Looking back at photosynthesis sugars C 6 H 12 O 6 CO 2 ATP ADP H2OH2O O2O2 sunlight CO 2 H2OH2O C 6 H 12 O 6 O2O2 light energy  +++ Sugar Building Reactions.

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    16-Jan-2016

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  • Looking back at photosynthesissugarsC6H12O6CO2ATPADPH2OO2sunlightSugar BuildingReactionsEnergy BuildingReactionsPlants make both:ATPsugars

  • ATPWhat is energy in biology?Cellular RespirationHarvesting Chemical Energy

  • Burn fuels to make energycombustionmaking heat energy by burning fuels in one stepCO2 + H2O + ATP (+ heat)respirationmaking ATP energy (& some heat) by burning fuels in many small steps

  • Using ATP to do work?A working muscle recycles over 10 million ATPs per secondCant store ATPtoo unstableonly used in cell that produces itonly short term energy storagecarbohydrates & fats are long term energy storageATPADP + Pwork

  • A Bodys Energy Budgeteat foodsynthesisstorageATP

  • Harvesting energy stored in foodCellular respirationbreaking down food to produce ATPin mitochondriausing oxygenformula shows glucose, but that is just an examplecould be other sugars, fats or proteins

  • What do we need to make energy?The Furnacemitochondria Fuelfoodcarbohydrates, fats, proteinsThe HelpersoxygenaerobicenzymesMake ATP! Make ATP! All I do all day And no one even notices!

  • GlycolysisKrebs/Citric acid cycleElectron transport chain

    232AerobicAnaerobicThree Stages2

  • Breaking it downStep 1 = _____________AnaerobicOccurs in cytoplasmGlucose inPyruvate, 2 NADH, and 2 ATP outglycolysis

  • Lets keep on truckingStep 2 = ____________aka Krebs cycle the merry-go-round of energy!AerobicOccurs in mitochondriaPyruvate, ATP, and NADH in2 ATP, carbon dioxide, hydrogens, and energized electrons out

    Citric acid cycle

  • The big finale!Step 3 = __________________AerobicOccurs in mitochondriaStair step release of energy from electrons used to make 32 ATP and waterElectron transport chain

  • There are two types of respiration:

  • What if oxygen is missing?Cant complete aerobic respirationOccurs in the cytoplasmalcohol fermentationyeastglucose ATP + CO2+ alcoholmake beer, wine, breadlactic acid fermentationbacteria, animalsglucose ATP + lactic acidmake yogurtanimals feel muscle fatiguebut only makes a net of 2 ATP!

  • The BIG pictureOxygen, glucose, and water in Carbon dioxide, ATP, and water out

  • How are they connected?RespirationPhotosynthesis

  • Energy cyclePhotosynthesisCellular RespirationO2CO2plantsanimals, plantsATP

  • PhotosynthesisCellular RespirationFood synthesizedFood broken downEnergy from sun stored in glucoseEnergy of glucose releasedCarbon dioxide taken inCarbon dioxide given offOxygen given offOxygen taken inAlso produces glucoseAlso produces H2O + ATPRequires lightDoes not require lightNeeds chlorophyllOccurs in all cells

  • Happens in the cytoplasm !!!2 Pyruvic Acid

  • Alcohol FermentationUsed to make bread and alcohol productsuses yeastProduces CO2 and alcoholIn making bread alcohol burns off and CO2 makes bread riseIn producing alcohols, the alcohol is used to produce the beverage, CO2 is released

  • No oxygen present in some plants or fungi-Anaerobic Fermentation--Alcohol Fermentation2 Pyruvic Acid

  • Lactic Acid FermentationUsed to make yogurt and some cheeses the producer of these is bacteriaORWhen muscles are overly exerted the oxygen is depleted in the cells. Lactic acid then builds up in animal cells and causes muscle fatigue and sore muscles the next day.

