of 229/229
MCWP 3-14.1 LIGHT ARMORED VEHICLE -25 GUNNERY AND EMPLOYMENT U.S. Marine Corps PCN 143 000034 00

LIGHT ARMORED VEHICLE -25 GUNNERY AND … - Light... · LIGHT ARMORED VEHICLE -25 GUNNERY AND EMPLOYMENT ... Light Armored Vehicle-25 Gunnery and Employment ... projectile body crimped

  • View
    237

  • Download
    15

Embed Size (px)

Text of LIGHT ARMORED VEHICLE -25 GUNNERY AND … - Light... · LIGHT ARMORED VEHICLE -25 GUNNERY AND...

  • MCWP 3-14.1

    LIGHT ARMORED VEHICLE -25 GUNNERY AND EMPLOYMENT

    U.S. Marine Corps

    PCN 143 000034 00

  • DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVYHeadquarters United States Marine Corps

    Washington, D.C. 20380-1775

    19 December 1997FOREWORD

    Marine Corps Warfighting Publication (MCWP) 3-14.1, Light Armored Vehicle-25Gunnery and Employment, describes how the crew and section of the light armoredvehicle-25 (LAV-25) conducts gunnery training for combat. MCWP 3-14.1 alsoprovides the tactics, techniques, and procedures for use in engaging and destroyingenemy targets with the LAV-25 weapons systems.

    The target audience for this publication is LAV-25 crew members, vehiclecommanders, unit master gunners, S-3 officers, and commanders of light armoredreconnaissance units. MCWP 3-14.1 outlines a standardized way to train MarineLAV-25 gunners through the use of gunnery tables.

    MCWP 3-14.1 supersedes FMFM 6-32, Light Armored Vehicle GunneryEmployment, dated 28 August 1992.

    Reviewed and approved this date.

    BY DIRECTION OF THE COMMANDANT OF THE MARINE CORPS

    J. E. RHODES Lieutenant General, U.S. Marine Corps

    Commanding GeneralMarine Corps Combat Development Command

    DISTRIBUTION: 143 000034 00

  • To Our Readers

    Changes: Readers of this publication are encouraged to submit suggestions andchanges that will improve it. Recommendations may be sent directly to CommandingGeneral, Doctrine Division (C 42), Marine Corps Combat Development Command,3300 Russell Road, Suite 318A, Quantico, VA 22134-5021 or by fax to 703-784-2917(DSN 278-2917) or by E-mail to [email protected] [email protected] Recommendationsshould include the following information:

    Location of changePublication number and titleCurrent page numberParagraph number (if applicable)Line numberFigure or table number (if applicable)

    Nature of changeAdd, deleteProposed new text, preferably double-spaced and typewritten

    Justification and/or source of change

    Additional copies: A printed copy of this publication may be obtained from MarineCorps Logistics Base, Albany, GA 31704-5001, by following the instructions inMCBul 5600, Marine Corps Doctrinal Publications Status. An electronic copy maybe obtained from the Doctrine Division, MCCDC, world wide web home page which isfound at the following universal reference locator:http://ismo-www1.quantico.usmc.mil/docdiv.

    Unless otherwise stated, whenever the masculine or feminine gender is used, both men and women are included.

  • Page

    Chapter 1. Weapons Systems and Capabilities

    1001 M242 25mm Automatic Gun 1-11002 M240 Series 7.62mm Machine Guns 1-61003 M257 Smoke Grenade Launcher 1-7

    Chapter 2. Target Acquisition Process

    2001 Observation 2-12002 Detection 2-52003 Location 2-82004 Identification 2-92005 Classification 2-92006 Confirmation 2-112007 Engagement ` 2-11

    Chapter 3. Fire Commands and Engagement Techniques

    3001 Elements of a Fire Command 3-13002 Fire Command Terms 3-23003 Crew Duties in Response to the Fire Command 3-43004 Choice of Method of Engagement 3-53005 25mm Point Target Engagement Techniques 3-113006 25mm Area Target Engagement 3-123007 Coaxially and Pintle-Mounted 7.62mm Machine Gun Engagement 3-133008 M257 Smoke Grenade Launcher Engagement 3-163009 Multiple and Simultaneous Target Engagements 3-173010 Observation of Fires 3-193011 Direct Fire Adjustment 3-203012 Target Leading 3-213013 Engagement Termination 3-22

    iii

    Light Armored Vehicle-25 Gunnery and Employment

    Table of Contents

  • Chapter 4. Fire Control and Distribution

    4001 Standing Operating Procedures 4-14002 Fire Control and Distribution Measures 4-24003 Fire Distribution Patterns 4-54004 Section Fire Planning 4-64005 Section Fire Control 4-84006 Section Fire Commands 4-8

    Chapter 5. LAV-25 Unit Gunnery Training Programs

    5001 Developing LAV-25 Gunnery Programs 5-15002 Training Analysis and Planning 5-15003 Training Planning Tips 5-25004 Prerequisites to Gunnery Training 5-35005 Continuation of Gunnery Training 5-4

    Chapter 6. LAV-25 Gunnery Skills Test

    6001 Types of LGSTs 6-16002 Standards 6-16003 Site Planning and Preparation 6-2

    Chapter 7. Training Devices

    7001 LAV-25 Turret Trainer 7-17002 Precision Gunnery System 7-27003 M240 as a Subcaliber Device 7-27004 LAV-25 Subcaliber Training Device 7-2

    Chapter 8. LAV-25 Crew Evaluator Training

    8001 Prerequisites 8-18002 Certification 8-1

    Chapter 9. Preliminary Gunnery Training Exercises

    9001 Weapons Manipulation Training 9-19002 Target Acquisition Training 9-29003 Range Determination Training 9-39004 Passive and Thermal Sight Employment 9-39005 Smoke Employment 9-49006 Pintle-Mount Machine Gun Employment 9-4

    iv

    MCWP 3-14.1

  • Chapter 10. Live Fire Ranges

    10001 Establishing an LAV-25 Live Fire Range 10-110002 Range and Training Area Reconnaissance 10-410003 Range and Training Area Personnel, Equipment, and Layout 10-410004 Range Operations 10-12

    Chapter 11. Scaled Ranges

    11001 Uses 11-111002 Small-Scale (1/60 or 1/30, Stationary LAV-25) 11-211003 Small-Scale (1/10), Moving LAV-25 11-411004 Half-Scale 11-411005 Target Types 11-511006 Small-Scale Target Mechanisms 11-5

    Appendices

    A Cleaning, Inspecting, and Storing Ammunition A-1B Range Determination B-1C Air Defense C-1D LAV-25 Gunnery Skills Test Recommended Performance Checklists D-1E Basic Gunnery Tables E-1F Sustainment Gunnery Tables F-1G Intermediate Gunnery Tables G-1H Advanced Gunnery Tables H-1I Ammunition Forecasting and Allocating I-1J Immediate and Remedial Actions J-1K Weapons Conditions K-1L Advanced Gunnery Performance Checklists L-1M Point Calculation Worksheets M-1N Glossary N-1O References and Related Publications O-1

    LAV-25 Gunnery and Employment

  • v (reverseblank)

    MCWP 3-14.1

  • Through its combination of lethal weaponssystems, mobility, speed, and agility over roughand varied terrain, the light armored vehicle(LAV) gives its crew the means to survive as aneffective fighting element.

    The LAV-25 is a lightly armored, eight-wheeled,amphibious vehicle. It is equipped with astabilized 25mm cannon, a pintle-mounted7.62mm machine gun, and a coaxially mounted7.62mm machine gun capable of engagingmechanized targets and personnel.

    The LAV-25 also uses the LAV-25 Day/NightSight to provide enhanced night/battlefield smokefighting and thermal imaging/target acquisition.This fire control sighting system is capable ofattaining a high percentage of first round,destructive target hits.

    Manned and operated by a driver, a gunner, and avehicle commander, the LAV-25 (fig. 1-1) iscapable of carrying four infantry scouts in the

    rear. A competent crew can bring accurate,high-volume firepower to bear against the enemy.

    1001. M242 25mm Automatic Gun

    The main armament of the LAV-25 is a 25mm,fully automatic, externally powered Bushmasterchain gun. (See fig. 1-2.) The M242 isturret-mounted with a 360-degree field ofmovement. The M242 is used to destroy lightlyarmored vehicles (BMPs, BRDMs, BTRs, etc.)and some aerial targets, such as helicopters andslow-flying aircraft. It is also used to suppressenemy positions such as troops in the open, indug-in positions, or in built-up areas. SeeTechnical Manual (TM) 08594A-10/1B, LAV-25Turret, for detailed operator information.

    a. DescriptionThe dual-feed weapon system allows the crew toselect and load two types of available serviceammunition. The weapon system is externally

    Chapter 1Weapons Systems and Capabilities

    DRIVER

    SCOUTSCOMMANDER

    VEHICLE

    GUNNER

    Figure 1-1. LAV-25.

  • powered by a 1.5 horsepower direct current (DC)motor; this allows selection of three rates of fire.

    Single shot (as fast as the commander or gunnercan squeeze the trigger).Low rate (100 rounds per minute, plus or minus25 rounds/minute).High rate (200 rounds per minute, plus or minus25 rounds/minute).

    b. Ammunition There are five basic types of rounds used with the25mm gun. Each has its own uniquecharacteristics and serves to fill a specificrequirement for training and combat. Table 1-1(page 1-6) presents each type of round, itscapabilities, and uses. Appendix A providesdetails on proper procedures for cleaning,inspecting, and storing ammunition.

    (1) M791 Armor-Piercing Discarding SabotWith Tracer (APDS-T). The M791 APDS-Tcartridge (see fig. 1-3) penetrates lightly armoredvehicles. Examples of lightly armored vehicles areBMPs, BMDs, BTRs, BRDMs, ZSUs, andself-propelled artillery.

    The APDS-T is a fixed-type, percussion-primedround. It consists of a sabot-encapsulatedprojectile body crimped to a steel cartridge case.The projectile body consists of a solid tungstenalloy penetrator, pressed-on aluminum windshield,pressed-in tracer pellets, molded discarding-typenylon sabot, pressed-on polyethylene nose cap,and staked aluminum base.

