MANAGING BUSINESS AND PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION ?· Communication 1 Chapter 1 INTRODUCING BUSINESS…

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  • Third Edition

    MANAGING BUSINESS AND

    PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION

    Carley H. DoddAbilene Christian University

    Allyn& Bacon

    Boston Columbus Indianapolis New York San Francisco Upper Saddle RiverAmsterdam Cape Town Dubai London Madrid Milan Munich Paris Montreal Toronto

    Delhi Mexico City Sao Paulo Sydney Hong Kong Seoul Singapore Taipei Tokyo

  • CONTENTS

    Preface xx

    Unit 1 Foundations of Business and ProfessionalCommunication 1

    Chapter 1 INTRODUCING BUSINESS AND PROFESSIONALCOMMUNICATION 1Communication Gaps in the Workplace 2

    CASE 1.1 Making Communication Adjustments 2

    SKILLS AT WORK 1.1 What Functions Does Communication Solve inOrganizations? 4

    What General Competencies Are Needed in Organizations? 4

    Communication Competencies Expected in Organizations 5

    SKILLS AT WORK 1.2 Self-Assessment of Communication Strengths andWeaknesses 7

    Definition and Model of Business and ProfessionalCommunication 8

    Defining Communication in Business and the Professions 8

    A Briefing on Models 8

    A Communication Model Focusing on Components in Business andthe Professions 9

    Assumptions about Communication: A Word on Axioms 12

    Communication Is Unavoidable 12

    D WEB AT WORK 1.1 Business and Professional Communication 12

    Communication Is Irreversible 13

    Communication Involves Content and Relationship 13

    Communication Is Rule Governed 13

    Business and Professional Communication in Four Contexts 14

    Organizational Culture 14

    Interpersonal Communication 14

    Groups and Teams 14

    Public Presentations 14

    In Perspective 15 Discussion Questions 15Exercises 15 References 16

    VII

  • viii Contents

    Chapter 2 MANAGING LEADERSHIP COMMUNICATIONIN ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURES 17

    Organizational Culture as a Context for Communication 18

    CASE 2.1 A Clash of Cultures 19

    Features of Organizational Culture 19

    Mission and Goals 20

    Values 20

    CASE 2.2 Accepting Company Values 21

    Beliefs 21

    Procedures and Rituals 21

    Scope 21

    CASE 2.3 Taco Bell's Organizational Culture 22

    Roles 22

    Relationships 22

    Reward and Recognition 23

    Language and Communication Style 23

    Stories/Narratives 24

    SKILLS AT WORK 2.1 Improving Communication Style in Organizations 25

    Leadership Style 26

    Organizational Identity and Image 26

    Leadership in Organizational Cultures: Structures and Styles 27

    CASE 2.4 Developing Ethics in Communication Strategies 28

    1 Scientific Management Perspective 29

    Human Relations Perspective 32

    Human Resources Perspective 32

    SKILLS AT WORK 2.2 Rethinking Herzberg and Applying Ethics 35

    Systems Communication Perspective 35

    CASE 2.5 Incentives and Performance 36

    Recap of Leadership Communication Perspectives 41

    SKILLS AT WORK 2.3 What Are Your Qualities as a Leader? 41

    D WEB AT WORK 2.1 Organizational Culture and Leadership 42In Perspective 42 Discussion Questions 42Exercises 43 References 43

    Unit 2 Interpersonal Communication in Business andProfessional Communication 44

    Chapter 3 MANAGING INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATIONIN THE WORKPLACE 44Interpersonal Communication Principles in the Workplace 44

  • Contents ix

    The Pygmalion Effect and Self-Fulfilling Prophecy: ManagingExpectations 45

    Interpersonal Attr ibut ion: I "Know" Why You Do That 45

    Managing Interpersonal Perceptions: Impression Formation 46

    SKILLS AT WORK 3.1 Impression Formation in Action 47

    Social Equity Theory 47

    SKILLS AT WORK 3.2 Social Equity Theory at Work 48

    Managing Interpersonal Communication Skills 48

    CASE 3.1 The Effects of Unresolved Conflict 48

    Focus on a Positive Communication Climate to Build and MaintainRelationships 49

    Expand Awareness 51

    Initiate Affinity-Seeking Communication 52

    Develop Assertiveness Skills 52

    Practice Communication Immediacy 53

    SKILLS AT WORK 3.3 Immediacy Assessment 54

    Apply Improved Verbal and Language Style 55

    SKILLS AT WORK 3.4 Verbal Communication Skills Assessment 59

    Improve Efficiency and Clarity 60

    SKILLS AT WORK 3.5 Improving Interpersonal Communication inLeadership 61

    D WEB AT WORK 3.1 Interpersonal Communication 62

    Managing Social Networking as Interpersonal Communication 62

    ^Organizations Seeking IT and Social Media 62

    CASE 3.2 Johnson and Johnson Want More of the Social;; Media Pie 63

    . Is There Harm in Unconnected Employees? 64

    CASE 3.3 Twitter Has Uses in Education and Organizations 65In Perspective 65 Discussion Questions 66Exercises 66 References 67

