Light energy ECOSYSTEM Photosynthesis in chloroplasts CO 2 + H 2 O Cellular respiration in mitochondria Organic molecules + O 2 ATP powers most cellular.

  • Published on
    29-Jan-2016

  • View
    216

  • Download
    0

Embed Size (px)

Transcript

  • LightenergyECOSYSTEMPhotosynthesis in chloroplastsCO2 + H2OCellular respirationin mitochondriaOrganicmolecules+ O2ATP powers most cellular workHeatenergyATP*

  • becomes oxidized(loses electron)becomes reduced(gains electron)*

  • becomes oxidizedbecomes reduced*

  • Reactantsbecomes oxidizedbecomes reducedProductsMethane(reducingagent)Oxygen(oxidizingagent)Carbon dioxideWater*

  • becomes oxidizedbecomes reduced*

  • Dehydrogenase*

  • DehydrogenaseReduction of NAD+Oxidation of NADH2 e + 2 H+2 e + H+NAD++2[H]NADH+H+H+Nicotinamide(oxidized form)Nicotinamide(reduced form)*

  • Free energy, GFree energy, G(a) Uncontrolled reactionH2OH2 + 1/2 O2 Explosiverelease ofheat and lightenergy(b) Cellular respirationControlledrelease ofenergy forsynthesis ofATP2 H+ + 2 e 2 H+1/2 O2(from food via NADH)ATPATPATP1/2 O22 H+2 eElectron transportchainH2O*

  • MitochondrionSubstrate-levelphosphorylationATPCytosolGlucosePyruvateGlycolysisElectronscarried via NADHSubstrate-levelphosphorylationATPElectrons carriedvia NADH andFADH2OxidativephosphorylationATPCitricacidcycleOxidativephosphorylation:electron transportandchemiosmosis*

  • EnzymeADPPSubstrateEnzymeATP+Product*

  • Energy investment phaseGlucose2 ADP + 2P2 ATPusedformed4 ATPEnergy payoff phase4 ADP + 4P2 NAD+ + 4 e + 4 H+2 NADH+ 2 H+2 Pyruvate + 2 H2O2 Pyruvate + 2 H2OGlucoseNet4 ATP formed 2 ATP used2 ATP2 NAD+ + 4 e + 4 H+2 NADH + 2 H+*

  • GlucoseATPADPHexokinaseGlucose-6-phosphatePhosphoglucoisomeraseFructose-6-phosphateATPADPPhosphofructokinaseFructose-1, 6-bisphosphateAldolaseIsomeraseDihydroxyacetonephosphateGlyceraldehyde-3-phosphate12345AldolaseIsomeraseFructose-1, 6-bisphosphateDihydroxyacetonephosphateGlyceraldehyde-3-phosphate45*

  • Triose phosphatedehydrogenase2 NAD+NADH2222222 ADP2 ATPPyruvatePyruvate kinasePhosphoenolpyruvateEnolase2 H2O2-PhosphoglyceratePhosphoglyceromutase3-PhosphoglyceratePhosphoglycerokinase2 ATP2 ADP1, 3-Bisphosphoglycerate+ 2 H+67891022 ADP2 ATPPhosphoenolpyruvatePyruvate kinase2Pyruvate102Pi*

  • CYTOSOLMITOCHONDRIONNAD+NADH+ H+213PyruvateTransport proteinCO2Coenzyme AAcetyl CoA*

  • PyruvateNAD+NADH+ H+Acetyl CoACO2CoACoACoACitricacidcycleFADH2FADCO2233 NAD++ 3 H+ADP + P iATPNADH*

  • Acetyl CoACoASHCitrateH2OIsocitrateNAD+NADH+ H+CO2-Keto-glutarateCoASHCO2NAD+NADH+ H+SuccinylCoACoASHPiGTPGDPADPATPSuccinateFADFADH2FumarateCitricacidcycleH2OMalateOxaloacetateNADH+H+NAD+12345678*

  • NADHNAD+2FADH22FADMultiproteincomplexesFADFeSFMNFeSQFeSCyt bCyt c1Cyt cCyt aCyt a3IVFree energy (G) relative to O2 (kcal/mol)50403020102(from NADHor FADH2)02 H+ + 1/2O2H2Oeee*

  • INTERMEMBRANE SPACERotorH+StatorInternalrodCata-lyticknobADP+PATPiMITOCHONDRIAL MATRIX*

  • Protein complexof electroncarriersH+H+H+Cyt cQVFADH2FADNAD+NADH(carrying electronsfrom food)Electron transport chain2 H+ + 1/2O2H2OADP +PiChemiosmosisOxidative phosphorylationH+H+ATP synthaseATP21*

  • Maximum per glucose:About36 or 38 ATP+ 2 ATP+ 2 ATP+ about 32 or 34 ATPOxidativephosphorylation:electron transportandchemiosmosisCitricacidcycle2AcetylCoAGlycolysisGlucose2Pyruvate2 NADH2 NADH6 NADH2 FADH22 FADH22 NADHCYTOSOLElectron shuttlesspan membraneorMITOCHONDRION*

  • 2 ADP + 2Pi2 ATPGlucoseGlycolysis2 NAD+2 NADH2 Pyruvate+ 2 H+2 Acetaldehyde2 Ethanol(a) Alcohol fermentation2 ADP + 2Pi2 ATPGlucoseGlycolysis2 NAD+2 NADH+ 2 H+2 Pyruvate2 Lactate(b) Lactic acid fermentation2CO2*

  • GlucoseGlycolysisPyruvateCYTOSOLNo O2 present:FermentationO2 present: Aerobic cellular respirationMITOCHONDRIONAcetyl CoAEthanolorlactateCitricacidcycle*

  • ProteinsCarbohydratesAminoacidsSugarsFatsGlycerolFattyacidsGlycolysisGlucoseGlyceraldehyde-3-PyruvatePNH3Acetyl CoACitricacidcycleOxidativephosphorylation*

  • GlucoseGlycolysisFructose-6-phosphatePhosphofructokinaseFructose-1,6-bisphosphateInhibitsAMPStimulatesInhibitsPyruvateCitrateAcetyl CoACitricacidcycleOxidativephosphorylationATP+*

Recommended

View more >