    Gases produced by the burning propellantdischarge the projectile from the gun at 1,345meters per second (plus or minus 20 meters persecond) and ignite the tracer. Setback, centrifugalforce, and air pressure cause the sabot to separateon leaving the gun barrel. The discarding sabotleaves the barrel at about a 34-degree angle alongthe gun-target line (17 degrees off each side) for100 meters. The tungsten penetrator (core) isspin-stabilized and penetrates the target solely bykinetic energy.

    1-2 MCWP 3-14.1

    Figure 1-2. M242 25mm Automatic Gun.

    WARNING

    25MM DISCARDED SABOT PETALSMAY CAUSE DEATH OR SERIOUSINJURY TO UNPROTECTED MARINESLOCATED WITHIN THE WEAPONSDANGER ZONE THAT EXTENDS FROMTHE MUZZLE AT AN ANGLE OF 34DEGREES ALONG THE LINE OF FIRE

    Figure 1-3. M791 Armor-Piercing Discarding

    BLACK SABOT

    CASE, CARTRIDGE

    Projectile:

    Color: Black with white markings

    Muzzle velocity: 1,345 meters per second

    Penetrator (core)-Tungsten alloy Sabot-Nylon, aluminum base Nose cap-Polyethylene

  • The maximum effective range is 1,700 meters.This is based on the following factors:

    Tracer burnout is 1,700 meters. It is difficult toaccurately detect rounds beyond this range.However, in some environments, the ability toobserve and adjust rounds extends well beyondtracer burnout since the impact of the rounds canbe observed.Beyond 2,200 meters, the accuracy of theAPDS-T decreases sharply.As range increases, the APDS-T penetrationdecreases against BMP-1 and BMP-2, especiallywhen these vehicles are equipped with appliquarmor. While some targets can be successfullyengaged from the flank beyond 1,700 meters, thecombined problems of sensing (observingimpact), round expenditure, and longerengagement times demand that the vehiclecommander make a careful estimate of thesituation before engaging targets beyond 1,700meters.

    (2) M919 Armor-Piercing, Fin-StabilizedDiscarding Sabot With Tracer (APFSDS-T).The M919 APFSDS-T cartridge (fig. 1-4)penetrates lightly armored vehicles.

    APFSDS-T is a fixed-type, percussion-primedround consisting of a sabot-encapsulated

    projectile body crimped to a steel cartridge case.The projectile body consists of a depleted uraniumpenetrator, pressed-on aluminum windscreen,screw-on fins with pressed-in tracer pellets,segmented discarding-type nylon sabot, andpressed-on polyethylene nose cap.

    Gases produced by the burning propellantdischarge the projectile from the gun at 1,420meters per second (plus or minus 20 meters persecond) and ignite the tracer. Setback, centrifugalforce, and air pressure cause the sabot to discardon leaving the gun barrel. The discarding sabotleaves the barrel at a 17-degree angle on bothsides of the gun-target line for 100 meters (totalof 34 degrees). The tungsten penetrator with adepleted uranium core is fin-stabilized and

    penetrates the target solely by kinetic energy.

    LAV-25 Gunnery and Employment 1-3

    WARNING

    25MM DISCARDED SABOT PETALSMAY CAUSE DEATH OR SERIOUSINJURY TO UNPROTECTED MARINESLOCATED WITHIN THE WEAPONSDANGER ZONE THAT EXTENDS FROMTHE MUZZLE AT AN ANGLE OF 34DEGREES ALONG THE LINE OF FIRE

    PRIMERPROPELLANT

    TRACER

    SABOT W INDSCREEN

    FLASH TUBE FIN OBTURATOR

    DU PENETRATOR

    NYLON NOSECAP

    Projectile:

    M uzzle Velocity: 1,420 m eters per second

    Penetrator core Depleted uranium (DU) Sabot-Nylon Nose cap, nylon Polyethylene

    Figure 1-4. M919 Armor-Piercing, Fin-Stabilized Discarding Sabot With Tracer (APFSDS-T).

  • The maximum effective range is 1,700 meters.This round has increased penetration capabilitiesas well as tracer burn time, which allowsengagement of targets at greater ranges.

    Note: Current LAV-25 sights may notcompensate for the flatter trajectory of theM-919. Also, the Marine Corps has not procuredthis round at time of publication because of costand environmental issues. However, the round isavailable through the U.S. Army system, ifneeded.

    (3) M792, High Explosive Incendiary WithTracer (HEI-T). The M792 HEI-T cartridge (seefig. 1-5) is used to destroy lightly armoredvehicles and helicopters (armored and unarmored)and to suppress antitank guided missile (ATGM)positions, crew-served weapons, dismountedinfantry, and likely enemy positions past coaxial7.62mm machine gun range out to a distance of3,000 meters.

    The HEI-T cartridge is a fixed-type,percussion-primed round. The cartridge consistsof a high explosive incendiary (HEI)-filled,one-piece projectile body crimped to a steelcartridge case. The projectile body consists of ahollow steel body, M758 fuse, 32 grams of anHEI-mix, and pressed-in tracer.

    Gases produced by the burning propellantdischarge the projectile from the gun at 1,100meters per second (plus or minus 20 meters persecond). On impact, the fuse (M758) functionsand the HEI filler detonates, dispersing theincendiary mixture in a 5-meter radius. If theprojectile has not impacted at about 3,000 meters,the mechanical fuse will self-detonate the round.

    The maximum effective range for HEI-T is 1,600meters. This is based on the following factors:

    The round is designed to self-detonate at 3,000meters.Tracer burnout is 2,000 meters, but the round canbe adjusted beyond this range by observing theimpact of the rounds.Though accuracy severely decreases beyond1,600 meters, the 5-meter bursting radius and rateof fire make it possible to achieve effect on bothpoint and area targets out to 3,000 meters.However, the ballistic daysight organic to theLAV-25 only allows ranging for HEI-Tammunition, using the stadia lines in the reticle,out to 2,200 meters. Therefore, accurate sightingand ranging using that sight is limited to targetsout to this distance. Beyond that, impacts can beobserved using the sight, but there is no reticlepattern available for accurate adjustments. Thethermal sight picture, using narrow field of view,terminates at the bottom of the reticle pattern,which is 2,200 meters for high explosive (HE).Therefore, using the thermal sight, targets cannotbe acquired, nor can impacts be observed, past2,200 meters.

    (4) M910 Target Practice Discarding SabotWith Tracer (TPDS-T). The M910 TPDS-Tcartridge (fig. 1-6) allows units to practice sabotengagements on limited distance ranges. TPDS-Tis ballistically matched to the APDS-T, butinstead of the 14,572 meter maximum range forAPDS-T, the maximum range is 8,000 meters.

    The TPDS-T is a fixed-type, percussion-primedround. It consists of an encapsulated projectilebody crimped to a steel cartridge case. Theprojectile body is steel, where the APDS-T istungsten alloy. It has a pressed-on aluminum

    1-4 MCWP 3-14.1

    YELLOW TO ORANGE

    GOLD TIPPROJECTILE

    CASE, CARTRIDGE

    Projectile:

    Color: Yellow to Orange projectile with Gold Tip

    Muzzle velocity: 1,700 meters per second

    High explosive incendiary (HEI)- filled, One piece

    Figure 1-5. M792 High-Explosive Incendiary

  • windshield, pressed-in tracer pellets, moldeddiscarding-type nylon sabot, staked aluminumbase, and pressed-on polyethylene nose cap.Gases produced by the burning propellantdischarge the projectile from the gun at 1,540meters per second (plus or minus 20 meters persecond) and ignite the tracer. Setback, centrifugalforce, and air pressure cause the sabot to discardon leaving the gun barrel. The discarding sabotmay cause death or injury along a 34-degree anglealong the gun-target line for 100 meters. The steelprojectile body is spin-stabilized and penetratesthe target solely by kinetic energy.

    The TPDS-T cartridge is ballistically matched tothe APDS-T with a slight increase in muzzlevelocity (about 100 meters per second). The highmass flow tracer decreases the base drag,allowing the spin-stabilized core to match thetrajectory of the armor-piercing round to a rangeof 2,000 meters. Upon tracer burnout, thelightweight core loses velocity rapidly andeventually tumbles when its velocity goes belowthe speed of sound.

    Tracer burnout is 2,000 meters. However, sincethe round is used to simulate APDS-T, it shouldonly be used out to 1,700 meters to match themaximum effective range of that round.

    (5) M793 Target Practice With Tracer (TP-T).The M793 TP-T cartridge (fig. 1-7) is a

    LAV-25 Gunnery and Employment 1-5

    Projectile:

    M uzzle velocity: 1,345 m eters per second

    m arkingswhite with Black Color:

    Penetrator (core)-Steel Sabot-Nylon, alum inum base Nose cap-Polyethylene

    PELLET,BOOSTER

    CORE,SUBPROJECTILE

    PRIMER,M -115

    PROPELLANT

    BASE

    PROJECTILE ASSEMBLY

    CASE, CARTRIDGE

    CAP, PROTECTIVE

    TRACER

    Figure 1-6. M910 Target Practice Discarding Sabot With Tracer (TPDS-T).

    WARNING

    25MM DISCARDED SABOT PETALSMAY CAUSE DEATH OR SERIOUSINJURY TO UNPROTECTED MARINESLOCATED WITHIN THE WEAPONSDANGER ZONE THAT EXTENDS FROMTHE MUZZLE AT AN ANGLE OF 34DEGREES ALONG THE LINE OF FIRE

    BLUE

    Muzzle velocity: 1,100 meters per second

    markingswhite with Blue Color:

    practice Inert Projectile:

    CASE, CARTRIDGE WHITE MARKINGPROJECTILE

    Figure 1-7. M793 Target Practice With Tracer

  • fixed-type, percussion-primed training round thatis used in place of the HEI-T round.The TP-T cartridge is ballistically matched to theM792 HEI-T round. All other characteristics arethe same as the HEI-T.Tracer burnout is 2,000 meters. However,accuracy is greatly reduced if engaging pointtargets. The maximum effective range is 1,600meters. Training with the round beyond tracerburnout should be done only to simulate HEI-Tarea engagements and only as long as the impactof the round is visible.

    Note: Effective range of ammunition is based onthe ability to adjust the round onto target. Theeffective range does not imply that the roundspenetration or killing ability is impaired beyondthe effective range.

