Literacy teaching and learning in e learning contexts

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  • 1. Literacy teaching and learningin e-Learning contexts Report to the Ministry of EducationSue McDowall for CORE Education and New Zealand Council for Educational Research

2. ISBN: 978-0-478-34274-1ISBN: (web) 978-0-478-34275-8RMR-950 Ministry of Education, New Zealand 2010Research reports are available on the Ministry of Educations website Education Counts:www.educationcounts.govt.nz/publications.Opinions expressed in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily coincide with those of theMinistry of Education 3. Literacy teaching and learning ine-Learning contextsA report to the Ministry of EducationSue McDowallfor CORE Education and New Zealand Council for Educational Research2010 4. ii Literacy teaching and learning in e-Learning contexts 5. Literacy teaching and learning in e-Learning contextsiiiAcknowledgementsThe researchers from CORE Education (Vince Ham, Michael Winter, and Gina Revill) and from NZCER (Sally Boydand Sue McDowall) thank all those involved in this project. First, and most importantly, we thank the 2009 e-fellowsfor welcoming us into their classrooms and sharing their expertise, ideas, and experiences with us. We thank the e-fellows schools for allowing us to visit and for supporting the e-fellow projects, and we thank the students for theirinterest, enthusiasm, and forthright contributions to focus group discussions.Our thanks go to the members of our advisory panel (Ronnie Davey, Jo Fletcher, Faithe Hanrahan, Roka Teepa, andNoeline Wright) and to the NZCER project sponsor, Rosemary Hipkins, for their feedback on the research design,instruments, and report.We acknowledge the other CORE Education and NZCER staff involved in this project. Information Services supportwas provided by Beverley Thompson and Susan Tompkinson who conducted searches for reference material. Ourthanks go to Rochelle McAllister who coordinated flights, accommodation, meeting venues, and catering for theresearchers and e-fellows; to Christine Williams who formatted this report; and to Natasha Edwards for proofreading. 6. iv Literacy teaching and learning in e-Learning contexts 7. Literacy teaching and learning in e-Learning contextsvTable of ContentsExecutive summary..........................................................................................................................................1Background to the research .................................................................................................................................. 1Main findings ......................................................................................................................................................... 1 Student learning and engagement ........................................................................................................................... 1 Conditions of learning............................................................................................................................................... 2 Conditions of teaching.............................................................................................................................................. 2 Where to next? ......................................................................................................................................................... 3Chapter 1: Background to the research .......................................................................................................5Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................... 5Research aims and questions............................................................................................................................... 5Theoretical frame .................................................................................................................................................. 6How the researchers and e-fellows worked together ............................................................................................ 8Data sources and analysis .................................................................................................................................... 8Data analysis......................................................................................................................................................... 9Profile of the e-fellows ........................................................................................................................................... 9The projects ........................................................................................................................................................ 10 Connecting to picture books through student video dramatisations (New entrant teacher).................................... 10 Sharing multi-media student stories via blogging (Year 2 teacher) ........................................................................ 10 Writing narratives and sharing stories as movies (Year 3 teacher) ........................................................................ 10 Retelling and sharing stories using web 2.0 tools (Year 3/4 teacher)..................................................................... 11 Collaborative storytelling using blogs (Year 4 teacher) .......................................................................................... 11 Producing content for a regional TV station (Year 46 teacher)............................................................................. 11 Reading logs as reading blogs (Year 7/8 teacher) ................................................................................................. 11 Dispositions of literacy learners engaged in e-Learning (Year 7/8 teacher) ........................................................... 11 Use of blogs and online communities in English (Year 11 teacher) ....................................................................... 11Overview of the report structure.......................................................................................................................... 11Chapter 2: Literacy learning ........................................................................................................................13Introduction ......................................................................................................................................................... 13Breaking the code ............................................................................................................................................... 13Making meaning.................................................................................................................................................. 15 Knowledge of the text............................................................................................................................................. 15 Drawing on out-of-text knowledge .......................................................................................................................... 17 Generating and evaluating alternative meanings ................................................................................................... 19Using texts .......................................................................................................................................................... 20 Learning words, acts, values, beliefs, and attitudes ............................................................................................... 20 Building social identities ......................................................................................................................................... 22 Engaging with members of out-of-school discourse communities .......................................................................... 24Analysing text ...................................................................................................................................................... 24Summary ............................................................................................................................................................. 26Chapter 3: Student engagement .................................................................................................................27Higher levels of student engagement.................................................................................................................. 27 Increased on task behaviour and sustained attention .......................................................................................... 27 Use of free time for e-fellow-related work ............................................................................................................ 28 Fewer behaviour management problems ............................................................................................................... 29 8. viLiteracy teaching and learning in e-Learning contextsCross-mode transfer of engagement ......................................................................................................................30 What about the students who were not so engaged?......................................................................................... 30 Summary............................................................................................................................................................. 31Chapter 4: Conditions of learning .............................................................................................................. 33 Opportunities to work with both freedom and constraint..................................................................................... 33 Opportunities to work with diverse others ........................................................................................................... 35 Opportunities to specialise.................................................................................................................................. 37 Opportunities to share ideas ............................................................................................................................... 40Establishing decentralised systems........................................................................................................................40Teaching the skills of sharing ideas........................................................................................................................42Decentralised systems and student learning and engagement ..............................................................................44 Opportunities to revisit texts and ideas ............................................................................................................... 45Time for revisiting texts and ideas ..........................................................................................................................45Processes for revisiting texts and ideas .................................................................................................................45Opportunities to revisit texts and student learning and engagement ......................................................................47 Opportunities to lead the direction of learning .................................................................................................... 48 Opportunities to work with experts...................................................................................................................... 49 Summary............................................................................................................................................................. 50Chapter 5: Conditions of teaching ............................................................................................................. 53 Teaching enablers .............................................................................................................................................. 53Enablers related to the e-fellowships......................................................................................................................53Other enablers........................................................................................................................................................54 Teaching barriers ................................................................................................................................................ 54Availability of ICTs ..................................................................................................................................................54Reliability of ICTs....................................................................................................................................................55School ICT policies.................................................................................................................................................55School timetable .....................................................................................................................................................56Students without internet access at home ..............................................................................................................56 Reflections on literacy teaching in e-Learning contexts...................................................................................... 56 Summary............................................................................................................................................................. 59Chapter 6: Discussion ................................................................................................................................. 61 Building capacity with multi-modal texts ............................................................................................................. 61Engagement and achievement when working in different modes...........................................................................61 How do we maximise the benefits? .................................................................................................................... 63Deep subject knowledge ........................................................................................................................................64Opportunities to disseminate findings.....................................................................................................................64 Where to next?.................................................................................................................................................... 64References ................................................................................