Mcse Practicals

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A Complete Book of Mcse by Amit Malhotra

M.C.S.E. Microsoft Certified System EngineerHere System refers to performing a specific job. Microsoft is a company which provides their certification for a system Engineer.NETWORK: Two or more objects connected to each other. OR Group of Pcs physically connected through a communication media. NETWORKING: The process in which network deployed for information and resource sharing. OR Sharing of resources is known as Networking. OR The sharing of information and resources within a network. Benefits Of Networking F P M A D For File Sharing. For Printer Sharing. For Mailing. For Application Sharing. For Database Sharing.

Topic 1 Media of Networking There 1) 2) 3) are By By By three media of networking are:Wire Air Light

First of all we discuss all media one by one By Wire: - Wire is a common way of networking.There are three types of cables:1) UTP/ STP:-This consists of two insulated copper conductors twisted around one another and enclosed in a simple plastic encasement.

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Connector used for UTP/STP are RJ45 Connector

2) Co-axial: - This consists of two insulated copper conductor surrounded by a tube shaped copper braid. Coaxial cabling is the primary type of cabling used by the cable television industry and is also widely used for computer networks, such as Ethernet

Connector used for Co-axial are BNC Connector

3) Fiber Optic:-This consists of very fine fiber made from two types of glass, one for the inner core and the other for the outer layer. The two glasses have different indexes of refraction. A light beam is carried through this glass fiber and is modulated by the network to shape the signal. Pulses of light are used to carry the signals.

Connector used for Co-axial are LC, ST/BFOC, SC, FC Connector

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By Air: - Air is a common way of networking.There are three types of Air network:1) Low Frequency 2) Medium Frequency 3) High Frequency 1) Low Frequency: In Low Frequency the devices used are Infrared and Bluetooth.

30 kHz to 300 kHz Basically Infrared rays are Infrared (IR) radiation is electromagnetic radiation of a wavelength longer than that of visible light, but shorter than that of microwaves.

Bluetooth are Bluetooth is an industrial specification for wireless personal area networks (PANs). Bluetooth provides a way to connect and exchange information between devices such as mobile phones, laptops, PCs, printers, digital cameras, and video game consoles over a secure, globally unlicensed short-range radio frequency.Bluetooth is a standard and communications protocol primarily designed for low power consumption, with a short range (power-class-dependent: 1 meter, 10 meters, 100 meters)[1] based on low-cost transceiver microchips in each device.

2) Medium Frequency: In Medium Frequency the devices used are WLL, GSM & CDMA.

3 km to 300 km.

WLL:- Wireless Local Loop.Wireless local loop (WLL), is a term for the use of a wireless communications link as the "last mile / first mile" connection for delivering plain old telephone service (POTS) and/or broadband Internet to telecommunications customers. Various types of WLL systems and technologies exist. Other terms for this type of access include Broadband Wireless Access (BWA), Radio in the Loop (RITL), Fixed-Radio Access (FRA) and Fixed Wireless Access (FWA). GSM: - Global System for Mobile communications (GSM: originally from Groupe Spcial Mobile) is the most popular standard for mobile phones in the world. Its promoter, the GSM Association, estimates that 82% of the global mobile market uses the standard [1]. GSM is used by over 2 billion people across more than 212 countries and territories.[2][3] Its ubiquity makes international roaming very common between mobile phone operators, enabling subscribers to use their phones in many parts of the world. GSM differs from its predecessors in that bothCopyright AMIT MALHOTRA MCSEBOOK 2007, All rights reserved

signaling and speech channels are digital call quality, and so is considered a second generation (2G) mobile phone system. This has also meant that data communication were built into the system using the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP).

CDMA: - Code/Call division multiple access (CDMA) describes a communication channel access principle that employs spread-spectrum technology and a special coding scheme (where each transmitter is assigned a code). In communications technology, there are only three domains that can allow multiplexing to be implemented for more efficient use of the available channel bandwidth and these domains are known as time, frequency and space. CDMA divides the access in signal space. By contrast, time division multiple access (TDMA) divides access by time, while frequencydivision multiple access (FDMA) divides it by frequency. CDMA is a form of "spread-spectrum" signaling, since the modulated coded signal has a much higher bandwidth than the data being communicated. Basically Medium Frequency is based on Tower to Tower links.3) High Frequency: In High Frequency the devices used are Satellite & VSAT.