    1002. M240 Series 7.62mm Machine Guns

    The secondary weapons systems of the LAV-25consist of two 7.62mm machine guns. One M240

    series machine gun is coaxially mounted in theLAV-25 turret with the M242 25mm weapon.The other weapon is a pintle-mounted M240E17.62mm machine gun that is located on top of theturret outside the vehicle commanders hatch.These weapons provide flexibility to the crew inengaging targets with weapons other than themain gun and also in engaging multiple targetssimultaneously.

    a. M240 7.62mm Coaxially Mounted MachineGunThis machine gun is used to engage dismountedinfantry, crew-served weapons, ATGM teams,and unarmored vehicles. (See fig. 1-8.)

    (1) Description. This weapon is a belt-fed,gas-operated, fully automatic 7.62mm machinegun with a maximum effective range of 900meters (tracer burnout). It is coaxially mountedon the right side of the M242 25mm main gun.

    1-6 MCWP 3-14.1

    Table 1-1. Ammunition Data.

    M791APDS-T

    M919*APFSDS-T

    M792HEI-T

    M910TPDS-T

    M793TP-T

    DODAC A974 NA A975 A940 A975Muzzle velocity 1345 MPS 1420 MPS* 1100 MPS 1540 MPS 1100 MPS

    Time of flight1000 meters1500 meters2000 meters2500 meters

    seconds0.81.21.72.2

    seconds0.8*1.2*1.7*2.2*

    seconds1.22.23.65.3

    seconds0.761.261.882.72

    seconds1.22.23.65.3

    Cartridge weight 458 grams 450 grams 501 grams 415 grams 501 grams

    Projectile weight 105 grams 110 grams 185 grams 94 grams 185 grams

    Tracer burn time 1.4 seconds classified 3.5 seconds 1.88 seconds 3.5 seconds

    Bursting radiusArming distance

    NA NA 5 meters 0-100 meters

    NA NA

    Maximum effective range 1700 meters 1700 meters 1600 meters 1700 meters 1600 meters

    Tracer burn range 1700 meters 1700+ meters* 2000 meters 1700 meters 2000 meters

    *These specifications are pending final testing. See note on page 1-4.

  • (2) Ammunition. The preferred ammunition forthis weapon is a ratio of four ball rounds to onetracer round (DODAC A131). There are othervariations of 7.62mm ammunition available;however, the four ball rounds to one tracer roundratio mix allows the commander and gunner touse the tracer-on-target method of adjusting fireto achieve target kill. See TM 9-1005-313-10,Operators Manual for Machine Gun, 7.62mmM240, M240C, M240E1 for more operator infor-mation.

    b. M240E1 7.62mm Pintle-Mounted MachineGunA M240E1 7.62mm machine gun is mounted ontop of the turret in front of the vehiclecommanders position. It is used to engagedismounted infantry, crew-served weapons,

    ATGM teams, and unarmored vehicles. (See fig.1-9.)

    (1) Description. This weapon is also anair-cooled, belt-fed, gas-operated automaticweapon. The M240E1 is able to provide a heavy,controlled volume of accurate, long-range firethat is beyond the capabilities of individual smallarms. For more detailed information onemployment, see MCWP 3-15.1, Machine Gunsand Machine Gun Gunnery.

    (2) Ammunition. The M240E1 machine gunuses 7.62mm North Atlantic Treaty Organization(NATO) cartridge ammunition issued indisintegrating metallic split-linked belts. Like thecoaxially mounted machine gun, the

    LAV-25 Gunnery and Employment 1-7

    Figure 1-9. M240E1 7.62mm Pintle-Mounted Machine Gun.

    Figure 1-8. M240 7.62mm Coaxially Mounted Machine Gun.

  • pintle-mounted M240E1 normally uses the fourball rounds to one tracer round ratio mix.

    1003. M257 Smoke Grenade Launcher

    There are two 4-tube electrically fired smokegrenade launchers on the LAV-25. One launcheris located on each side of the 25mm gun. Whenactivated, grenades conceal the vehicle byproviding smoke cover that blocks visualobservation.a. DescriptionEach launcher fires four smoke grenades. Theycan be fired either on the right side, left side, orboth sides at once. Upon activation, the smokegrenade creates enough smoke to screen the

    LAV-25 within 3 seconds. The vehiclecommander or gunner fires the launchers frominside the turret.

    1-8 MCWP 3-14.1

    Figure 1-10. L8A1/A3 Smoke Grenade.

    METAL HEAD

    RUBBER CASE

  • b. Ammunition L8A1/A3 red phosphorus smoke grenades arefilled with a red phosphorus and butyl rubber mix.(See fig. 1-10.) The burst is in the direction theturret is pointed. The bursting radius is a170-degree fan, 10 meters high and 20 to 50meters to the front. The smoke cloud lasts from 1to 3 minutes, depending on wind speed and otherweather conditions. See TM 08594A-10/1B formore operator information.

    LAV-25 Gunnery and Employment 1-9

  • On future battlefields, the tempo will be such thatan LAV-25 crew must be prepared to move andto rapidly acquire and engage multiple targets.Platoons may be operating within irregular battlelines over extended distances. Threat targets maybe intermixed with friendly and neutral or civilianvehicles. The LAV-25s speed and mobility, cou-pled with battle drills, increase the likelihood ofopposing and allied forces becoming intermingledduring combat operations.

    Survival in these situations depends on the crewsability to effectively search for, detect, locate,identify, classify, confirm, and rapidly engagethreat targets. LAV-25 crews must take advan-tage of the tactical situation and engage first.Speed and accuracy of an engagement depend onthe degree of crew proficiency in target acquisi-tion techniques and gunnery procedures.

    This chapter describes the target acquisition proc-ess, including night sight acquisition, and themethods for acquiring and classifying targets. Italso describes the acquisition report and relatestarget acquisition confirmation to conduct of fire.

    Target acquisition is the timely detection, loca-tion, and identification of targets in enough detailto accurately attack by either direct fire or sup-porting weapons. The target acquisition process isa series of progressive and interdependent steps(or actions). The steps in the target acquisitionprocess are observation, detection, location, iden-tification, classification, and confirmation. (Seefig. 2-1.) The process leads to engagement of thetarget, covered in chapter 3 of this manual. Thetarget acquisition process is heavily dependent onactive observation, called crew search for theLAV-25, the results of which feed the processthroughout. Crew members must observe the bat-tlefield continuously whether in the offense or

    defense and whether the vehicle is stationary ormoving. Effective target acquisition for anLAV-25 crew requires the combined efforts ofeach crew member. The target acquisition processcan take minutes or just seconds to get to thecommand of execution.

    2001. Observation

    Observation, accomplished on the LAV-25 bycrew search, is the act of carefully and continu-ously surveying the battle area for indications oftargets. Observation is vital. Crew members useboth the unaided eye and the vehicle optics to

    Chapter 2

    Target Acquisition Process

    OBSERVATION

    CREW SEARCH

    DETECTION

    LOCATION

    IDENTIFICATION

    CLASSIFICATION

    ENGAGE DECISION WEAPON/AMMUNITION

    METHOD OF ENGAGEMENT

    FIRE COMMAND

    CONFIRMATION

    EXECUTION

    FOE

    FOE

    FRIEND

    FRIEND

    ACQUISITION REPORT

    NO

    YES

    Figure 2-1. Target Acquisition Process.

  • search or scan predetermined sectors to acquire(detect, locate, and identify) targets.

    a. Planning Considerations

    (1) Assign Sectors of Observation. The vehi-cle commander assigns specific sectors of obser-vation to each crew member for targetacquisition. The vehicle commander normally has360-degree responsibility, including that for over-head observation. Every other crew member is as-signed a specific sector of observation, includingcrew members riding in the rear of the vehicle, toensure all around coverage of the battlefield.When the crew operates as a section or a platoon,each LAV-25s all around coverage will createoverlapping fields of observation.

    (2) Consider Observation Limitations. Duringoperations in which the vehicle is buttoned-up, thevehicle commanders and gunners ability to ob-serve and acquire targets are reduced by at least50 percent. Their observation responsibilities mustbe adjusted to compensate for the reduction. Ifthe LAV-25 is operating in a nuclear, biological,and chemical (NBC) environment, acquisition isfurther hampered due to wearing the protectivemask.

    (3) Use Dismounted Observer(s). When anLAV-25 is halted in a hide position, an observer,equipped with sufficient binoculars or optics andcommunications, should dismount and locate for-ward of the vehicle position. Depending on the

    mission or the vehicles assigned area(s) of re-sponsibility, more than one observer may be re-quired to provide sufficient coverage.

    (4) Conduct Observation Continuously. Tobe effective, crew members scan their areas of ob-servation continuously to detect targets or possi-ble target locations. Intermittent observationincreases the opportunity for enemy vehicles toapproach undetected. b. Ground Search Techniques andMethods There are three ground search techniques that en-able crew members to quickly locate targets: therapid scan, slow (50-meter) scan, and detailedsearch. All three techniques may be used by allcrew members using the unaided eye, binoculars,or vehicle optics during both favorable and limitedvisibility. These techniques may be modified atnight by using the off-center vision method.

    (1) Rapid Scan. The rapid scan method quicklydetects obvious signs of enemy activity. (See fig.2-2.) It is usually the first method used by the ob-server, whether the LAV-25 is stationary or mov-ing. The vehicle commander may use binoculars,night vision devices, or the unaided eye; the gun-ner may use the M36 sight or the unity view win-dow. The observer

    Starts in the center of the sector and rapidlyscans from the nearest to farthest visiblepoint.

    2-2 MCWP 3-14.1

    3

    1

    USE UNAIDEDEYE OR OPTICS

    TREE LINE

    BRUSH

    2

    Figure 2-2. Rapid Scan Technique.

  • Orients left or right and conducts a rapidscan, viewing from near to far. This sweepmust overlap the center area of the previ-ously scanned sector.Scans the remaining side in the same manneronce one side of center is completed.

    (2) Slow (50-Meter) Scan. If no obvious targetsare identified in the rapid scan, crew membersconduct a more deliberate scan of the terrain byusing internal optics or binoculars. (See fig. 2-3.)When in a defensive position or from a short halt,the vehicle commander or gunner

    Pauses at short intervals to give the eyestime to focus, searches a strip of the targetarea 50 meters deep from right to left.Searches a strip farther out from the left toright, overlapping the first area scanned.Stops and searches the immediate area thor-oughly when a suspicious area or possibletarget signature is detected, uses the detailedsearch technique.

