oats between salt and fresh water Food colouring added Blue = less dense fresh water

    Clear = more dense saltwater

    250ml water 25g salt + 250ml water 50g salt + 250ml water 75g salt + 250ml water 100g salt + 250ml water

    250ml water 25g salt + 250ml water 50g salt + 250ml water 75g salt + 250ml water 100g salt + 250ml water

  • DS10 CAROLYN BUTLER

    SALTWATER BATTERY [EXPERIMENTS]

    When salts are dissolved in water they become ions that carry posi! ve

    or nega! ve charges. It is the ions that are dissolved in water that conduct

    electricity. The voltage created in a ba" ery is due to ionic chemistry. One

    electrode will become charged to a greater extent than the other resul! ng

    in a voltage di erence between the electrodes. Because of this di erence,

    electrons will want to move from one electrode to the other. This a" rac! ve

    poten! al is the voltage that is measured between the electrodes, and the

    origin of the ba" eries electrical power.

    In this cell copper is used for the cathode and aluminium is used for the

    anode. Copper serves as a source of electrons, it simply passes on electrons

    from the external circuit, a$ er theyve owed through the LED. The cell

    current decreases over long periods of ! me because the metals become

    coated with oxides/byproducts. The voltage, however, remains constant as

    its a ected primarily by the electronega! vity of the metals, which does not

    change.

    This series of experiments show that a single cell saltwater ba" ery can

    produce 0.63V. This voltage can be increased by connec! ng mul! ple cells

    i.e. 3 cells = 1.66V and 6 cells = 3.25V.

    Apparatus of saltwater ba" ery

    salt

    aluminium

    copper

    container + water

    hook up wires

    mul! meter

    Six cell saltwater ba" ery producing 3.25V Six cell saltwater ba" ery ligh! ng up a light emi& ng diode - side

    Copper cathode

    Single cell ba" ery without the electrolyte

    Light emi& ng diode powered by the saltwater ba" ery

    Single cell ba" ery with the electrolyte = saltwater

    Six cell saltwater ba" ery ligh! ng up a light emi& ng diode - top

    Three cell saltwater ba" ery producing 1.66V - top

    Three cell saltwater ba" ery producing 1.66V - side

    Saltwater ba" ery diagram Tradi! onal ba" ery diagram

    LEDLED

    cathode (+)

    anode (-)

    c

    a

    t

    h

    o

    d

    e

    (

    +

    )

    a

    n

    o

    d

    e

    (

    -

    )

    Cl -

    Na +

    electrolyte

    saltwater

    NaCl

  • DS10 CAROLYN BUTLER

    SALT CRYSTALLISATION [EXPERIMENT]

    Using black thread hanging into saltwater, this experiment looks at how salt

    crystals form on the ver! cal threads as the saltwater in the container

    evaporates. The salt crystallisa! on forms an interes! ng barrier material.

    This process could be used to surround the individual ota! on tanks, e ec-

    ! vely cocooning the tank and crea! ng protec! on from the wind while also

    providing a method of extrac! ng extra salt to increase the salt density of the

    ota! on tanks when necessary.

    DAY 1

    Salt crystallisa! on on glass - as saltwater evaporates crystals form

    DAY 2 DAY 3 DAY 4 DAY 5

    DAY 3 - salt crystallisa! on on ver! cal threads DAY 5 - salt crystallisa! on on ver! cal threads

    EXPERIMENT PROCESS

  • DS10 CAROLYN BUTLER

    MINIMAL STRUCTURAL SYSTEM [APPLYING MINIMAL PATH RULES]

    This model used the process previously explored in the minimal path systems

    from Frei O! o but a! empts to take the concept a stage further and create a

    minimal structural system.

    The thread lengths are given approximately a 12.5% over-length leaving them

    quite loose and messy when dry. The model is then dipped in a water and

    soap solu" on and hung upside down. The wet threads bunch together, as

    seen in previous experiments, but due to the increased over length they also

    dip downwards crea" ng a domed form. When dry, the model is coated with

    resin in order to cast the form. The model can then be turned over maintain-

    ing the rigid minimal structural system.

