IR1IMEM YEAR ONE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY L2: Reviewing Literature, Formulating Research Problem, Variables DR. JAVED-VASSILIS KHAN, Drs. Allerd Peters, Frank.

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  • IR1IMEM YEAR ONE

    RESEARCH METHODOLOGYL2: Reviewing Literature, Formulating Research Problem, Variables

    DR. JAVED-VASSILIS KHAN, Drs. Allerd Peters, Frank WeissmanBREDA SEP2011

  • INDEXReviewing the Literature

  • REVIEWING THE LITERATUREIntegral part of research processIn initial stages it helps to:Establish theoretical rootsClarify ideasDevelop research methodologyLater serves to:Consolidate your knowledgeIntegrate your findings with existing knowledge

  • LITERATURE REVIEWMost (graduation) proposals suffer from superficial understanding of the issue at stakeIf understanding about a subject does not go beyond common knowledge => research ideas will be superficial and not state-of-the-art

  • LITERATURE REVIEW HELPS:Clarify your research problem/questionParadox, chicken-egg problemIterative processImprove research methodologyMethodologies used by others, pros/consBroaden knowledge baseWhat are findings around your RQ?What theories have been put forward?What are gaps in existing literature?Contextualize findingsHow do your findings fit into the existing body of knowledge?

  • LITERATURE REVIEWBefore writing a research proposal you are able to give at least an informed answer to:What is already known with respect to my subject?What theories and concepts are relevant?What research strategies and methods have been employed by others performing similar research?What questions have remained unanswered/ what suggestions for further research have been done?What researchers are important with respect to this topic?

  • LITERATURE REVIEW: HOW TOSearch existing literature in your area of interestReview this existing literatureDevelop a theoretical framework for your RQDevelop conceptual framework

  • SEARCH

  • ASSESSING LITERATURE QUALITYHow can I see if it is a good source?Plenty of material => even more difficult to assessNot that easy

  • INDICATORS FOR A GOOD SOURCECarries a titleHas the author/s clearly listedUses sources according to an international standardreference list & in-text referencing according to e.g., APAIs published at credible publishing houses Is referenced by other researchers too

    If 1-3 are not met, the source is of questionable quality => refrain from using itIf 4-5 are met, the source is of good quality => use it!

  • INDICATORS FOR A GOOD SOURCECarries a titleHas the author/s clearly listedUses sources according to an international standardreference list & in-text referencing according to e.g., APAIs published at credible publishing houses Is referenced by other researchers tooHas a summary or abstract Is incorporated in electronic library collectionsIs balanced in its word use and uses factual argumentation in stead of rhetoric

  • WEB SOURCESEasy to find -> hard to assess for qualitySearch engine can find a site but does not evaluate itWeb sources can be published by anybody => no peer review, no editorial boardMany web sources have their own agenda Need to cross-check Download all material found on the Internet

  • SOURCEShttp://scholar.google.comhttp://portal.acm.orghttp://ieeexplore.ieee.orghttp://sciencedirect.comConference paper => less time to prepare, less time to review, more recent, limited scopeJournal paper => more preparation, strict review process, established knowledge, easier to generalizeBook chapter => even more established knowledge but no peer review

  • CREDIBLE PUBLISHING HOUSESACM IEEE Elsevier Springer Taylor & Francis SAGEMcGraw Hill Oxford University Press

  • SEARCHING vs. FINDINGSearch easy but Find not easy Main problems:Sticking to the obvious Using tutor cited literature Inefficient search strategies Content is not possible to be accessed

  • EFFICIENT LITERATURE REVIEW STRATEGIESSearch find - evaluateRQ, general knowledge, literature => derive keywordsUse specialized, credible sources Select sources in comparable contextAfter having compiled a list of articles => evaluate & prioritize

  • ARTICLE EVALUATIONEvaluate quality based on the afore mentioned indicators => how many indicators does it satisfy?Read abstract => is it interesting for my RQ? If yes => read conclusions => still interesting?Answer the question: This source I can use for my research, because it gives the following information:...Only now you read the whole article

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