ARI Research Note 86-11
LITERATURE REVIEW--ARMY TRAINING:
Q M16A1 RIFLE, TOW, AND DRAGON WEAPON SYSTEMS
MRobert J. Smillie and Thomas E. Chitwood, Jr.ww " Mellonics Systems Development Division
Litton Systems, Inc.
for ~ JUNO 2
ARI Field Unit at Fort Benning, Georgia
TRAINING RESEARCH LABORATORYSeward Smith, Acting Director
U. S. Army
Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences
Approved for Public release; distribution unlimited.
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U. S. ARMY RESEARCH INSTITUTE
FOR THE BEHAVIORAL AND SOCIAL SCIENCES
A Field Operating Agency under the Jurisdiction of the
Deputy Chief of Staff for Personnel
WM. DARRYL HENDERSON
EDGAR M. JOHNSON COL, IN
Technical Director Commanding
This report, as submitted by the contractor. has been cleared for release to Defense Technical Information CenterI(DTIC) to comply with regulatory requirements. It has been given no primary distribution other then to DTICand will be available only through DTIC or other reference services such as the National Technical InformationService (NTIS). The views. opinions, ind/of findings contained in this repon are those of the author(s1 and
* should not be construed as an off icial Depot tmen of the Army position, policy, or decision, unless so designated* by other official documentation. %
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ARI Research Note 86-11
4. TITLE (and Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVEREDLITERATURE REVIEW -- ARMY TRAINING: Interim ReportM16A1 Rifle, TOW, and DRAGON Weapon Systems October 76 - October 77
S. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER
7. AUTHOR(a) 4. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(*.
Robert J. Smillie and Thomas E. Chitwood, Jr. DAHC 19-77-C-0011
9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT, PROJECT. TASKMellonics Systems Development Division, AREA & WORK UNIT NUMMERS
Litton Systems, Inc., P.O. Box 2498 2Q263743A773Fort Benning, Georgia 31905
11. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 12. REPORT DATE
ARI Field Unit at Fort Benning, Georgia January 1986P.O. Box 2086, Is. NUMBER OF PAGESFort Benning, Georgia 31905 236
14. MONITORING AGENCY NAME & ADORESS(II dilferent ftrw Controlling Office) 15. SECURITY CLASS. (of thi report)U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioraland Social Sciences, 5001 Eisenhower Avenue, UnclassifiedAlexandria, Virginia 22333-5600 1s. DECLASSIFICATION/ DOWNGRADING
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Approved for public release; distribution unlimited.
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IS. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES
Seward Smith, contracting officer's representative.
1. KEY WORDS (Continue on reveree side If necessary end Identify by block number)
Collective Training Ml6AI Rifle MTrainee SelectionDragon Measures of Effectiveness Trainee Content/Hardware Measures of Performance Training Criteria,Hardware Demands -4 Threat) Training Devices.
AIndividual Training,\ Training Effectiveness Analysis) TOW
21. ABSTRACT (Cothwae reverse aid it meary mad Idinity by block number)
--,,bA literature review and annotated bibliography were compelled to provide anintroduction to the three Infantry weapon systems (MI6A1 Rifle, TOW, and DRAGONantitank guided missles), considering the three subsystems (training criteria,training content, and trainee selection) within each system's training course.Two hundred sixty-six documents were identified and abstracted: of these, onehundred five are variously cited in the review narrative. The review describesand discusses the hardware, the hardware demands on the operator, current
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ARI Research Note 86-11
20. ABSTRACT (continued)
7 training programs, training criteria, measures of effectiveness, and training
devices. The review showed that the current training for each weapon system (1)
lacks continuity between institutional and unit training, (2) has no correla-
tion between training device proficiency and operational equipment proficiency,
and (3) has no validated training program. It was concluded that training for
the M16AI, TOW, and DRAGON can be effective only if complete training effect-
iveness analyses (TEAs) are conducted for each weapon system.
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This report is one of a series on the research support provided by theMellonics Systems Development Division of Litton Systems, Inc., to the ArmyResearch Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences (ARI) underContract Number DAHC 19-77-C-00-1. The report, as submitted, is a part ofthe final report of the total contractual support effort; it will beincorporated into that report by reference.
As set forth in the Contract Statement of Work, the Mellonics effortincludes support to the Training Effectiveness Analysis (TEA) program, aresearch effort focusing on the analysis of training effectiveness for eachof three weapon systems: M16A] Rifle, TOW, and Dragon. This reportreviews the literature of the three weapon systems and provides anannotated bibliography (266 references) of those systems.
NTIS CRAMIDTiC TAB
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A literature review and annotated bibliography was compiled to providean introduction to the three Infantry weapon systems (m16Al Rifle,.TOW,and Dragon antitank guided missiles) considering the three subsystems(trai'ning criteria, training content, and trainee selection) within each
* system. Two hundred sixty-six (266) documnents were identified and abstracted.Of these, one hundred five (105) are variously cited in the reviewnarrative. The review describes and discusses the hardware, hardwaredemands on the operator, current training programs, training criteria,measures of effectiveness, and training devices. The review showed that thecurrent training for each weapon system (1) lacks continuity between
* institutional and unit training, (2) has no correlation between trainingdevice proficiency and operational equipment proficiency, and (3) has no
* validated training program. It was concluded that training for the M16AI,TOW, and Dragon can be effective only if complete training effectivenessanalyses (TEAs) are conducted for each weapon system.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
MI6Ai RIFLE 8
Description of System 8
Ha rdwa re 8
Hardware Demands on Operator 8
Measures of Effectiveness 10 NTraining Criteria 10
Measures of performance 10
Individual training standards 12
Collective training standards 13
Training Content 13
InJividual training 14
Individual training in units 17
Collective training in units 21
Training Devices 22
Rimfire adapter 22
Wea ponee r 22
Lasertrain 23 rTrainee Selection 24
Research Findings 25
Measures of Effectiveness 28
Training Criteria 28
Training Content and Methods 29
Training Devices 31
Trainee Selection 32
Major Training Problems 32
Major Research Findings and Needs 34
PageTOW HEAVY ANTITANK WEAPON SYSTEM 36