    (3) Detailed Search. If no targets are found us-ing the rapid or slow scan techniques and timepermits, crews should use the optics (day andnight) to make a careful, deliberate search of spe-cific areas in their assigned area. (See fig. 2-4.)This method is also used to search, in detail, smallareas or locations with likely or suspected ave-nues of approach. Concentrate on one specificarea or location and study that area intensely.Look for direct or indirect target signatures in a

    clockwise manner around the focal point (terrainfeature) of the area. Some signature examplesare

    Dust created by movement of vehicles.Diesel smoke or exhaust.Track or tire marks.Light reflections (flash) from glass or metal.Angular objects that do not conform with thesurrounding area.Vegetation that appears out of place.Flash or smoke from a weapon or missile.Entrenchments or earthworks.

    (4) Off-Center Vision Method. Day and nightscanning techniques (rapid, slow, and detailed)are similar with one exception. At night, usingdaylight optics or the unaided eye, do not look di-rectly at an object, but a few degrees off to theside of the target object. Move the eyes in short,

    LAV-25 Gunnery and Employment 2-3

    USE OPTICSBEST FROM HALT

    50

    METE

    RS

    50

    METE

    RS

    50

    METE

    RS

    Figure 2-3. Slow (50-Meter) Scan.

    A POSSIBLE RPG LOCATION

    B POSSIBLE ATGM TEAM LOCATION

    C POSSIBLE ATGM AND

    POSSIBLE LOCATION

    TANK LOCATION

    D OCCUPIED BY TANKS

    B C A

    D

    Figure 2-4. Detailed Search Technique.

  • abrupt, irregular movements. At each likely targetarea, pause a few seconds to attempt to detect atarget or any movement. If an object is detectedas a possible target, use off-center vision to ob-serve it. While observing the object, use frequenteye movement to prevent object fadeout. Cuppingthe hands around the eyes will also decrease nightvision loss.

    c. Air Search TechniquesThere are two air search techniques to detect aer-ial targets quickly: flat terrain scan and hilly ter-rain scan. Both of these techniques are based onthe slow (50-meter) scanning technique discussedpreviously. While using a ground search tech-nique, crew members should always search fromnear to far for possible targets. When using an airsearch technique, crew members should alwayssearch from far to near.

    (1) Flat Terrain Scan (Air Search). In flat ter-rain, search the horizon by moving the eyes inshort movements from object to object. (See fig.2-5.) More detail is registered this way than witha continuous scan of the horizon.

    (2) Hilly Terrain Scan (Air Search). In hillyterrain, search the sky beginning just below the

    horizon and move upward. (See fig. 2-5.) Useprominent terrain features as points of referenceto ensure overlapping areas of search.

    When using air search techniques, concentratejust below the tops of trees or vegetation to de-tect helicopters in hide positions.

    Ground and air search techniques may be com-bined. This allows crew members to scan for tar-gets in the air and on the ground at the same time.Combinations used will depend on the area of op-erations and mission, enemy, terrain and weather,troops and support available, time available(METT-T). Air search at night is similar tosearching for ground targets at night.

    Threat aircraft normally operate in pairs. If air-craft are acquired, a second pair of aircraft shouldbe expected, and possibly another pair after that.There may be a number of pairs of aircraftencountered.

    d. Crew Search TipsThe following observation tips are based on les-sons learned. All of the optical devices on theLAV-25 may be used to acquire targets. Thesedevices include binoculars, night vision devices,

    2-4 MCWP 3-14.1

    Figure 2-5. Air Search Techniques.

  • M36 day sights, passive and thermal night sights,and the drivers night vision viewer. The follow-ing tips will help crews increase their effectivenessin observing:

    Initial scanning is done without optics, thenwith optics (such as binoculars or sights).Target search is continuous. Possible tar-get(s) missed in the first or second scan maybe seen on the third or fourth scan.The entire crew should look for likely targetsand target locations using proper scanningtechniques.While on the move, the gunner should usethe rapid scan technique. The gunner should dim the brightness of hisreticle, and the turret dome lights should beoff or in the filtered position. Marines shoulddo the same with the dome lights in the troopcompartment. This will aid in acquisition andlocation of targets during day or night opera-tions, and it will aid in detection avoidance.The observer should be aware that targets onthe edge of the peripheral fields of view areharder to detect and locate.Operations during NBC conditions limit thecrews ability to acquire and locate targets.Continuous scanning is required to make upfor narrowed fields of view while wearingprotective masks. Concentrate the search in areas where tar-gets are more likely to appear such as identi-fied avenues of approach, wood lines, andreverse slope firing positions.

    2002. Detection

    Target detection is the discovery of any targetsuch as personnel, vehicles, equipment, or objectsof potential military significance on the battle-field. Target detection occurs during crew searchas a direct result of observation. Usually, the tar-get emits indicators, or signatures, that help theobserver to detect it. The observer should beaware of unique battlefield signatures that will keythe observer to possible targets.

    a. Target SignaturesTarget signatures are telltale indicators or cluesthat aid in detecting potential targets.

    Most weapons and vehicles have identifiable sig-natures. These signatures may be the result of thedesign or the environment in which the equipmentis operating. For example, firing a vehicles mainweapon system could produce blast, flash, noise,smoke, and dust. The movement of a vehiclethrough a built-up area causes more noise than themovement of the same vehicle in an open field.Different types of aircraft have different signa-tures (for example, the signature of a hoveringhelicopter is not the same as that of a fixed-wingaircraft). Factors that affect target signatures arevisibility, temperature, and weather conditions.

    Look for targets in areas where they are mostlikely to be employed. Tracked vehicle signaturesare most likely to be detected in open areas androlling terrain. Threat antitank positions are nor-mally sited to visually cover primary avenues ofapproach where tanks and armored personnel car-riers (APCs) travel. Look for helicopters behindwood lines, ridge lines, and significant folds in theterrain. Crews must be familiar with these as wellas other possibilities. Sight, hearing, and smell canall assist in detecting signatures that will lead totarget location and identification.

    (1) Infantry Signatures

    Fighting holes.Broken vegetation.Footprints.Signs of new or old fires.Noise.Trash.

    (2) Tracked Vehicle Signatures

    Vehicle tracks on the ground.Engine noise.Exhaust smoke.Dust clouds from movement.Weapon firing and/or smoke from weapon.

    LAV-25 Gunnery and Employment 2-5

  • Bright white flash at night.Prominent heat source.

    (3) Antitank Weapons Signatures

    Missile launch swish sound.Long, thin wires from fired ATGMs.Sharp crack of the ATGM being fired.Destroyed armored vehicle.

    (4) Artillery Signatures

    Loud, dull sound.Grayish-white smoke cloud.Bright orange flash and black smoke fromairburst.Rushing noise several seconds before im-pact.Same thermal infrared signatures for self-propelled artillery as tracked vehicles.Varied towed artillery signatures accordingto the towing vehicle.

    (5) Aircraft Signatures

    Glare of sun reflecting off aircraft canopies,wings, fuselages of fixed wing aircraft, andwindows and rotor blades of helicopters.Aircraft noise.Dust and movement of foliage from hoveringhelicopters.

    (6) Obstacles and Mine Signatures

    Loose or disturbed dirt in a regular pattern.Destroyed or disabled vehicle that appears tohave struck a mine.

    b. ChallengesSome targets are more difficult to detect than oth-ers. Increased crew training, experience, andgreater concentration are needed to detect and lo-cate these difficult targets. Some examples ofthese more difficult targets and challenges are

    Peripheral targets.

    Targets that are camouflaged or in shadows.Targets that can be heard but not seen.Targets positioned under less than ideal indi-rect fire illumination. If the illumination is infront of the target, the resulting shadow willappear darker than the target. If the illumina-tion is behind the target (and not in such aposition as to wash out the crews optics),the target should stand out distinctly fromthe background. Always keep one eye closedduring search by illumination, and never lookdirectly into the illumination source. This willhelp maintain night vision.Small, single targets such as a lone, dis-mounted ATGM or rocket-propelled gre-nade (RPG).Natural obstacles (weather and terrain).Weather can cause a wide variety of de-graded effects to both the observer andelectro-optic systems. Terrain can mask ob-servation and therefore detection.Manmade obstacles (smoke and battlefieldclutter) can also degrade the observers abil-ity to detect targets.Behavioral or physical deficiencies (fatigue,eye reaction to gun flashes, night blindness)of the observer also affect ability to detect.Targets viewed at night in front of fires(from burning vehicles, battlefield clutter)may be washed out by the brighter back-ground light.

    c. Limitations of Passive SightWinters are generally characterized by more hoursof darkness. The enemy may make the most ofthis condition by moving forces in the dark. Theenemy may also dig in or continue the attack atnight. To acquire targets at night, the crew mustbe proficient in the use of both the thermal sightand the backup passive sight. Since viewingthrough passive sights at night will reduce nightvision, the gunner and vehicle commander shouldalternate turns on the sight every 10 to 15 min-utes. Changing over every 10 to 15 minutes mini-mizes loss to both and minimizes eye fatigue. Thepassive sight may be used in conjunction with thethermal sight when conducting ground searchtechniques. The user of the passive sight must

    2-6 MCWP 3-14.1

  • remember that frequent adjustment of the imagefocusing ring will be required as viewing rangesincrease or decrease. Reticle illumination shouldbe adjusted to the lowest setting to allow theviewer to see clearly under all light conditions.

    d. Use of the Thermal SightDuring the hours of darkness, the enemy can beexpected to move their forces, dig in, defend, orattack. During the day, the enemy can be ex-pected to cover movement by every means possi-ble, including camouflage and obscuration. Somecamouflaged targets are difficult to acquire withstandard day optics but can be easily detectedwith the thermal sight. For example, a vehicle in awood line may be seen as an irregular shape com-pared to the surrounding vegetation. A vehicle lo-cated behind a building with its engine runningmay give off a heat plume from the exhaust thatcan be detected through the thermal sight. The ve-hicle commander and gunner must be able to usethe thermal sight to acquire targets during goodand limited visibility. The DIM-36TH sight, in the thermal mode, oper-ates on the principle of sensing heat radiation ortemperature differences against the background.This temperature difference is displayed as anelectronic image. Any source of heat that varieswith its surroundings can be detected by the ther-mal sight. Acquiring and engaging targets withthermal sights during periods of reduced visibilityhelps ensure surprise in the initial rounds of theengagement, enabling the LAV-25s to use theirweapons and deny the enemy obvious targets ofmounted light sources. There are five primaryheat sources that are detected by the thermalsight.