  • No oxygen present in animals and some bacteria.Anaerobic Fermentation--Lactic Acid Fermentation

    2 Pyruvic Acid2 Lactic Acid

  • We use lactic acid fermentation

    When we dont have enough oxygen for our ATP requirements in our muscles. Short bursts of energy anaerobic exerciseThe lactic acid is what causes cramps when you dont stretch (increase blood flow to the muscle)This lactic acid has to go back to the liver where it is turned back into glucose. Oxygen Debt You have to continue to breathe hard in order to make more ATP to convert lactic acid back to glucose.Important in the Fight or Flight mechanism in animals !

  • Electron Transport ChainThis is our friend NADH

  • Putting it all together Making a livingsunlightleaves = solar collectorsphotosynthesisgases: CO2 in & O2 out stomates = gases in & outH2Oroots take in water from soilpulled up by leaf evaporationnutrientsroots take in from soil

  • Leaf StructureH2OCO2CO2O2H2Ogases in & outwater outtranspirationO2

  • Stomates Function of stomatesCO2 inO2 out H2O outguard cellstomate

  • Xylemcarry water up from roots

  • Phloem: food-conducting cellscarry sugars down to wherever they are needed Extra stored in roots

  • GlucosePyruvic AcidLactic Acid-(Muscle Lab)(animals & bacteria)Without OxygenWith Oxygen Without OxygenEthanolYeast & Apple Juice Mini-Lab-(only some fungi and some plants)

  • CELLULAR AEROBIC RESPIRATIONCYTOPLASM(2)Pyruvic Acid+2 ATP+2 ATP+about 32 ATPABOUT 36 ATP !

  • Anaerobic RespirationAnaerobic = does not require oxygen(Fermentation) Breaks down glucose only partially and creates a total of 4 ATP and net of 2 ATPLactic Acid Fermentationanimals, bacteriaAlcoholic Fermentationfungi like yeast, plantsOccurs in the cytoplasmRequires 2 ATP to activate the cycle

  • Aerobic RespirationAerobic = requires oxygenOccurs in the mitochondriaBreaks down glucose completely and creates a total of 38 ATP and a net of 36 ATP Requires 2 ATP to activate the cycle

    **Movement of hydrogen atoms from glucose to water**Movement of hydrogen atoms from glucose to waterThe first stage is glycolosis which breaks down glucose into something called pyruvate and some ATP. This process is anaerobic.

    The second stage is called the krebs or citric acid cycle which takes the pyruvate and makes more excited electrons.

    The last stage is the electron transport chain, which is similar to the one that takes place in the chloroplast during photosynthesis, which takes excited electrons and makes ATP.

    *Used to make bread and alcohol productsuses yeastProduces CO2 and alcoholIn making bread alcohol burns off and CO2 makes bread riseIn producing alcohols, the alcohol is used to produce the beverage, CO2 is released

    Used to make yogurt and some cheeses the producer of these is bacteriaORWhen muscles are overly exerted the oxygen is depleted in the cells. Lactic acid then builds up in animal cells and causes muscle fatigue and sore muscles the next day.

    We use lactic acid fermentationWhen we dont have enough oxygen for our ATP requirements in our muscles. Short bursts of energy anaerobic exerciseThe lactic acid is what causes cramps when you dont stretch (increase blood flow to the muscle)This lactic acid has to go back to the liver where it is turned back into glucose. Oxygen Debt You have to continue to breathe hard in order to make more ATP to convert lactic acid back to glucose.Important in the Fight or Flight mechanism in animals !

    **So, in effect, photosynthesis is respiration run backwards powered by light.

    Cellular Respirationoxidize C6H12O6 CO2 & produce H2Ofall of electrons downhill to O2 exergonic

    Photosynthesis reduce CO2 C6H12O6 & produce O2boost electrons uphill by splitting H2Oendergonic

    **Give them a rest and Normal Aerobic Respiration takes over and creates ATP and soreness goes away !!!!!

    *****Anaerobic = does not require oxygen(Fermentation) Breaks down glucose only partially and creates a total of 4 ATP and net of 2 ATPLactic Acid Fermentationanimals, bacteriaAlcoholic Fermentationfungi like yeast, plantsOccurs in the cytoplasmRequires 2 ATP to activate the cycle

    *

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