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  • United Nations

    Intern

    ation

    al Reco

    mm

    end

    ation

    s for E

    nerg

    y Statistics

  • International Recommendations for Energy Statistics (IRES)

    United NationsNew York, 2018

    Department of Economic and Social AffairsStatistics Division

    ST/ESA/STAT/SER.M/93

    Statistical Papers Series M No. 93

  • ii

    Department of Economic and Social AffairsThe Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat is a vital interface between global policies in the economic, social and environmental spheres and national action. The Department works in three main interlinked areas: (i) it compiles, generates and analyses a wide range of economic, social and environmental data and information on which States Members of the United Nations draw to review common problems and to take stock of policy options; (ii) it facilitates the negotiations of Member States in many intergovernmental bodies on joint courses of action to address ongoing or emerging global challenges; and (iii) it advises interested Governments on the ways and means of translating policy frameworks developed in United Nations conferences and summits into programmes at the country level and, through technical assistance, helps build national capacities.

    NoteThe designations used and the presentation of material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area, or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.

    The term country as used in this publication also refers, as appropriate, to territories or areas.

    Symbols of United Nations documents are composed of capital letters combined with figures. Mention of such a symbol indicates a reference to a United Nations document.

    ST/ESA/STAT/SER.M/93 United Nations Publication Sales No. E.14.XVII.11 ISBN: 978-92-1-161584-5 eISBN: 978-92-1-056520-2

    Copyright United Nations, 2017 All rights reserved

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    Contents

    Page

    Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii

    Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix

    List of abbreviations and acronyms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi

    Chapter I. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

    A. Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B. Purpose of the international recommendations for energy statistics . . . . . . . . . . 3C. Users and uses of energy statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6D. IRES development process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8E. Structure of IRES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8F. Summary of recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10G. Implementation and revision policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

    Chapter II. Scope of energy statistics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

    A. Energy and energy statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17B. Basic concepts and boundary issues: an overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

    Chapter III. Standard International Energy Product Classification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

    A. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21B. Purpose and scope of SIEC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21C. Classification criteria and coding system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

    Coding system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23D. Definitions of energy products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

    Chapter IV. Measurement units and conversion factors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

    A. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41B. Measurement units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

    1. Original units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422. Common units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

    C. Calorific values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 451. Gross and net calorific/heating values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 452. Default vs. specific calorific values. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 463. How to calculate average calorific values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 474. Default calorific values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 485. Units recommended for dissemination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54

    Chapter V. Energy flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

    A. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55B. Concept of energy flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

  • International Recommendations for Energy Statistics (IRES)iv

    C. Definition of main energy flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56D. Energy industries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58

    1. Electricity and heat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 612. Transformation processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63

    E. Other energy producers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64F. Energy consumers and energy uses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

    1. Energy consumers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 652. Cross-classification of uses and users of energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66

    Chapter VI. Statistical units and data items . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71

    A. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71B. Statistical units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71

    1. Statistical units and their definitions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 712. An illustrative example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 733. Statistical units for energy statistics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75

    C. Reference list of data items . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 751. Characteristics of statistical units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 752. Data items on energy flows and stock levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 783. Data items on production, storage and transmission capacity . . . . . . . . . . . 814. Data items for assessment of economic performance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 835. Data items on mineral and energy resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85

    Chapter VII. Data collection and compilation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87

    A. Legal framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87B. Institutional arrangements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88C. Data collection strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89

    1. Scope and coverage of data collection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 892. Organization of data collection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92

    D. Data sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 931. Statistical data sources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 932. Administrative data sources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96

    E. Data compilation methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97

    Chapter VIII. Energy balances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101

    A. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101B. Scope and general principles of energy balance compilation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102C. Structure of energy balance: an overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104

    1. Top blockenergy supply. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1052. Middle blocktransfers, transformation, use and losses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1063. Bottom blockfinal consumption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1074. Statistical difference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109

    D. Templates of detailed and aggregated energy balances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109E. Data reconciliation and estimation of missing data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112

    1. Accuracy requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1122. Estimation of missing data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1123. Reconciliation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112

    F. Commodity balances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

    Page

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    Chapter IX. Data quality assurance and metadata . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115

    A. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115B. Data quality, quality assurance and quality assurance frameworks. . . . . . . . . . . 115

    1. Data quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1152. Quality assurance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1153. Data quality assurance frameworks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1164. Obectives, uses and benefits of quality assurance frameworks. . . . . . . . . . . 1185. Dimensions of quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1186. Interconnectedness and trade-offs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120

    C. Measuring and reporting on the quality of statistical outputs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1211. Quality measures and indicators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1212. Examples and selection of quality measures and indicators . . . . . . . . . . . . 1223. Quality reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1224. Quality reviews . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124

    D. Metadata on energy statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125

    Chapter X. Dissemination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129

    A. Importance of energy statistics dissemination. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129B. Data dissemination and statistical confidentiality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130C. Reference period and dissemination timetable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132D. Data revision. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133E. Dissemination formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134F. International reporting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134

    Chapter XI. Uses of basic energy statistics and balances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135

    A. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135B. The System of Environmental-Economic Accounting for Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . 135

    1. Main differences between energy balances and energy accounts . . . . . . . . . 1362. Adjustments for the compilation of energy accounts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138

    C. Energy indicators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139D. Greenhouse gas emissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141

    1. Climate change and GHG emissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1412. IPCC guidelines for estimating GHG emissions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1423. Energy emissions and energy statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143

    Annex A. Primary and secondary products; renewables and non-renewables . . . . . . . . 145

    Annex B. Additional tables on conversion factors, calorific values and measurement units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149

    References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153

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  • International Recommendations for Energy Statistics (IRES)vi

    TABLES

    1.1 Summary of the main recommendations and encouragements contained in IRES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....

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