    Chapter 4 MANAGING LISTENING COMMUNICATIONIN THE WORKPLACE 68

    $ The Significance of Listening in Organizations 69

    Managers' Use of Listening 69

    Organizational Outcomes Associated with Listening 69

    Concepts That Explain Listening Deficits 70

    Selectivity in Listening to Information 70

    CASE 4.1 Separate Conversations 70

    CASE 4.2 Processing Bad News 71

    Enhance Information Sharing 72

  • Contents

    Avoid Communication Omission 72

    CASE 4.3 Overcoming Omission 72

    CASE 4.4 "Any Questions?" 73

    SKILLS AT WORK 4.1 Listening Skills Assessment 74

    El WEB AT WORK 4.1 Listening Communication 75

    How to Improve Listening Skills 75

    Active Listening 76

    Strategies for Active Listening 76

    Steps in Effective Listening 77

    Barriers to Effective Listening 78

    SKILLS AT WORK 4.2 Listening Evaluation for a Seminar or Workshop 79

    Great Quotes on Listening 80In Perspective 80 Discussion Questions 81Exercises 81 References 81

    Chapter 5 MANAGING NONVERBAL COMMUNICATIONIN THE WORKPLACE 82

    Defining Nonverbal Communication 83

    Importance of Nonverbal Communication in the Workplace 83

    Conveying Meaning 83

    Reflecting the Unspoken 84

    CASE 5.1 Reading a Troubled Coworker 85

    Functions and Rules of Nonverbal Communication 85

    Functions of Nonverbal Communication 85

    Rules Governing Nonverbal Communication 85

    - Elements of Nonverbal Communication 86

    Personal and Organizational Space 86

    Body Movements 89

    CASE 5.2 Sending Unintentional Messages 90

    Facial Expressions 90

    Eye Movements 90

    Touch 91

    Vocal Characteristics 93

    Timing 93

    Objects and Clothing 94

    Using Nonverbal Communication in the Workplace 94

    SKILLS AT WORK 5.1 Nonverbal Communication and Sales 94

    SKILLS AT WORK 5.2 Monochronic and Polychronic Style Assessment 96

    n WEB AT WORK 5.1 Nonverbal Communication 97In Perspective 97 Discussion Questions 98Exercises 98 References 98

  • Contents xi

    Chapter 6 MANAGING COMMUNICATION CONFLICTIN THE WORKPLACE 100

    Conflict in the Workplace 101

    Defining Conflict 101

    Causes of Conflict 101

    CASE 6.1 The Day the Committee Came 103

    Types of Conflict 104

    Levels of Conflict and Tension in Organizations 105

    Theories of Conflict in the Workplace 106

    D WEB AT WORK 6.1 Conflict at Work 106

    Communication Skills in Managing Conflict 109

    Understanding Conflict Communication Styles 109

    Communication Skills for Handling Criticism 111

    SKILLS AT WORK 6.1 Conflict Style Assessment 111 CASE 6.2 Running a Family Business 113

    CASE 6.3 Supportive and Defensive Climates 114

    Communication Skills in Managing Negotiation 115Defining Negotiation 115

    Approaches to Negotiation 115

    SKILLS AT WORK 6.2 Space Survival Exercise 118Understanding Negotiation Styles 119

    CASE 6.4 The Jones Family Land Case 120

    SKILLS AT WORK 6.3 Negotiation-Style Assessment 121

    ". CASE 6.5 Conflict at City Hospital 123In Perspective 125 ; Discussion Questions 126

    \J Exercises 126 References 127

    Chapter 7 MANAGING INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATIONIN THE WORKPLACE 128