    Model of minimal structural system - made of co! on thread and resin

    Co! on thread a! ached to all pins Model dipped in water and soap Threads naturally form a minimal structural system Model painted with resin

    Underside of structure

    Detail of modelPLAN AFTER = wet threads + resinPLAN BEFORE = dry loose threads

    MODEL PROCESS

  • DS10 CAROLYN BUTLER

    DESIGN DEVELOPMENT [SKETCHES]

    The concept is primarily based around salt and its sustainable uses,

    the source of salt is from the site itself. This project uses saltwater as

    an electrolyte to generate electricity for nigh! me ligh! ng and as an

    integral ingredient for ota! on therapy. The programme of ota! on

    informs the architecture by requiring a cocoon-like environment with

    salty, skin-temperature water in which to oat, sheltered from the

    harsh elements.

    CONCEPT | FLOTATION POWER

    SALT WATER BATTERY CELLS

    saltwater used to generate

    electricity for nigh! me ligh! ng

    ba# ery cells form a wall of

    plas! c containers crea! ng a

    wind barrier

    FLOTATION TANKS

    for relaxa! on & healing, warm

    saltwater is provided from solar

    collector pipes and thermal store

    salt crystals form on the barrier

    around the ota! on tanks as the

    saltwater evaporates, this creates

    a thicker protec! on from the

    elements, cocooning the user in a

    sensory deprived environment

    SOLAR COLLECTOR PIPES

    to collect heat in the salt

    water throughout the day

    MINIMAL STRUCTURAL SYSTEM

    tubes lled with sand provide

    thermal mass, con gured using

    principles of minimal path systems

    THERMAL STORE

    stores heated salt

    water to distribute

    to ota! on tanks

    at night

    S

    A

    L

    T

    W

    A

    T

    E

    R

    S

    O

    U

    R

    C

    E

    SOLAR SHADING

    structure and solar pipes

    provide solar shading

    Ini! al concept sketch

    SOLA

    R COLLECTO

    R PIPES

    SALT

    WAT

    ER B

    ATTE

    RY C

    ELLS

    LIGHTS

    FLOTATION

    TANK

    MINIMAL STRUCTURAL

    SYSTEM

    FLOTATION TANKS

    SOLAR COLLECTOR TUBES

    maxim

    ising solar gain

    ACCESS

    ACCESS

    ACCESS

    LIGHTS

    SALT WATER

    BATTERY CELLS

    to power lights

    at night

    SALT WATER

    BATTERY CELLS

    to power lights

    at night

  • DS10 CAROLYN BUTLER

    MINIMAL STRUCTURAL SYSTEM [PHYSICAL MODEL EXTERIOR]

  • DS10 CAROLYN BUTLER

    MINIMAL STRUCTURAL SYSTEM [PHYSICAL MODEL INTERIOR]

    FLOTATION TANKS

    salt crystals form on the barrier around the

    ota" on tanks as the saltwater evaporates,

    this creates a thicker protec" on from the

    elements, cocooning the user in a sensory

    deprived environment

  • DS10 CAROLYN BUTLER

    DEVELOPMENT [DAY VISUAL]

    update

  • DS10 CAROLYN BUTLER

    SYSTEM DIAGRAM DEVELOPMENT [DESIGN DEVELOPMENT]

    These diagrams explain the energy, environmental and structural

    systems that this project u! lises, to achieve Flota! on Power. The

    concept is primarily based around salt and its sustainable uses, the

    source of salt is from the site itself. This project uses saltwater as an

    electrolyte to generate electricity for nigh! me ligh! ng and as an

    integral ingredient for ota! on therapy. The programme of ota! on

    informs the architecture by requiring a cocoon-like environment with

    salty, skin-temperature water in which to oat, sheltered from the

    harsh elements.

    CLOSED LOOP ENERGY SYSTEM

    SALT WATER BATTERY CELLS

    saltwater is used to generate

    electricity for nigh! me ligh! ng

    FLOTATION TANKS

    for relaxa! on & healing, warm

    saltwater is provided from solar

    collector pipes and thermal store

    SOLAR PIPES

    to collect heat in the salt

    water throughout the day

    MINIMAL STRUCTURAL SYSTEM

    tubes lled with sand, con gured

    using principles of minimal path

    systems

    THERMAL STORE

    stores heated salt water

    to distribute to ota! on

    tanks at night

    S

    A

    L

    T

    W

    A

    T

    E

    R

    S

    O

    U

    R

    C

    E

    OVERVIEW

  • DS10 CAROLYN BUTLER

    FINAL CONCEPT [FLOTATION POWER]

    The concept is primarily based around salt and its sustainable uses,

    the source of salt is from the site itself. This project uses saltwater as

    an electrolyte to generate electricity for nigh! me ligh! ng and as an

    integral ingredient for ota! on therapy. The programme of ota! on

    informs the architecture by requiring a cocoon-like environment with

    salty, skin-temperature water in which to oat, sheltered from the

    harsh elements, this is provided by natural salt forma! on.