    (1) Solar Heat. Objects absorb heat from thesun at different rates depending on the material.The amount of heat absorbed by an object and thelength of time the object can retain and reflect theheat determines how long the reflected heat canbe seen using the thermal sight. Target signaturesvary if heated only by solar heat. As the sunbegins to set and objects cool, the objects formmay change.

    (2) Fuel Combustion. The operation of a vehi-cle engine creates heat. Vehicles have a plume ofheat from the exhaust and other cues around theengine compartment. The location of the engineand the direction of the vented hot exhaust differsbetween vehicle types. As a result, many vehiclescreate one or more images when viewed througha thermal sight. Also, the signature produced by avehicle may vary with the duration of use.

    (3) Friction. Moving parts of a vehicle causefriction that also is picked up as a heat source onthermal sights. These areas then appear as imagesin the sight: tracks, roadwheels, drive sprockets,wheel hubs, and support rollers are examples. Ve-hicles being driven through mud or snow arecooler and do not create as sharp an image. Vehi-cle tracks will leave an image for a short timefrom the friction of the vehicle driving over thesurface. Vehicle track-shrouding materials canhelp hide thermal cues of road wheels and trackshoes. The longer a vehicle has operatedgener-ating frictionthe more intense the heated areasbecome. A vehicle looks much different after a12-kilometer road march than it does at rest in adefensive position.

    (4) Thermal Reflections. Glossy, smooth sur-faces, such as the windshield of a vehicle, can re-flect radiated heat.

    (5) Body Heat. Body heat is also detected bythe thermal sight, and the signature is affected bythe activity the body has undergone. The greaterthe activity, the greater the thermal signature.

    Thermal imaging systems provide a definite ad-vantage over passive sight-equipped systems dur-ing night operations. At the time of publication,few threat vehicles have thermal imagery; theircommon night systems are active infrared sightingsystems. Night operations can be used to advan-tage since LAV-25 crews can maneuver and en-gage targets using their thermal sighting system.Conditions encountered during some daytime op-erations, such as periods of intense sunlight, fog,camouflage, or dust, may also be better accom-plished through use of thermal imagery.

    LAV-25 Gunnery and Employment 2-7

  • The capabilities of the DIM-36TH sight allow formanipulation of the electronic image for optimalviewing. Skilled manipulation of the POLARITY,RETICLE BRIGHTNESS, BRIGHTNESS, andCONTRAST controls can provide a clearer andmore distinct picture of target signatures. For ex-ample, a simple switch of image polarity may pro-vide the difference in clarity to make targetidentification possible, i.e., the difference betweenan APC or a tank. Crews should exper- iment tofind which polarity is personally better.

    2003. Location

    Target location is the establishment or determina-tion of where a potential target is physically lo-cated on the battlefield. Locating a target resultsfrom observation and detection during crewsearch.

    A vehicle commander who locates a target maylay the gun and issue a fire command, which fixesthe location of the target for the gunner. This isthe default method for providing direction for thegunner. The vehicle commander may also an-nounce MY TURRET if necessary.

    Once a target is located by a crew member orscout in the rear of the vehicle, the targets loca-tion is communicated to all other personnel. Tar-get location methods used to announce a locatedtarget depend on the locators specific position inthe crew, unit standing operating procedures(SOP), and time available. The five most commontarget location methods are described below.

    a. Clock MethodThe clock method is commonly used to get thevehicle commander or gunners eyes on target.Twelve oclock is based on the direction of vehi-cle movement while traveling or hull orientation(front of vehicle) when stationary. Drivers andscouts usually use the clock method to locate tar-gets for the vehicle commander or gunner. (Ex-ample: BMP, NINE OCLOCK.)b. Sector Method

    The sector method is similar to the clock method;it is quick and easy to use. It is based on the di-rection of movement (if moving) or hull orienta-tion (if stationary) using the terms: center, left,right, and rear. Center sector is always to the di-rect front of the vehicle. (Example: THREEBMPs, LEFT REAR.)

    c. Traverse MethodThe traverse method is also a relatively quickmethod, primarily used by the vehicle commanderto get the gunner on target. It is used when eitherthe vehicle commanders handstation to traversethe turret is inoperable or it is more expedientthan actually traversing the gun to guide the gun-ner on the target. In this method, the vehicle com-mander issues directions to the gunner until thegunner is on the target. (Example: TRAVERSELEFT [OR RIGHT], STEADY, ON.)

    d. Reference Point MethodThe reference point method is normally used inconjunction with the vehicles optics. The vehiclecommander uses binoculars to determine the milvalue and direction from a designated terrain fea-ture or known position used as a reference point.The vehicle commander then announces the milvalue and direction from the reference point to thegunner.

    The gunner uses the mil reticle relationship fromthe reference point to traverse onto the target.The key to this location method is both the vehi-cle commanders and gunners knowledge of themil sight relationship and the establishment of tar-get reference points (TRPs). (Example: ATGM,TRP ONE FOUR, RIGHT FIVE MILS.)

    The quick reference point method is used byall personnel to hand over targets locatednear a TRP. (Example: TWO PCs, TRP ONEFOUR.)The precise reference point method is usedto locate targets accurately in relationship toa known reference point. (Example: TWOPCs, TRP ONE FOUR, LEFT TWO FIVEMILS.)

    2-8 MCWP 3-14.1

  • e. Grid MethodThe grid method is the least desired technique be-cause of the length of time it takes to bring thegunner on target. The vehicle commander re-ceives the location of the target by map grid (usu-ally from an observation post). The vehiclecommander then uses the vehicles map to orientthe turret on target for the gunner.

    2004. Identification

    Target identification is the determination of af-filiation of the potential military target (friendly,hostile, neutral, noncombatant) and the recogni-tion of its particular type (such as a specific typeof vehicle).

    At a minimum, this identification must determinethe target as friendly (one not to be engaged) orhostile (one which may be engaged). Crews mustknow what to shoot and what not to shoot. Cur-rently, the crews only method of positive vehicleidentification is through visual or electro-optical(E-O) means. As engagement ranges increase,camouflage techniques become more effective,battlefield obscuration increases, and visual identi-fication greatly decreases. Crews that can quicklyand accurately identify targets have the advantageof engaging first and destroying the enemy at theweapon systems maximum engagement range.Crew sustainment training and evaluation on tar-get identification is a prerequisite and requirescontinuous training.

    Target identification training is an essential part ofany weapon system proficiency training program.Vehicle commanders must continually train theircrews in target identification. See the unit S-2 of-ficer for more information on how to train foridentifying specific or additional vehicles, aircraft,and equipment likely to appear on the battlefield.Graphic training aids (GTAs) are available fortraining crews to identify specific vehicle types.Field Manual (FM) 1-402, Aviators RecognitionGuide, and aircraft recognition cards are helpfultools to train crews on aircraft identification.

    Recognition is closely related to target ID. Nor-mally, the gunner will do this automatically oncehe recognizes a potential target. He can interpret

    the cues that he is seeing. Thermal cues tell thegunner if a thermal hotspot is an APC, tank, orother type of vehicle assuming that the hottestspot is the engine or exhaust system.

    Situational awareness is key. Through the use ofpassive or active means, the crew interrogates thesuspect threat target. Passive means includepainted chevrons, air panels, and thermal mark-ings or chemlites. Active measures include theBattlefield Combat ID System and radiocommunications.

    2005. Classification

    Target classification categorizes potential targetsby the level of danger that they represent. Classifi-cation also includes passing of information gainedduring the observation, detection, location, andclassification steps to the vehicle commander inthe form of a crew acquisition report.

    To defeat multiple targets on the battlefield, thefirst engaged should be the most dangerous. Thisrequires a quick decision on which target is themost dangerous threat. All crew members mustknow the designated engagement priorities oftheir unit and be able to prioritize targets; how-ever, the vehicle commander is responsible forclassifying targets and deciding which to shootand when to shoot. Sometimes this determinationmay be made based on which target is closer tothe LAV-25. Methods for determining range totargets are covered in detail in appendix B. Thevehicle commander is responsible for decidingwhich method of engagement will be used basedon the targets classification. This decision mustbe made rapidly so that all targets can be engagedefficiently and in an organized manner. Targetsare classified by the level of danger they repre-sent.

    a. Classification Criteria

    (1) Most Dangerous. When the crew observesa threat target with armor-defeating capabilitiesthat appears to be preparing to engage them, thetarget is classified as most dangerous. This typeof target is the greatest threat and must be

    LAV-25 Gunnery and Employment 2-9

  • engaged immediately. When faced with multiplemost dangerous targets, the vehicle commandermust further classify the targets based on which ofthe most dangerous targets are the greatest imme-diate threat. Generally, if two or more targets areof equal threat, engage the closest one first. Whenengaging more than two most dangerous targetsfrom a stationary (hulldown) position, the crewshould plan to use an alternate firing posi- tion.

    Smoke (indirect fire) may also be used to keep theenemy from observing the vehicle. Minimizing thenumber of rounds fired from any one position(primary, alternate) aids in confusing the enemy asto the LAV-25s exact location and aids in avoid-ing detection caused by a firing signature. Gener-ally, the most dangerous targets pose thefollowing threats:

    Tanks at ranges up to 2,000 meters are thegreatest threat to LAV-25s. Within thatrange, the tank has a greater kill probability.At ranges greater than 2,000 meters, aBRDM, BMP, or helicopter firing ATGM isthe most dangerous threat.Helicopters, tanks, and BMPs, within theireffective ranges, have greater kill probabilityagainst the LAV-25 than hand-held high ex-plosive antitank (HEAT) weapons (for ex-ample, RPGs) within their effective ranges.Stationary vehicles deliver fire more accu-rately (and are therefore more dangerous)than moving vehicles.