    Definition and Model of InterculturalCommunication 129

    D WEB AT WORK 7.1 Intercultural Communication 130

    Understanding Cultural Diversity 131

    & Ethnocentrism 131

    ^ Prejudice 131

    Stereotyping 132

    In-Groups and Out-Groups 132

    Communication Style Expectations 132

    Cultural Values 133

    Language 134

    Interaction Rituals 134

  • xii Contents

    Gender Issues 135

    Importance of Managing Cultural Diversity 136

    Eliminating Potential Barriers 136

    Eliminating the Costs of Discrimination 136

    CASE 7.1 Alleged Bias at General Motors 137

    Accepting Cultural Diversity 137

    Intercultural Communication Strategies for Promoting Unity 138

    Searching for Common Ground 138

    Adapting to Low- and High-Context Cultures 138

    Adapting to Group and Individual Cultures 139

    Adapting to Task and People Orientations 139

    Adapting to Cultural Hierarchy 140

    Adjusting Linearity 140

    Understanding Nonverbal Interactions 140 SKILLS AT WORK 7.1 Cultural Differences in Nonverbal

    Communication 141

    Avoiding Hasty Generalizations 141

    Engaging in Cultural Adaptation 141

    CASE 7.2 Hasty Generalization in the Workplace 142

    Managing Cultural Adaptation 143 CASE 7.3 Negotiating Conflicts Caused by Diversity 144

    In Perspective 146 Discussion Questions 146Exercises 147 References 147

    1

    Unit 3 Small Groups and Teams in Business and ProfessionalCommunication 148

    Chapter 8 MANAGING GROUP COMMUNICATION ANDWORKPLACE TEAMS 148Defining Small-Group Communication 148

    Group Outcomes 149

    Task Outcomes 149

    Satisfaction Outcomes 150

    Communication Networks in Small Groups 150

    CASE 8.1 Communication and Control 151

    Centralized Networks 151

    CASE 8.2 Communication and Low Morale 152

    CASE 8.3 Central Network Overload 153

    Decentralized Networks 153

    Virtual Teams and Groups 154

  • Contents xiii

    Leadership in Teams and Small Groups 155

    Highly Directive Leadership 155

    Participatory Leadership 155

    Negligent Leadership 155

    CASE 8.4 The Right Kind of Leadership 156

    Conducting Results-Oriented Group Communication 156

    The Initiating Phase of Group Discussions 156

    The Problem-Solving Phase of Group Discussions 159

    Concluding Group Discussions 161

    CASE 8.5 Overcoming Barriers to Quality Service 161

    Achieving Group Satisfaction Outcomes 162

    Overcoming Group Communication Barriers 163

    SKILLS AT WORK 8.1 Assessment of Small-Group Satisfaction Outcomes 164

    CASE 8.6 The Bay of Pigs Incident 165

    Strategies for Conducting Large Group Meetings 165

    Rules of Procedure 166

    Brainstorming Techniques 167

    WEBATW0RK8.1 Small-Group Communication 167

    Strategies for Team Building in the Workplace 168

    Definition and Model of Teams 168

    n WEB AT WORK 8.2 Building and Managing Teams 169

    How to Facilitate High-Functioning Workplace Teams 170

    Providing Information, Knowledge, and Innovation 170

    Providing Self-Directed Management 170

    Providing Achievement and Satisfaction 171

    What Makes a Successful Team? 171

    Communicating Vision and Mission 171

    CASE 8.7 Benefits of Employee Satisfaction 172

    Communicating Strategic Goals and Activities 172

    CASE 8.8 A Bigger and Better Vision and Mission 173

    Communicating Expectations 173

    Communicating Commitment and Norms 174

    Communicating with Senior Leadership 174

    SKILLS AT WORK 8.2 Assessment of Team Norms 175

    Communicating Significant Amounts of Information 176

    Outcomes of Successful Teams 176

    CASE 8.9 Documenting Successful Team Performance 177In Perspective 178 Discussion Questions 179Exercises 179 References 180

  • xiv Contents

    Chapter 9 MANAGING INTERVIEWS IN THE WORKPLACE 181Importance of Interviewing 182

    Types of Interviews 182

    Employment Selection Interviews 182 SKILLS AT WORK 9.1 Finding Job Opportunities 184 CASE 9.1 Answering "Killer" Questions 185

    Information-Gathering Interviews 186

    Performance Appraisal Interviews 187

    Complaint or Grievance Interviews 188

    Disciplinary Interviews 188

    Group Interviews 189

    Exit Interviews 189

    CASE 9.2 Standing Out in a Group Interview 190

    Telephone Interviews 191

    Videoconference Interviews 191

    Media Interviews 192

    Structuring Effective Interviews 192

    Introduction Phase 193

    Question Phase 193

    Closing Phase 194

    Follow-Up Phase 195

    Interview Questions 195

    ! Types of Questions 195

    Organizing Questions 199

    Communication Skills in Answering Interview Questions 202i In Perspective 205 Discussion Questions 206