Satellite:-In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an object which has been placed into orbit by human endeavor. Such objects are sometimes called artificial satellites to distinguish them from natural satellites such as the Moon.

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VSAT: - A Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT) is a two-way satellite ground station with a dish antenna that is smaller than 3 meters (most VSAT antennas range from 75 cm to 1.2 m). VSAT data rates typically range from narrowband up to 4 Mbit/s. VSATs access satellites in geosynchronous orbit to relay data from small remote earth stations (terminals) to other terminals (in mesh configurations) or master earth station "hubs" (in star configurations).

By Light: - Light is a common way of networking. An optical fiber cable is a cable containing one or more optical fibers. The optical fiber elements are typically individually coated with plastic layers and contained in a protective tube suitable for the environment where the cable will be deployed.

DesignIn practical fibers, the cladding is usually coated with a tough resin buffer layer, which may be further surrounded by a jacket layer, usually plastic. These layers add strength to the fiber but do not contribute to its optical wave guide properties. Rigid fiber assemblies sometimes put lightabsorbing ("dark") glass between the fibers, to prevent light that leaks out of one fiber from entering another. This reduces cross-talk between the fibers, or reduces flare in fiber bundle imaging applications.[1] For indoor applications, the jacketed fiber is generally enclosed, with a bundle of flexible fibrous polymer strength members like Aramid (e.g. Twaron or Kevlar), in a lightweight plastic cover to form a simple cable. Each end of the cable may be terminated with a specialized optical fiber connector to allow it to be easily connected and disconnected from transmitting and receiving equipment. For use in more strenuous environments, a much more robust cable construction is required. In loose-tube construction the fiber is laid helically into semi-rigid tubes, allowing the cable to stretch without stretching the fiber itself. This protects the fiber from tension during laying and due to temperature changes. Alternatively the fiber may be embedded in a heavy polymer jacket, commonly called "tight buffer" construction. These fiber units are commonly bundled with additional steel strength members, again with a helical twist to allow for stretching. A critical concern in cabling is to protect the fiber from contamination by water, because its component hydrogen (hydronium) and hydroxyl ions can diffuse into the fiber, reducing the fiber's strength and increasing the optical attenuation. Water is kept out of the cable by use of solid barriers such as copper tubes, water-repellant jelly, or more recently water absorbing powder, surrounding the fiber. Finally, the cable may be armored to protect it from environmental hazards, such as construction work or gnawing animals. Undersea cables are more heavily armored in their near-shore portions to protect them from boat anchors, fishing gear, and even sharks, whichCopyright AMIT MALHOTRA MCSEBOOK 2007, All rights reserved

may be attracted to the electrical power signals that are carried to power amplifiers or repeaters in the cable. Modern fiber cables can contain up to a thousand fibers in a single cable, so the performance of optical networks easily accommodates even today's demands for bandwidth on a point-to-point basis. However, unused point-to-point potential bandwidth does not translate to operating profits, and it is estimated that no more than 1% of the optical fiber buried in recent years is actually 'lit'. Modern cables come in a wide variety of sheathings and armor, designed for applications such as direct burial in trenches, dual use as power lines [1], installation in conduit, lashing to aerial telephone poles, submarine installation, or insertion in paved streets. In recent years the cost of small fiber-count pole-mounted cables has greatly decreased due to the high Japanese and South Korean demand for fiber to the home (FTTH) installations.

Cable types OFC: Optical fiber, conductive OFN: Optical fiber, nonconductive OFCG: Optical fiber, conductive, general use OFNG: Optical fiber, nonconductive, general use OFCP: Optical fiber, conductive, plenum OFNP: Optical fiber, nonconductive, plenum OFCR: Optical fiber, conductive, riser OFNR: Optical fiber, nonconductive, riser OPGW: Optical fiber composite overhead ground wire

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