    SALT

    SALT WATER BATTERY CELLS

    saltwater used to generate

    electricity for nigh! me ligh! ng

    ba# ery cells form a wall of

    plas! c containers crea! ng a

    wind barrier

    FLOTATION TANKS

    for relaxa! on & healing, warm

    saltwater is provided from solar

    collector pipes

    SOLAR COLLECTOR PIPES

    to collect heat in the salt

    water throughout the day,

    pipe organisa! on a# ached

    to minimal structural system

    THERMAL STORE

    stores warm salt

    water in day to

    be used at night

    S

    A

    L

    T

    W

    A

    T

    E

    R

    S

    O

    U

    R

    C

    E

    SOLAR SHADING

    structure and solar pipes

    provide solar shading

    FLOTATION TANKS

    SALT WATER

    BATTERY CELLS

    to power lights

    at night

    LIGHTS

    night ! me ligh! ng powered

    by saltwater ba# ery cells

    S

    A

    L

    T

    W

    A

    T

    E

    R

    S

    O

    U

    R

    C

    E

    TRANSPIRATION

    evapora! on from the

    ota! on tanks and outer

    pools cause saltwater to

    be drawn up from the high

    water table below the

    desert surface

    SALT FORMATION

    salt crystals form a barrier

    around the ota! on tanks as the

    saltwater evaporates, cocooning

    the user in a sensory deprived

    environment

    Salt forma! ons in nature Digital salt forma! on on ota! on tank

    CLOSED LOOP

    POWER SYSTEM

  • DS10 CAROLYN BUTLER

    SOLAR SYSTEM [FLOTATION POWER]

    Transpira! on diagram

    water absorbed

    by root hairs

    water lost by

    transpira! on

    capillary ac! on

    The saltwater is drawn up from the water table via transpira! on and

    travels through the black solar collector pipes absorbing heat and

    deposi! ng the warm water into the ota! on tanks. The tanks act as

    thermal stores, storing the warmed water for their night use.

    OVERVIEW

    SALT WATER BATTERY CELLS

    saltwater used to generate

    electricity for nigh! me ligh! ng

    ba# ery cells form a wall of

    plas! c containers crea! ng a

    wind barrier

    FLOTATION TANKS

    for relaxa! on & healing, warm

    saltwater is provided from solar

    collector pipes

    SOLAR COLLECTOR PIPES

    to collect heat in the salt

    water throughout the day,

    pipe organisa! on a# ached

    to minimal structural system

    SOLAR SHADING

    structure and solar pipes

    provide solar shading

    TRANSPIRATION

    evapora! on from the

    ota! on tanks and outer

    pools cause saltwater to

    be drawn up from the high

    water table below the

    desert surface

  • DS10 CAROLYN BUTLER

    PLAN [FLOTATION POWER]

    This illustra! on shows the superimposed process of the digital

    minimal structural system. The result has a similar aesthe! c to the

    physical structural model made previously.

    1:100 DIGITAL MINIMAL STRUCTURAL SYSTEM PLAN

    N

    DIGITAL MODEL PROCESS - stages of physics simula! on of minimal structural system

    N

  • DS10 CAROLYN BUTLER

    SECTION [FLOTATION POWER]

    SALT WATER BATTERY CELLS

    saltwater used to generate

    electricity for nigh! me ligh! ng

    ba" ery cells form a wall of

    plas! c containers crea! ng a

    wind barrier

    FLOTATION TANKS

    for relaxa! on & healing, warm

    saltwater is provided from solar

    collector pipes

    salt crystals form a barrier

    around the ota! on tanks as the

    saltwater evaporates, cocooning

    the user in a sensory deprived

    environment

    SOLAR COLLECTOR PIPES

    integrated into the minimal

    structural system, the black

    pipes collect heat in the salt

    water throughout the day

    SOLAR SHADING

    structure and solar pipes

    provide solar shading

  • DS10 CAROLYN BUTLER

    ELEVATIONS [FLOTATION POWER]

    [01]

    [02]

    [03]

    [04]

    [02] EAST ELEVATION

    [01] NORTH ELEVATION [04] WEST ELEVATION [03] SOUTH ELEVATION