Les pronoms. Introduction We use pronouns to replace nouns in sentences so that our speech is less repetitive. Example: The dog is called Marta. John

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Les pronoms Slide 2 Introduction We use pronouns to replace nouns in sentences so that our speech is less repetitive. Example: The dog is called Marta. John likes the dog. John gives a biscuit to the dog. These 3 sentences repeat the word dog and John several times: this sounds too heavy. We can use pronouns to make it less heavy. Slide 3 Lets replace the repetitions with pronouns! The 3 sentences above then become: The dog is called Marta. John likes her. He gives her a biscuit. In these sentences, the pronoun he replaces John and the pronoun her replaces the noun the dog. Slide 4 The different kinds of pronouns There are several kinds of pronouns: for now, we will discuss subject pronouns and object pronouns. 1)Subject pronouns: they replace nouns that are used as subjects (the ones that do the action) in a sentence. You already know these very well: Je, tu, il/elle/on, nous, vous, ils, elles In the previous example, John was replaced by the subject pronoun he which is il in French: John aime la chienne, il lui donne un biscuit. Slide 5 2) Object pronouns: they replace nouns that are used as objects in a sentence. Lets see again our previous example: John likes the dog. John gives a biscuit to the dog. the dog is the object of the sentence and can then be replaced by the object pronoun her: John likes her. John gives her a biscuit. Slide 6 Her (and him in the masculine) has two equivalents in French. Which one you use depends on whether it is a direct object pronoun or an indirect object pronoun: a) indirect object pronouns in French are: me/te/nous/vous (me/you/us/you in English) and lui/leur (him/her/them in English) b) direct object pronouns are: me/te/nous/vous (also me/you/us/you in English) and le/la/l/les (also him/her/them in English) Slide 7 INDIRECT OBJECT PRONOUNS Indirect object pronouns replace indirect object nouns. An indirect object consists of the preposition to + animate noun which in French is + animate noun (a noun referring to a person/a living being). Lets take again our previous example, but in French this time: John likes the dog. John aime la chienne. In this sentence, there is no (no to in English) so the dog cannot be an indirect object. Slide 8 Now lets see our other sentence: John gives a biscuit to the dog. John donne un biscuit la chienne. In this sentence, the object la chienne is preceded by so la chienne is an indirect object and can be replaced by lui (both for feminine and masculine nouns): John lui donne un biscuit. Slide 9 Lui is then used to replace to him/to her. Leur is used to replace to them. Indirect Object Pronoun Masculine Singular Indirect Object Pronoun Feminine Singular Indirect Object Pronoun Plural English to himto herto them French lui leur Slide 10 Position of the pronouns: Please note the position of the pronoun: John lui donne un biscuit. It is always placed just before the verb. (Note: donne is the verb donner conjugated at the present tense). Slide 11 Attention! 1) in front of a masculine noun becomes au Example: + le chien = au chien Lets look at the following sentence: John donne un biscuit au chien. Here, au chien is an indirect object noun as is included in au. We can then replace au chien with lui: John lui donne un biscuit. Slide 12 2) in front of a plural noun becomes aux Example: + les chiens = aux chiens So aux chiens is an indirect object noun. As it is a plural noun, it can be replaced with leur: John donne un biscuit aux chiens = John leur donne un biscuit. Slide 13 Entrainons-nous ensemble (Lets practice together) Replace the Indirect Object Pronouns with LUI or LEUR 1. Le week-end, je rends visite mon copain. Remember!: The Indirect Object pronouns (LUI/LEUR) replace + nouns repesenting PEOPLE Slide 14 LUI or LEUR 1. 1. Le week-end, je rends visite mon copain. is singular Rponse: Le week-end, je lui rends visite. mon copain Slide 15 LUI or LEUR 2. Pendant les vacances, je rends visite mes cousins. is plural Rponse: Pendant les vacances, je leur rends visite. mes cousins Slide 16 LUI or LEUR 3. Tu cris souvent tes grands-parents. is plural Rponse: Tu leur cris souvent. tes grands-parents Slide 17 LUI or LEUR 4. Nous demandons des conseils (advice) notre mre. is singular Rponse: nous lui demandons des conseils. notre mre Slide 18 Vous avez-compris? vous de faire les exercices! (Now it is your turn to do the exercises on your own): see Finalsite for your homework instructions and exercise sheet. Bonne chance Slide 19 MORE INDIRECT OBJECT PRONOUNS: ME/TE/NOUS/VOUS Whilst lui/leur are used to replace to him/to her (third person pronouns), me/te/nous/vous are used to replace: me to me (1 st person singular pronoun) teto you (2 nd pers. singular pronoun) nousto us (1 st person plural pronoun) vousto you (2 nd person plural pronoun) Slide 20 EXAMPLES He is speaking to me. Il me parle. He is speaking to you. Il te parle. He is speaking to us. Il nous parle. He is speaking to you (plural). Il vous parle Slide 21 POSITION You can notice from the previous examples that the 1 st and 2 nd person pronouns me/te/nous/vous are also placed before the verb (here the verb parler) like the pronouns lui/leur. Now lets see where the pronouns are placed when there is more than one part to the verb in a sentence. How do you know before which part of the verb to place the pronoun? Slide 22 In the future proche, the verb looks like this: verb aller (present tense) + infinitive (first part of the verb) (second part) In this case, the OBJECT pronoun will be placed in front of the INFINITIVE part of the verb. (This is not true for subject pronouns which always come before the conjugated part of the verb)! Example: Here is the verb parler conjugated in the futur proche Il va parlerIl va te parler POSITION OF PRONOUNS IN THE FUTURE PROCHE Slide 23 The rule is: When there is an infinitive in a sentence, the pronoun is placed BEFORE the infinitive This is also true when the verb is not conjugated in the futur proche but is using an infinitive structure: Example: with the verb aimer in the construction aimer + infinitive Il aime parlerIl aime me parler (He likes to speak)(He likes to speak to me) Slide 24 ENTRAINONS-NOUS! Est-ce que tu vas nous tlphoner ce soir? Oui,.... je vais vous tlphoner. Est-ce que les tudiants m'coutent? Oui,.... ils tcoutent. Est-ce que nous te rencontrons midi? Non,.... vous ne me rencontrez pas. Slide 25 Vous avez-compris? vous de faire les exercices! (Now it is your turn to do the exercises on your own): see Finalsite for your homework instructions and exercise sheet. Bonne chance Slide 26 POSITION OF PRONOUNS IN THE IMPERATIVE In the imperative, the pronoun is not placed before but AFTER THE VERB. Example: Envoie un message Paul! Envoie lui un message! However, in the negative, the pronoun is placed BEFORE THE VERB. Example: Nenvoie pas de message Paul! Ne lui envoie pas de message! Slide 27 POSITION OF PRONOUNS IN THE PASSE COMPOSE In the pass compos, the pronoun is placed BEFORE THE CONJUGATED PART OF THE VERB, that is, the auxiliary verb avoir or tre. Example: 1) Jai envoy un message Paul. Je lui ai envoy un message. 2) Je nai pas envoy de message Paul. Je ne lui ai pas envoy de message.