    (2) Dangerous. When the crew sees a targetwith armor-defeating capabilities, but the target isnot preparing to engage them, the target can beclassified as dangerous. This type of targetshould be engaged after all most dangerous tar-gets have been destroyed, unless otherwise speci-fied by the priority of engagement. Multipledangerous targets are engaged in the same manneras most dangerous targets. Engage the targetwhich presents the greatest threat first. If the tar-gets are of equal threat, engage the closest onefirst.(3) Least Dangerous. A target that does nothave an armor-defeating weapon system is

    classified as a least dangerous target. Engagethis type of target after all most dangerous anddangerous targets have been destroyed, unless ithas a higher priority of engagement.

    b. Engagement PrioritiesUnit operations orders or standard operating pro-cedures (SOPs) will designate certain types of tar-gets as priority targets for destruction,irrespective of their antiarmor threat to the LAV.Engagement priorities can be established by

    Classifying special targets based on their im-pact on the total force. (Examples of thesespecial targets are command and control ve-hicles, engineer vehicles, reconnaissance ve-hicles, and artillery). Destroying these tar-gets breaks up the combined arms capabilityof the threat forces.Establishing a specific type of target priorityamong specific friendly vehicles. (Example:Friendly LAV-25s might classify threatBMPs and other infantry carriers as mostdangerous.)Establishing a specific type of target priorityamong specific elements in the unit. (Exam-ple: One platoon might prioritize enemyBMPs while another prioritizes ZSU-23-4s.)

    c. Crew Acquisition ReportTargets detected by a crew member through thetarget acquisition process are reported to the ve-hicle commander immediately by way of a crewacquisition report. This target handover techniquepasses vital information about the target to the ve-hicle commander to then act on. The informationin the report is passed before the classificationstep of the target acquisition process concludes.An acquisition report consists of three elements. (1) Alert. An optional element, the alert tells thevehicle commander that the observer has sighted atarget and additional information about it will fol-low. The acquisition report is normally given in-ternally between Marines who can usually identifyeach other by voice recognition. Therefore, the

    2-10 MCWP 3-14.1

  • alert may be omitted, and the description elementof the report then serves as the alert element also.

    (2) Description. A short, concise description ofthe target is given. (Example: TWO BMPS.)

    (3) Location. The location of the target ispassed using the methods provided in paragraph2003, page 2-8. (Example: 9 OCLOCK.)

    The vehicle commander can now move to observethe target as described in the report and takeaction.

    2006. Confirmation

    Confirmation of the target is the last step in thetarget acquisition process before actual engage-ment. Target confirmation is the rapid verificationof the initial identification and classification of thetarget as a hostile to be engaged. It is the lastverification that the target is indeed an enemy andis completed during the conduct of fire. Confirma-tion takes place after the vehicle commander hasissued all elements of the fire command except theexecution element, and as the gunner is complet-ing his precise lay on the target. Gunners also gothrough a confirmation step. While making the fi-nal precise lay, the gunner also assures that thetarget is hostile.

    The vehicle commander (examining the targetthrough the DIM-36TH sight commanders relayor the M36 sight, if necessary) evaluates the na-ture of the target based on the targets appearanceand personal knowledge of the tactical situation.Situational awareness is key to avoiding fratricide.The vehicle commander who confirms that thetarget is hostile continues the engagement. Thevehicle commander who determines that the tar-get is friendly or neutral commands CEASE FIRE.If the nature of the target cannot be identified, thecommander continues to observe until positiveidentification is made.If the gunner also identifies the target as hostile,the gunner completes the final lay and engages thetarget on order. If the gunner identifies the target

    as friendly or neutral, CONFIRMED FRIENDLYor CONFIRMED NEUTRAL is announced to thevehicle commander. If the gunner cannot posi-tively determine the nature of the target, the gun-ner announces CONFIRMATION DOUBTFUL.The vehicle commander then decides whether tocontinue or terminate the en- gagement.

    It is vital that the vehicle commander maintainsituational awareness to assist in target identifica-tion. To do this, the vehicle commander mustkeep updated and informed on the tactical situa-tion (e.g., friendly element movements within orbetween battle positions, the forward passage oflines, status of the withdrawal of any coveringforce, or the movement of civilian vehicle trafficin the area).

    The vehicle commander must take an active rolein maintaining situational awareness. The vehiclecommander must always be aware of his positionon the battlefield and monitor radio traffic to gaininformation on the movement/location of friendlyforces. Understanding the mission (task and in-tent) and the scheme of maneuver will aid the ve-hicle commander in making sense of the apparentchaos associated with high tempo operations.

    2007. Engagement

    Once the target has been acquired through thepreceding six steps and the vehicle commanderdecides to fire on it, engagement begins. Engage-ment is the directing and firing of vehicle weaponsonto the correct target to achieve the effect de-sired. LAV-25 crews must be proficient in notonly the techniques and procedures of target ac-quisition but also conduct of fire procedures tosuccessfully engage the enemy in combat. Oncecommitted to engagement, the vehicle commanderhas other decisions to make and pass on to thecrew in the form of fire commands. These sub-jects are covered in detail in chapter 3.

    LAV-25 Gunnery and Employment 2-11

    (reverse blank)

  • This chapter covers two linked subjects: fire com-mands and engagement techniques. Fire com-mands are explained in detail to includeterminology, definitions, and various formats fortypes of fire commands that might be issued. En-gagement techniques provide a detailed descrip-tion of how each weapon system is used todestroy or suppress enemy targets. The goal ofthe LAV-25s crew is to engage and destroy orsuppress various targets as quickly as possible.Also discussed are various additional uses for theemployment of weapons found on the LAV-25and kill indicators which allow the firer or ob-server to gauge the effectiveness of fires.

    A fire command is a specific sequence of informa-tion given by a command authority (vehicle com-mander) that causes a crew to begin performing asequence of actions and provides detailed direc-tion to choose the ammunition type, aim theweapon, and engage the target. Each elementgiven by the commander requires a response froma crew member to ensure correct aiming and en-gagement. After the initial fire command, subse-quent fire commands using the same sequence ofinformation can be used to adjust the point ofimpact to ensure the desired target effect. (MCRP5-2A, Operational Terms and Graphics) Firecommands coordinate the crews efforts and re-duce confusion.

    3001. Elements of a FireCommand

    All fire commands are a derivative of the basicsix-element fire command described in FMFM6-5, Marine Rifle Squad. Fire commands normallyinclude only those elements needed to instruct thecrew to choose the correct ammunition, aim, and

    fire the weapons. A fire command may contain asmany as six elements or as few as two. The sixelements of a LAV-25 fire command are alert,weapon/ammunition, description, direction, range,and execution.

    a. AlertThe first element of a fire command alerts thecrew to an immediate engagement.

    b. Weapon/AmmunitionThe second element of a fire command informsthe crew of the weapon and/or ammunition to beused.

    c. DescriptionThe third element of a fire command identifies thetarget for the crew. If there are several similar tar-gets, the vehicle commander tells the crew whichtarget to engage first.

    d. DirectionThe fourth element of a fire command is givenwhen the vehicle commander cannot lay theweapon for direction or elevation.

    e. RangeThe fifth element of a fire command is used if thevehicle commander chooses the precision gunnerymethod. The gunner chokes the target in the sightreticle and announces the range to the target.

    f. ExecutionOnce the crew responds to the first five elementsof the fire command, the vehicle commander givesthe execution element. Before the execution

    Chapter 3

    Fire Commands and Engagement Techniques

  • element, the vehicle commander reconfirms thetarget as hostile.

    g. Omitted/Abbreviated Elements of aFire CommandAs a result of the speed at which the crew mayhave to engage targets in a battlefield environ-ment, the vehicle commander may decide to omitone or more elements of the fire command. Inthis instance, the vehicle commander must ensurethat the crew understands the command. Everyfire command must contain the description andexecution commands. All other elements are in-cluded as required to ensure acquisition of thetarget.3002. Fire Command Terms

    Listed below are common terms used during allfire commands.

    a. Alert Element TermsVarious terms are used in the alert to identify whowithin the crew is to conduct the engagement. Fornormal conditions, the term GUNNER is used.When firing the commanders M240G machinegun, the vehicle commander announces the alertelement only. TWO FORTY alerts the crew thatthe vehicle commander will engage a target withhis weapon. The gunner must then be ready tohelp the vehicle commander observe the effects ofhis firing.

    b. Weapon/Ammunition Element Terms

    The following terms are used for selection ofweapon/ammunition:c. Description Element TermsMost targets can be described using the following

    terms:

    (1) Combination targets, such as a truck-mounted ATGM, can be identified by combining

    terms, as in this case, ANTITANK TRUCK.

    3-2 MCWP 3-14.1

    TYPE OF TARGET ANNOUNCED ASInfantry fighting vehicle orarmored personnel carrier

    PC*

    Unarmored vehicle TRUCK

    Helicopter CHOPPER

    Fixed-wing aircraft PLANE

    Personnel TROOPSAntitank gun or missile ortowed artillery piece

    ANTITANK

    Any other target* Briefest termpossible

    * The term PC may be used for most lightly armoredtargets, for example: self-propelled artillery, self-propelled antiaircraft systems, command and controlvehicles, and self-propelled ATGMs. More descrip-tive terms for these targets might be used by the crewto clarify the level of threat each represents, althoughthe briefest term possible should be used.

    WEAPON/AMMUNITION ANNOUNCED AS

    25mm HEI-T HE25mm APDS-T, APFSD-T,TPDS-T

    SABOT (pro-nounced SAY-BO)

    25mm TP-T HE or SABOT (An-nounce the type ofammunition thatTP-T is simulating.)

    M240 coax 7.62mm COAXPintle-mounted 7.62mmM240E1

    TWO FORTY

    ELEMENT REMARKS

    Alert Optional

    Weapon/Ammunition Optional

    Description Required

    Direction Optional

    Range Optional

    Execution Required

    Example: TROOPS, FIRE

  • (2) The gunner announces IDENTIFIED oncethe target is identified.

    (3) If there are multiple targets, the vehicle com-mander identifies the number of targets, for exam-ple: GUNNER, HE, THREE TRUCKS. Thecommander then designates which target to en-gage first (RIGHT TRUCK).

    (4) If the target is moving, the vehicle com-mander may announce MOVING as part of the de-scription element.

    d. Direction Element TermsThese terms are used to guide the gunners aiminto the target area.