    Exercises 206 References 206

    Unit 4 Public Presentations in Business and ProfessionalCommunication 207

    Chapter 10 MANAGING PUBLIC PRESENTATIONSIN THE WORKPLACE 207Importance of Making Public Presentations 208

    CASE 10.1 The Power of Effective Presentations 208

    Building Credibility 209

    Competence 209

    CASE 10.2 Creating Credibility 209

    SKILLS AT WORK 10.1 Assessing Your Competence 210

    Character 210

  • Contents XV

    SKILLS AT WORK 10.2 Assessing Your Character 210

    Charisma 211

    Co-Orientation 211

    CASE 10.3 The Power of Charisma 211

    SKILLS AT WORK 10.3 Assessing Your Charisma 212

    Recap on Credibility 212

    CASE 10.4 Connecting with the Queen 212

    SKILLS AT WORK 10.4 Assessing Your Co-Orientation 213

    Building Confidence 213

    Symptoms of Communication Apprehension 213

    Overcoming Communication Apprehension 213

    Recap on Confidence 215

    SKILLS AT WORK 10.5 Assessment of Communication Apprehension 216

    Confirming Audience Analysis 217

    Audience Experience and Topic Knowledge 217

    Audience Knowledge of the Presenter 218

    Audience Motivation and Values 218

    Occasion for the Presentation 219

    CASE 10.5 Speaking to the Sales Team 220

    Audience Demographics 220

    Conducting an Audience Profile 222

    D WEB AT WORK 10.1 Audience Analysis 225

    tt CASE 10.6 Conditions beyond Control 225 SKILLS AT WORK 10.6 Understanding Your Audience 226

    ,,, In Perspective 226 ' Discussion Questions 227'-' Exercises 227 References 227

    Chapter 11 MANAGING PRESENTATIONAL SKILLSIN THE WORKPLACE 229Elements of Language Style 229

    Vividness 230

    CASE 11.1 Improving upon "Dry" Language 230

    4 Clarity 231

    CASE 11.2 Creating Effective Narratives 232

    Relational Language 233

    Words Have Feelings in Their Meaning 233

    CASE 11.3 Talking in Code 233

    Elements of Delivery 234

    Vocal Delivery 234

    Bodily Delivery 235

  • xvi Contents

    Methods of Delivery 235

    SKILLS AT WORK 11.1 Common Delivery Mistakes 236

    Manuscript Delivery 236

    Memorized Delivery 237

    Impromptu Delivery 237

    Extemporaneous Delivery 237

    SKILLS AT WORK 11.2 Guidelines for Extemporaneous Delivery 239

    Presentation Technology and Communication 239

    Integrating Presentational Skills w i th PresentationTechnology 241

    Communicating When Using Technology 242

    Communication Tips When Using Any Visual Aid 246

    D WEB AT WORK 11.1 PowerPoint Presentations 246

    Ethics and Presentations 249In Perspective 250 Discussion Questions 251Exercises 251 References 252

    Chapter 12 MANAGING INFORMATIVE PRESENTATIONSIN THE WORKPLACE 253

    Developing Informative Presentations 254

    Step 1: Analyze the Audience 254

    Step 2: Select the Topic 254

    Principles for Topic Selection 254

    , SKILLS AT WORK 12.1 Topic Selection Worksheet 255

    D WEB AT WORK 12.1 Topic Selection 256

    Step 3: Select the Purpose 256

    SKILLS AT WORK 12.2 Evaluating a Purpose Statement 258

    Step 4: Formulate a Thesis Statement 259

    SKILLS AT WORK 12.3 Evaluating a Thesis Statement 259

    Step 5: Develop the Main Points 260

    Step 6: Support the Main Points 260

    CASE 12.1 Using Analogies 262

    D WEB AT WORK 12.2 Search Engines 263

    Step 7: Develop an Organizational Design 263

    Step 8: Develop the Introduction 269

    Functions of Introductions 269

    SKILLS AT WORK 12.4 Evaluating an Introduction 273

    Step 9: Construct the Conclusion 274

    SKILLS AT WORK 12.5 Evaluating a Conclusion 276

    Step 10: Providing Connections and Transitions 277

  • Contents xvii

    Types of Informative Presentations 278

    Oral Reports and Briefings 278

    Elevator Speech 279

    Introductions of Speakers 280In Perspective 281 Discussion Questions 282Exercises 282 References 282

    Chapter 13 MANAGING PERSUASIVE PRESENTAT...

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