MAYA CIVILIZATION. MAYA TIMELINE Olmec1200-1000 BCE Early Preclassic Maya 1800-900 BCE Middle Preclassic Maya 900-300 BCE Late Preclassic Maya 300 BCE

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MAYA CIVILIZATION Slide 2 MAYA TIMELINE Olmec1200-1000 BCE Early Preclassic Maya 1800-900 BCE Middle Preclassic Maya 900-300 BCE Late Preclassic Maya 300 BCE - CE 250 Early Classic Maya 250-600 CE Late Classic Maya 600-900 CE Post Classic Maya 900-1500 CE Colonial period 1500-1800 CE Independent Mexico 1821 to the present Slide 3 MAYA GEOGRAPHY Lowlands West borders Pacific Ocean, fertile plain Yucatan Peninsula Cenotes (excavated caverns) for water in east Highlands granite and volcanic area of Sierra Madre (Mexican Chiapas, Guatemala, Honduras) Rich land, abundant water Concentrated settlement Slide 4 MAYA HISTORY Did not record history or daily lives, so much of what we know comes from archaeology and European (colonial) records Many holes in our knowledge, and educated guesses Slide 5 MAYA HISTORY Never recognized themselves as one people Related dialects similar language City-states (Palenque, Copan, Chichen Itza) No king or emperor but nobility City-states tried to dominate each other (sound familiar?) Slide 6 MAYA HISTORY Olmec lived in tropical lowlands of south-central Mexico Provided basis for Mesoamerican civilizations Bloodletting, glyphs similar to Maya Distinctive art (colossal heads) Slide 7 MAYA ART Stelae carved stone monuments Rulers in elaborate costumes Often with texts that described lineage and accomplishments Headdress, ceremonial bar Slide 8 MAYA ART Pacal death mask Love of jade Pottery popular Slide 9 MAYA ARCHITECTURE Houses of poles and thatch (cool) Tikal (left) and Palenque (right) Slide 10 MAYA SOCIETY class society Caste (membership hereditary and movement rare) Little known about women, but evidence of city-state queens Nobility Priests Warriors Craftsmen Traders Farmers Workers Slaves Slide 11 MAYA CULTURE Corn (maize), beans, squash, chilies for flavour, domesticated turkey Loved dance, music pok-a-tuk (pok-a-tok) Maya ball game Losers (including coach) sacrificed http://www.ballgame.org/main.asp Slide 12 MAYA CULTURE Pierced ears, tattoos, body painting, straight black hair, Large headdress for importance (Pacal, leader of Palenque, to right) Slide 13 MAYA TRADE AND ECONOMY Salt valued from Yucatan coast (preserve food, medicine, religious ceremonies) from north granite from low mountains of Belize Jade, volcanic glass, and obsidian from Chiapas highlands of western Guatemala Tikal and Copan middlemen cities in trade cacao Slide 14 MAYA ECONOMY/TRADE Quetzal feathers for nobility headdress Extensive trade over 1000 miles Porters carry goods (no beasts of burden) Slide 15 MAYA TEHNOLOGY/INNOVATION Calendar 260 days Also tracked solar 365 calendar Slide 16 MAYA TECHNOLOGY/INNOVATION Math based on multiples of 20 0, 1, 2 5, 6 10, 11 15, 16 Slide 17 MAYA WRITING Writing 800 glyphs (picture/symbol represents an object, idea, or sound Read left to right and top to bottom Only elite could read as writing considered to be gift from the gods Wrote many books (destroyed by Spanish) Slide 18 MAYA RELIGION Driving force behind every aspect of life Public temples and household shrines Organized religion Established schedule for agriculture Polytheistic and revolved around nature (eg. Chac Rain God) Slide 19 MAYA RELIGION Priestly blood sacrifice Human sacrifice later in Post classic Period (Mexican influence) Religious festival every 20 days World 3 layers Heavens, Earth, Under(Other)world Priest dressed as jaguars, scary masks to scare demons of Underworld Belief in afterlife