    (1) TRAVERSE. This method is used when oneor more targets are outside the gunners field ofview. The vehicle commander commands TRAV-ERSE RIGHT ( OR LEFT). The gunner traversesthe turret rapidly in the direction announced. Asthe weapons aim nears the target, the vehiclecommander commands STEADY, and the gunnerslows traversing. When the weapon is laid on thetarget, the vehicle commander announces ON, andthe gunner stops traversing. At this time, the tar-get should be in the gunners field of view. If thetarget is not in the field of view, the gunnersearches the target area until the target is identi-fied or the vehicle commander issues a subsequentdirection correction.

    (2) SHIFT. This term is used when two or moretargets are visible at the same time to the gunnerthrough the sight. The vehicle commander com-mands SHIFT LEFT (OR RIGHT), PC. The gunnerimmediately shifts to the next target as com-manded and engages.

    (3) Reference Point and Deflection. The ref-erence point must be one that the gunner can eas-ily recognize. The vehicle commander usesbinoculars to measure the deflection from the ref-erence point to the target and announces the nec-essary shift. For example, the command might beREFERENCE POINT, BRIDGE, RIGHT THREEZERO. The gunner lays the reticle of the sight on

    the reference point, estimates 30 mils, traversesright 30 mils, and tries to identify the target.

    e. Execution Element TermsThere are four terms used to execute the firecommand.

    (1) FIRE. The command FIRE tells the gunnerto fire the gun immediately. It is assumed that thegunner will fire and adjust on his own, since thevehicle commander may or may not issue a subse-quent fire command.

    (2) FIRE AND ADJUST. The command FIREAND ADJUST tells the gunner to fire immediately;the gunner will not receive a subsequent fire com-mand and must complete the engage- ment.

    (3) AT MY COMMAND. The vehicle commanderwho wishes to delay firing commands AT MYCOMMAND, then commands FIRE when ready toengage.

    (4) FROM MY POSITION. Normally, the gunnerengages all main gun targets. If the gunner is un-able to identify the desired target, the vehiclecommander engages the target by announcingFROM MY POSITION. The vehicle commanderinsures that the gunner has the correct sight pic-ture, makes a final lay, announces ON THE WAY,and fires. If the gunner announces IDENTIFIED,the vehicle commander can return control to thegunner or complete the engagement.

    f. Common TermsAdditional common terms used in fire commandsare as follows:

    (1) IDENTIFIED. The gunner uses this term toinform the vehicle commander that the target iswithin the field of view of the sight.

    (2) CANNOT IDENTIFY. This term informs thevehicle commander that the gunner cannot findthe target. The vehicle commander must either re-lay the weapon or engage the target from hisstation.

    LAV-25 Gunnery and Employment 3-3

  • (3) ON THE WAY. This term informs all crewmembers that a weapon is being fired, alertingthem to observe the impact of the round.

    (4) CEASE FIRE. This term terminates the en-gagement.

    (5) TWO FORTY COMPLETE. This term termi-nates the commanders weapon engagement.

    g. Repeat TermsA crew member who fails to hear or understand apart of the fire command announces the element inquestion. For example, the gunner announcesAMMO. The vehicle commander repeats only thatelement.

    h. Correction TermsTo correct an error in a fire command, the vehiclecommander commands CORRECTION and cor-rects the element in error and repeats all elementsfollowing the corrected element. (Example: GUN-NER, HE, TRUCK, ONE SIX HUNDRED. COR-RECTION, ONE EIGHT HUNDRED, FIRE.)

    3003. Crew Duties in Responseto the Fire CommandIn response to each element of a fire command,the vehicle commander, the gunner, and the driverhave specific crew duties to perform. Crew dutiescommon to the LAV-25 are shown in Table 3-1.Even though commands for the driver are not

    3-4 MCWP 3-14.1

    FIRE COMMAND COMMANDER GUNNER DRIVERAlert: GUNNER

    Weapon/Ammunition: HE

    Description: TRUCK

    Direction: RIGHT FRONT

    Range: 1,000 METERS

    Execution: FIRE

    Lays weapon for direction.

    Announces the appropriateweapon or ammunition.

    Informs the gunner of thetype of target.

    If needed, talks gunnerinto target area.

    If needed, announcesrange to target.

    Assumes position to senserounds and prepares togive subsequent firecommand.

    Starts searching for tar-get as commander trav-erses turret.

    Selects appropriateweapon or ammunition.Arms system.

    Observes through thesight and tries to identifythe target. On seeingtarget says IDENTIFIED.

    If issued, traverses theturret in search of target.On seeing target, says IDENTIFIED.

    Determines range to thetarget using stadia rang-ing lines.

    Uses correct sight pic-ture, announces ON THEWAY, and engages thetarget.

    If moving and stabi-lized, continues mov-ing, attempts to orienthull toward target andgives the gunner asstable a platform aspossible.If moving and not sta-bilized, looks for hulldown position, orientshull toward target,stops on commandand attempts to senserounds. Also helpsidentify target ifstationary.

    Table 3-1. Crew Duties in Response to Each Element of a Fire Command.

  • essential elements of the fire command, thedrivers actions are very important during anengagement.

    a. If an engagement is fired from a short halt,the vehicle commander commands DRIVER,STOP before giving the execution command.When the engagement is completed, the vehiclecommander commands DRIVER, MOVE OUT.Following the completed engagement, the vehiclecommander receives a crew report.

    b. Once the vehicle commander has given con-trol of the turret to the gunner, the vehicle com-manders primary focus must be on observationover the engagement sector. The gunner shouldtake over the engagement and continue the en-gagement until the target is destroyed, sup-pressed, or the command CEASE FIRE is given.The vehicle commander assists only as necessary,giving subsequent commands to adjust onto orshift targets, organizing other targets, and plan-ning the vehicles next activity.

    c. Whenever hull down positions are availableor are a tactical necessity, the vehicle commandercommands DRIVER, SEEK HULL DOWN and ini-tiates the fire command. The vehicle commandermust then direct the driver into the hull down po-sition while ensuring main gun clearance. Oncethe vehicle is in position and the gunner has identi-fied the target, the vehicle commander issues theexecution command to the gunner.

    d. When the LAV-25 is in a turret-down, defen-sive position, the vehicle commander initiates the

    fire command and commands DRIVER, UP/STOP.Upon destruction of the target, the vehicle com-mander terminates the engagement and movesback to the turret-down position by commandingCEASE FIRE, DRIVER, BACK/STOP. Considera-tion should be given to moving to an alternateposition.

    e. If firing on the move, the driver attempts toprovide as stable a firing platform as possible.When the situation and terrain permit, the vehi-cles front slope should be oriented toward thetarget.

    3004. Choice of Method ofEngagement

    During target acquisition, the vehicle commandermust decide how to engage the target. There aretwo methods of engagement used, depending onthe situationprecision and battlesight. The char-acteristics and advantages of each are distinct.Precision engagements are characterized by ahighly accurate sensing burst followed by killingbursts. A battlesight engagement is characterizedby swift killing bursts fired in rapid succession. Asa general rule, if the commander decides that thetarget is classified as a most dangerous target andis within the required ammunitions specified bat-tlesight range band, then battlesight gunnery isused. In all other situations where targets of lesserclassifications are involved, precision gunnery ishighly recommended. (See fig. 3-1.)

    LAV-25 Gunnery and Employment 3-5

    TARGET CLASSIFICATION

    DANGEROUS

    MOST DANGEROUS

    LEAST DANGEROUS GUNNERY PRECISION

    BATTLESIGHT GUNNERY INSIDE BATTLESIGHTRANGE

    OUTSIDE BATTLESIGHTRANGE

    Figure 3-1. Determination of Method of Engagement.

  • a. Precision GunneryPrecision gunnery is the method of engagement inwhich a deliberate range to target is estimated andapplied, then corrections made to further engagethe target. Precision gunnery is recommended inall engagements with the exception of an engage-ment where the target is either classified a mostdangerous target or is outside battlesight range forthe required ammunition. When the target is clas-sified dangerous or least dangerous, or when thecrew has the advantage of surprise, precision gun-nery is recommended. The only exception to thisrule is when the crew is in a position where an ex-tended, reduced, or ballistic battlesight has beenestablished. In this case, the crew will mathemati-cally determine the aiming point based on targetappearance probability. These types of engage-ments are accurate enough to preclude the use ofprecision gunnery techniques. The advantage thatprecision gunnery has over battlesight gunnery isaccuracy. Time to engage is slower, but once theengagement has started, time to kill is as rapid andgenerally, less ammunition is used per engage-ment. Targets outside of battlesight ranges are de-stroyed more quickly and efficiently usingprecision gunnery. Precision gunnery can be usedfrom the halt or from the stabilized weapons plat-form. The best results come from precision gun-nery used on a halted LAV-25, which provides astable firing platform. However, stabilized preci-sion gunnery can still be used on the move, but itis more reliant on the efficiency of the crew.

    The LAV ballistic sight reticle is designed so thatranging and aiming at targets are accomplished si-multaneously. The advantage to this system is thatthe gunner is not tasked to determine or indexrange prior to aiming at the target. Additionally,the vehicle commander is not required or encour-aged to give a range estimation in the fire com-mand, because the gunner can usually estimaterange with the sight faster and with far more accu-racy. This reduces the engagement time and, whenused properly, increases the probability of firstround impact on target. This is the ultimate goalof precision gunnery. Precision gunnery is basedon the following principle: The gunner properly

    ranges the target using the sight reticle stadialines, fires a three-round burst and immediatelyadjusts the sight picture (using the burst on target[BOT] method, paragraph 3011), and then fires asubsequent three-round killing burst. The subse-quent bursts are repeated as necessary to destroythe target, but with proper sensing, the initial kill-ing burst should be sufficient to destroy or neu-tralize the target. The rate of fire for this type ofengagement is 200 rounds per minute. The goal ofprecision gunnery is to kill the target without ex-pending more than six rounds.

    When the gunner engages multiple targets withinthe same range band (i.e., vehicles in column), it isnot necessary to re-range subsequent targets withthe ballistic sight reticle. For example, engagingtwo BMPs at 1,500 meters, the gunner wouldrange and fire at the first target, apply a subse-quent killing burst, and shift to the second target.The gunner would aim at this second target usingthe same reticle reference point (i.e., range), andapply a killing burst. The first burst on the secondtarget should hit it if the same point of aim thatdestroyed the first target was used on the secondtarget.

    If a range or ammunition change is made betweentargets during a multiple target engagement, thegunner must re-range. It is also possible to have amultiple engagement that requires the use of bothprecision and battlesight engagement techniques.The gunner is directed on which method of en-gagement to use by the vehicle commanders firecommand.

    A precision fire command is used to execute theprecision gunnery method; that is, the gunner de-termines the range to the target and may announceit, if required, before engaging. The gunner mayalso receive the range from the vehicle com-mander if the vehicle commander is confident thatthe estimated range is accurate. This passing ofrange is optional. The following shows who com-pletes each element of a fire command for preci-sion gunnery under most circumstances:

    3-6 MCWP 3-14.1

  • If issued a fire command composed of the aboveelements, the gunner is directed to use the preci-sion gunnery technique and continue firing untileither the command CEASE FIRE is given or thetarget is destroyed.

    b. Battlesight GunneryBattlesight gunnery is the rapid engagement oftargets based on range estimations within certainunderstood battlesight range bands. Battlesightgunnery is the quickest method of engagement.Battlesight gunnery is used when the vehicle com-mander determines that the target is most danger-ous by classification and is within the appropriateammunitions battlesight range band. This methodof engagement is based on the ballistic propertiesof the fired ammunition and its projected flightpath. The principle of battlesight gunnery is that

    the selected ammunition will travel an establisheddistance without rising above the height of the tar-get. This principle allows the gunner to use aspecified aim point corresponding to the requiredbattlesight range band and to immediately fire andadjust 3-round bursts in rapid succession. Any tar-get within the range band will receive impactsfrom these bursts. A battlesight range band is de-fined as an area where the height of the round willnot pass above the height of the target throughoutits trajectory. (See fig. 3-2.)

    Battlesight gunnery relies heavily on the vehiclecommanders ability to quickly determine if thetarget is within the battlesight range band. Targetsengaged within the range band are rapidly en-gaged and destroyed, while targets outside of therange band are inefficiently engaged. Battle- sightgunnery expends more ammunition than precisiongunnery and is less accurate, but it is a superiormethod for engaging targets within the battlesightrange bands when time is the most critical factor.

    In a battlesight fire command, the weapon/am-munition element is always announced as BAT-TLESIGHT, and the range element is always omit-ted. The term battlesight tells the gunner that thetarget is within battlesight range, and if an ammu-nition change is required due to type of target, thevehicle commander announces the ammunition aswell.

    Because of the number of rounds fired in a burst,changing ammunition from what is preselected is

    LAV-25 Gunnery and Employment 3-7

    Figure 3-2. Battlesight Range Band.

    ELEMENT COMMANDER GUNNER

    Alert GUNNERWeapon/Ammunition

    HE

    Description TRUCK

    IDENTIFIED

    Direction

    Range 100 METERS(optional)

    Execution FIRE

    ON THE WAY

  • not a problem. Observations and adjustments arestill made from the final rounds, not the firstround.

    There are three types of battlesight gunnery avail-able to use in various situations: Ballistic battle-sight and the two variations of modifiedbattlesight, which are extended battlesight and re-duced battlesight. It is important to understandtheir origin. Battlesight data is derived from FT25-A-2, Firing Tables for Cannon, M242. The in-formation within the firing table assumes that lineof sight is parallel with the point of aim and thatthe projectile travels over even ground. Obvi-ously, this is not always the case. The height ofthe weapons platform, elevation of the target, andcontour and elevation of the ground between thefiring vehicle and the target are never constant.With this in mind, the vehicle commander must re-alize that all of the above aspects will affect battle-sight gunnery range bands. Ideally, the vehicle isin defilade, or the point of aim is parallel with theline of sight. Any height disparity between firingvehicle and target will nullify the advantage of

    battlesight gunnery. The line of sight must be par-allel to the ground to achieve the maximum ad-vantages of battlesight gunnery. Maximumordinate and angle of fall are the primary data util-ized to determine the following range bands.Knowledge of the firing table and its use are para-mount to understanding the derivation of theserange bands and techniques.

    (1) Ballistic Battlesight. With a properly ze-roed weapon, using the battlesight circle in thesight reticle as a sight reference when aiming willprovide specific range bands for each type ofammunition.

    (a) HEI-T/TP-T. (See fig. 3-3). If the line of sightis the same height as the point of aim (i.e., parallelto the deck), the battlesight range band for HEI-Tis from 0 to 950 meters when firing at targets 2.2meters in height (i.e., BMP). This data is based onthe following information: Maximum ordinate forthe HEI-T/TP-T at the battlesight circle range(800 meters) is 1.0 meters above the line of sight.This occurs at 430 meters and is the highest pointof the rounds trajectory. Line of sight is parallelwith and 1.1 meters above the deck. Therefore,the round is 2.1 meters above the deck at its high-est point (maximum ordinate). The angle of fall at800 meters is 6 mils. This would require the roundto travel to just over 1,000 meters before fallingthe 1.1 meters from point of aim to the deck.However, because of decreased velocity and grav-ity, the angle of fall for a round at 1,000 meters is9 mils. To adjust the calculation, an average angleof fall is obtained for the distance between 800and 1,000 meters (6 mils + 9 mils/2 = 7.5 mils).The resulting 7.5 mils equal 7.5 meters at 1,000meters or .75 meters at 100 meters. Using this

    3-8 MCWP 3-14.1

    1.1m

    1.0m 6 mils (

    ) 6 mils

    0m 430m(MAX ORD)

    800m

    AVERAGE ANGLE OF FALL 7.5 mils BETWEEN 800m AND 1000m

    approx 950m

    LOS

    Figure 3-3. HEI-T Ballistic Battlesight Range Band.

    ELEMENT COMMANDER GUNNER

    Alert GUNNERWeapon/Ammunition

    BATTLESIGHT(AP, if required)

    Description PC

    IDENTIFIED

    Direction

    Range

    Execution FIRE

    ON THE WAY

  • adjusted fall rate, the round will fall the 1.1 metersto the deck at approximately the 950 meter mark.At 430 meters, the round will impact high on thetarget. Impacts will lower progressively until 950meters where impacts will hit the ground short ofthe target.

    (b) Armor Piercing, Discarding Sabot-Tracer(APDS-T). (See fig. 3-4). If the line of sight is thesame height as the point of aim (i.e., parallel tothe deck), and the aim point is center mass on thetarget, the battlesight range band for APDS-T isfrom 0 to 600 meters and from 825 to 1,600 me-ters. There is a dead space between approximately600 and 825 meters where the round will exceed2.2 meters above the deck. This is based on theheight of the line of sight, which is 1.1 meters,maximum ordinate of 1.6 meters above the line ofsight at 723 meters, and the angle of fall of 5 mils.The 600 meters is approximate since the firing ta-ble does not give an angle of rise with the excep-tion of superelevation. The 1,600 meters is basedon a 5 mil angle of fall, which requires the roundto travel just over 200 meters past the point ofaim to drop the 1.1 meters to the deck. At 1,600meters the angle of fall is 6 mils. Obtaining an av-erage angle of fall of 5.5 mils, using the same for-mula as HEI-T, the round will hit the deck at1,600 meters. At 850 meters impacts of bursts willbe high. They will lower progressively until theyhit the ground short of the target at 1,600 meters.

    To eliminate the dead space for the APDS-T bal-listic battlesight, the maximum ordinate wouldhave to be reduced to 1.1 meters. Adding this to

    the height of the line of sight places the round 2.2meters above the deck at maximum ordinate, thuseliminating the dead space occurring between 600and 850 meters. In the firing table, 1.1 meters ofmaximum ordinate is obtained using 1,200 meters.There is not a 1,200 meter aim line in the sightreticle, but the top of the battlesight circle can beused. Placing the battlesight circle at 6 oclockwill artificially place the 1,200 meter aim point atcenter mass (see fig. 3-5). Assuming that line ofsight is 1.1 meters above the deck, the battlesightrange band is from 0 to 1,450 meters (see fig.3-6). This band is figured in the same manner asthe previous bands using the following data:Maximum ordinate of 1.1 meters at 617 meters.Angle of fall of 4 mils. (Requires 300 meters oftravel to deck.) Angle of fall at 1,500 meters is 5mils; average angle of fall from 1,200 to 1,500meters is 4.5 mils. The round will impact high onthe target at 617 meters. Impacts will lower pro-gressively until they hit the ground short of thetarget at 1,450 meters

    LAV-25 Gunnery and Employment 3-9

    1.1m

    1.6m 5 m ils (

    ) 5 m ils

    0m 723m(MAX ORD)

    1400m

    ( AVERAGE ANGLE OF FALL ) 5.5 m ils BETW EEN 1400m AND 1600m

    approx 1600mapprox 600m approx 850m

    LO S

    Figure 3-4. APDS-T Ballistic Battlesight Range Band.

    Figure 3-5. APDS-T Battlesight6 OClock Aim.

  • Ballistic battlesight will provide the full rangebands only under ideal conditions. The vehiclecommanders must be aware of this and realize thatin most situations their range bands will be de-creased or altered depending on terrain and eleva-tion disparity between firing vehicle and target.

    (2) Modified Battlesights. Tactical events maypresent situations that allow vehicle commandersto predict engagement ranges. Examples are prob-able engagements on reverse slopes, at extendedranges along likely avenues of approach, and dur-ing reduced visibility from varying sources thatwill reduce engagement ranges. In these situa-tions, the vehicle commander can modify battle-sight by extending or reducing to capitalize on thesituation and to guarantee accurate killing bursts.This is accomplished by accurately ranging theengagement area and modifying the point of aim.

    (a) Extended Battlesight. Upon determining thepredicted engagement range precisely (by laserrange finder, map, etc.) the vehicle commander di-rects the gunner to use the aim point that corre-sponds to that engagement range.

    Example: Firing vehicle is in defensive position,overwatching road with bend in the distance. Us-ing a map, the vehicle commander determines therange to the road bend to be 1,900 meters. Thevehicle commander tells the gunner to use the1,900-meter APDS-T range line in all battlesightengagements.

    Depending on the range, there will be a progres-sively increasing amount of dead space from lineof bore and maximum ordinate. In most cases, thisis irrelevant because extended battlesight engage-ments are predetermined aim points for engage-ments, as opposed to range bands for quickengagements. If the vehicle commander desires tocreate